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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Isaiah 59



Verse 1

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos.

hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

not shortened. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 11:23). Compare Isaiah 50:2. The phrase occurs nowhere else in the O.T.

Verse 2

iniquities. Hebrew. "avah. App-44. Same word as in verses: Isaiah 59:3, Isaiah 59:12. Not the same as in verses: Isaiah 59:6, Isaiah 59:7.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

sins. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

have hid His face. Compare Isaiah 45:15; Isaiah 54:8; Isaiah 57:17.

Verse 3

defiled. Hebrew. ga"al, to redeem, put for ga"al, to pollute, here, and Ezra 2:62. Nehemiah 7:64. Lamentations 4:14. Daniel 1:8, Daniel 1:8. Zephaniah 3:1. Malachi 1:7, Malachi 1:12.

Verse 4

calleth for justice = sueth in righteousness.

for truth = in truth.

trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

vanity = confusion. Hebrew. tohu, as in Genesis 1:2 ("without form"). See note on Isaiah 24:10.

lies = vanity.

iniquity. Hebrew. "aven. App-44. Same word as in verses: Isaiah 59:59, Isaiah 59:6, Isaiah 59:7. Not the same as in verses: Isaiah 59:2, Isaiah 59:3, Isaiah 59:12.

Verse 5

cockatrice = adders", or vipers". See note on Isaiah 11:8.

eggs . . . web. Note the Alternation in verses: Isaiah 5:6.

weave. See note on Isaiah 19:9.

viper. Occurs in Isaiah only here, and in the "former" portion (Isaiah 30:6). See App-79.

Verse 7

Their feet = They. Feet being put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for the whole person. Quoted in Romans 3:15, Romans 3:16.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

innocent blood. Reference to Pentateuch. Only here in Isaiah; five times in Deuteronomy (Isaiah 19:10, Isaiah 19:13; Isaiah 19:21, Isaiah 19:8, Isaiah 19:9).

paths = highways. See note on Isaiah 7:3.

Verse 8

The way, &c. See Romans 3:17.

Judgment = righteousness.

Verse 9

justice = righteousness. Same as "judgment", Isaiah 59:8.

Verse 10

We grope, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:29). Idea the same, but word different. The word in Deuteronomy is the same as in Genesis 27:12, Genesis 27:22; Genesis 31:34, Genesis 31:37. Exodus 10:21. Job 5:14; Job 12:25. The word in Isaiah occurs nowhere else. App-92.

night. Hebrew. nesheph. A Homonym, with two meanings: (1) darkness, as here; Job 24:15. Proverbs 7:9. 2 Kings 7:5, 2 Kings 7:7. 2 Kings 5:11; 2 Kings 21:4. Jeremiah 13:16; (2) daylight, 1 Samuel 30:17. Job 7:4. Psalms 119:147.

Verse 12

transgressions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

sins. Hebrew. chata". App-44. Note that these three words occur together in Leviticus 16:21.

Verse 15

truth faileth = the truth is found missing,

maketh himself a prey: i.e. is liable to be despoiled, or outlawed. Rashi says, "is considered mad", as Authorized Version margin

Verse 16

arm. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia (App-6). Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for the power put forth by it.

Verse 17

He put on. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. Note that all the armour is for defense.

breastplate = a coat of mail.

of vengeance for clothing = of avenging for clothing. Compare Isaiah 61:2; Isaiah 63:4. The Oxf. Gesenius explains it as "of Jehovah as champion of Israel" (p. 528 b).

zeal = jealousy.

Verse 18

islands = maritime countries. See note on Isaiah 11:11.

Verse 19

enemy. Hebrew. tzar, as in Isaiah 59:18.

like a flood = like the flood: the Nile in its overflow.

Spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9.

lift up. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.

standard: or, banner. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 17:15). Hebrew. nasas. App-92.

Verse 20

the. Redeemer = a Redeemer: i.e. the Messiah. Quoted in Romans 11:26, Romans 11:27, showing that the fullness of the Gentiles must be the fullness of the Gentile times.

to = for: i.e. on behalf of. See note on Romans 11:26.

Verse 21

for ever. This coming deliverance for Israel will be final, and cannot therefore as yet have taken place.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 59:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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