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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Hosea 12



Verse 1

feedeth on wind. Compare Hosea 8:7.

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

followeth after = pursueth.

daily = all the day long

desolation = violence.

make a covenant, &c. Compare Hosea 5:13; Hosea 7:11.

oil is carried, &c. As a present, to obtain favour and help. Compare Hosea 5:13. Isaiah 30:2-7; Isaiah 57:9. See 2 Kings 17:4.

Verse 2

The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

punish = visit upon.

Jacob. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for Israel, especially the natural seed.

according. Some codices, with two early printed editions (one Rabbinic, margin), Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and according".

recompense = requite, or repay.

Verse 3

He took his brother. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 25:26).

took . . . by the heel. Hebrew. "akab. Hence his name Jacob.

his brother = his very own brother (with "eth).

by his strength = in his manhood: i.e. another example, later in life, but of a similar nature.

had power with = contended with (Oxford Gesenius, p. 40). Hebrew Sarah. (Hence his name Israel). The event is referred to only here, and Genesis 32:28. See note there.

God. Hebrew. Elohim.(with "eth) = God Himself. App-4.

Verse 4

the Angel. Defined in Hosea 12:5.

prevailed = He (the Angel) overcame him (Jacob). See notes on Genesis 32:28. Hence the change of Jacob"s name to "Israel" = God commands.

he wept: i.e. Jacob. This is the Figure of speech Hysteresis (App-6), by which former histories are supplemented by later Divine inspiration.

He found him: i.e. God found Jacob in Beth-el. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 28:17, Genesis 28:19). Note the implied contrast, Beth-el being now the seat of idolatry.

He spake = Jehovah spake. See next verse.

with us. Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and Syriac read "with him".

Verse 5

Even, &c. Render: "and Jehovah [is] God (Elohim) of the Hosts; Jehovah [is] His memorial [Name]. "This is for strong confirmation.

memorial. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 3:15). App-92.

Verse 6

Therefore, &c. Compare Hosea 14:1.

mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.

wait on thy God = wait for thy God. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 49:18). Compare Psalms 37:7. Isaiah 25:9; Isaiah 26:8; Isaiah 33:2. Mark 15:43. Luke 2:25; Luke 23:51.

Verse 7

He is a merchant. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6): [He, Ephraim, is] a merchant. This is the first of two provocations. See the Structure above; and Compare Hosea 12:14.

the balances of deceit = unjust balances. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 19:36).

he loveth to oppress. Money was obtained by oppression. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 6:2; Leviticus 19:13). App-92.

oppress = defraud.

Verse 8

labours = toils.

iniquity = perversity. Hebrew. "avah. App-44. Not the same word as in Hosea 12:11.

that were = which [is].

Verse 9

And I, &c. These verses (9, 10) correspond with Hosea 12:14, and give the cause of the provocation. There is an evident Ellipsis, which may be thus supplied: "And [thou forgettest that] I, Jehovah thy Elohim from the land of Egypt, [that I have promised that] I will yet make thee to dwell in tents as in the Feast of Tabernacles".

dwell in tabernacles. This is again promised in Zechariah 14:16.

tabernacles. Since the days of Nehemiah 8:17, the feast is called "ohalim (App-40.), as here, instead of sukkoth, booths. Nehemiah"s remark is superfluous unless the laws were ancient.

as in the days, &c. Ref to Pentateuch (Leviticus 23:42, Leviticus 23:43). App-92.

Verse 10

spoken by the prophets. Compare 2 Kings 17:13. Hebrews 1:1. 2 Peter 1:21.

Verse 11

Is there iniquity = [Surely Gilead is] iniquity: supplying the Ellipsis (App-6) from the next clause.

iniquity. Hebrew. "avert. App-44. Not the same word as Hosea 12:8.

Gilead . . . Gilgal . . . heaps. Heap of testimony . . . heap of heaps . . . heaps. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. Gil"ad . . . Gilgal . . gallim.

Verse 12

fled . . . Syria. Ref to Pentateuch (Genesis 28:5. Deuteronomy 26:5). App-92.

Syria. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 26:5).

Israel served, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 29:18).

kept sheep. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 30:31, the same Hebrew word, shamar). We may supply the connecting thought: "[yet in after days] Israel was brought out of Egypt . . . and preserved [in the wilderness]".

Verse 13

by a prophet: i.e. Moses. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 12:50, Exodus 12:51; Exodus 13:3. Numbers 12:6-8. App-92. Compare Deuteronomy 18:15). preserved = kept, as in Hosea 12:12.

Verse 14

Ephrairn. As represented by Jeroboam (1 Kings 12:25, 1 Kings 13:5), and Hoshea (2 Kings 17:11-23).

He = God.

blood. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6, for blood-guiltiness.

his reproach. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:37).

LORD. Hebrew. "Adonim. App-4.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hosea 12:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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