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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Hosea 13

 

 

Verse 1

spake trembling = spake (authoritatively) [there was] attention; as in Joshua"s clays (Joshua 4:14). Compare Job 29:21-25.

trembling = panic. Hebrew. retheth. Occurs only here. Similar to retet, which occurs only in Jeremiah 49:24 ("fear").

exalted himself: carried weight, or was exalted.

offended = trespassed. Hebrew. "asham. App-44.

in Baal = with Baal: i.e. with the idolatrous worship of Baal, in Ahab"s days.


Verse 2

understanding = notion.

of them = to them: i.e. to the People.

kiss the calves. Kissing was fundamental in all heathen idolatry. It is the root of the Latin ad-orare = to [bring something to] the mouth. "A pure lip" (Zephaniah 3:9) implies more than language.


Verse 3

dew. Hebrew. tal = the night mist. See note on "Zion", Psalms 133:3.

the = a.

floor = threshingfloor.

chimney = window, or opening. No word for chimney in Hebrew


Verse 4

Yet I, &c. Supply the connecting thought: "[Ye worship these calves], yet I, even I". &c. Compare Hosea 12:9. Isaiah 43:11.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

from the land of Egypt. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6); "[Who brought thee out] from", &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 20:2, Exodus 20:3).

shalt know no: i.e. didst not, or oughtest not to know.

there is no saviour, &c. Compare Isaiah 43:11; Isaiah 45:21. Supply: "no saviour [was there] beside Me". Compare Acts 4:12.


Verse 5

I did know thee, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 2:7; Deuteronomy 8:15; Deuteronomy 32:10). Compare Amos 3:2. The Septuagint reads "I shepherded, or was shepherd to thee", reading re ithika instead of yeda tika: i.e. (Resh = R) for (Daleth = D).

the land of great drought. Compare Deuteronomy 8:15.


Verse 6

According to their pasture, &c.: i.e. the more I fed them, the more they kicked against Me.

they were filled. Note the Figure of speech Anadiplosis (App-6), repeated for emphasis.

have they forgotten Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 8:12-14; Deuteronomy 32:15).


Verse 7

as a lion. App-92. Compare Hosea 5:14.

as a leopard. Compare Jeremiah 5:6

by the way. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "on the way of Assyria".

will I observe = shall I watch, or lurk.


Verse 8

caul = enclosure (i.e. the pericardium).

the wild beast shall tear them. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:22).


Verse 9

thou hast destroyed thyself = the destruction [which thou art suffering] is all thine own. Ref to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:5. Hebrew. shahath, same word as "corrupted"). App-92.

but in Me, &c. = for I am thy [true] help.


Verse 10

I will be thy king = Where is thy king? Hebrew. "ehi = where, as in Hosea 13:14 twice; "ehi is separated from the following word "king" by the accent zakeph, and connected with "epho" = now. It therefore means "Where now is thy king? (Hoshea)": the answer being "in prison" (see 2 Kings 17:4).

where is any other that may save thee . . . ? = to save thee, or that he may save thee.


Verse 11

I gave thee, &c. Reference to 1 Samuel 8:7; 1 Samuel 10:19; 1 Samuel 15:22, 1 Samuel 15:23; 1 Samuel 16:1. Compare Hosea 10:3. Or, literally "I give . . . and take him away", referring to a continued act, the violent deaths of Israel"s then recent kings: Zachariah murdered by Shallum; Shallum by Menahem; Pekahiah by Pekah; and Pekah by Hoshea, who was now a prisoner in Assyria.


Verse 12

iniquity = perversity. Hebrew. avah. App-44.

bound up = tied up, as in a bag. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:32, Deuteronomy 32:35). App-92.

hid = reserved.


Verse 13

shall come, &c., Isaiah 13:8. Jeremiah 30:6. Matthew 24:8.

an unwise son. Note the Figure of speech Meiosis (App-6), for emphasis, meaning a most foolish son.

stay long = linger.

in the place, &c.: i.e. in the act of being born. Compare 2 Kings 19:3.

children = sons.


Verse 14

ransom = redeem (with power). Hebrew. padah, to redeem by power in virtue of the legal right. See note on Exodus 13:13.

from = out of.

the power = the hand: i.e. Sheol"s power (to keep in its grasp).

the grave = Sheol. See App-35.

redeem. Hebrew. ga"al, to redeem by purchase by assertion of the kinship right. Hence the other meaning of avenging. See note on Exodus 6:6.

O death. Figure of speech Apostrophe, for emphasis. Quoted in 1 Corinthians 15:54, 1 Corinthians 15:55.

I will be = where [are], &c. See note on Hosea 13:10.

thy plagues. Hebrew. deber = pestilence. Interpreted in 1 Corinthians 15:55 as "sting". First occurance. Exodus 5:3.

repentance = compassion [on them], eyes. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.


Verse 15

he. i.e. Ephraim.

fruitful. Used by Figure of speech Irony, his name being Ephraim = fruitful. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 41:52; Genesis 48:19).

an east wind. Hebrew. kadim; not a scorching wind. shirocco (Genesis 41:6. Jeremiah 18:17. Ezekiel 17:10; Ezekiel 19:12).

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

his spring, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 33:28).

he shall spoil = he shall plunder. Fulfilled in Shalmaneser shortly after, and since that day this prophecy stands fulfilled. The book ends with hope, in the final section below.


Verse 16

Samaria. See 2 Kings 17:6.

their. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "and their".

 


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hosea 13:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/hosea-13.html. 1909-1922.

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