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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Joel 2



Verse 1

Zion. See App-68.

sound an alarm. Ref to Pentateuch (Numbers 10:5, Numbers 10:9). App-92, My. Note the Pronoun, and see notes on Joel 1:6, Joel 1:7.

holy mountain = mountain of My sanctuary. holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

the day of the LORD. See notes on Joel 1:15. This is the subject of the book. Compare Obadiah 1:15. Zephaniah 1:14, Zephaniah 1:15.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 2

A. day, &c. Compare Amos 5:18, Amos 5:20.

morning = blackness, or darkness. Hebrew. shahar, A Homonym. with two meanings: (1) to be black or dark (Job 30:30). Hence put for seeking in the early morning while yet dark (Psalms 78:34; Psalms 78:63, Psalms 78:1. Proverbs 1:28. Isaiah 26:9. Hosea 5:15, &c.); (2) dawn or morning (Genesis 19:15; Genesis 32:24, Genesis 32:26. Joshua 6:15. Hosea 6:3; Hosea 10:15, &c.)

a great people. Symbolized by the locusts in Joel 1:4.

Verse 3

A fire, &c. Compare Joel 1:19, Joel 1:20.

them. The northern army (Joel 2:11) symbolized by the locusts of Joel 1:4.

the garden of Eden. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 2:8; Genesis 2:13, Genesis 2:10). App-92. Compare Isaiah 51:3. Ezekiel 36:35.

a desolate wilderness. Compare Joel 3:19. Psalms 107:34.

Verse 4

The appearance of them: i.e. the army of Joel 2:20, symbolized by the locusts of Joel 1:4. Compare Revelation 9:7.

horsemen = war-horses (Habakkuk 1:8).

Verse 5

Like the noise, &c. Compare Revelation 9:9. Connect this with the end of Joel 2:4.

on the tops, &c. The Hebrew accents connect this with the leaping, not with the chariots.

leap = rattle along.

as a strong people. Compare Joel 2:2. Not locusts. The symbol must not be confused with what is symbolized.

Verse 6

people = people"s.

blackness = paleness.

Verse 7

men. Heir plural of "enosh. App-14.

Verse 8

thrust = jostle, or press.

walk = march, as in Joel 2:7.

sword = weapons. Hebrew. shelach = missiles, supposed to be "a late word" because not used earlier than 2 Chronicles 23:10; 2 Chronicles 32:5. Nehemiah 4:17, Nehemiah 4:23; but it is used in Job 33:18; Job 36:12. Song of Solomon 4:13.

they shall not, &c. Compare Rev 9. The whole scene belongs to "the day of the Lord". Only confusion arises from not keeping the symbol distinct from what is symbolized.

be wounded = stop.

Verse 9

run . . in the city . . climb . . . enter, &c. These are put for the acts of men.

like a thief. A thief is a man (not an insect); so are these. Compare Matthew 24:43, Matthew 24:44. Luke 12:39, 1 Thessalonians 5:2. 2 Peter 3:10.

Verse 10

the sun and the moon shall be dark. Another proof of what is signified; and that this prophecy concerns what is future. Compare Joel 3:15. See Matthew 24:29. Compare Isaiah 13:10. Ezekiel 32:7, Ezekiel 32:8. Acts 2:20. Revelation 6:12.

Verse 11

great, &c. Compare Joel 2:31. Jeremiah 30:7. Amos 5:18. Zephaniah 1:15.

who can abide it? Ref to Pentateuch (Numbers 21:23). App-92. Compare Jeremiah 10:10. Zephaniah 1:14. Malachi 3:2.

Verse 12

Therefore, &c. Another call ("F", Joel 2:12, corresponding with "F", Joel 2:1). See the Structure, p. 1226.

saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah"s oracle.

turn ye = turn ye back, or return.

to = quite up to, as in Hosea 14:1.

with all your heart. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 6:5). and. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Syriac, and Vulgate, unlit this "and".

Verse 13

rend your heart. Compare Psalms 34:18; Psalms 51:17.

your garments. Ref, to Pentateuch (Genesis 37:34). App-92. God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

he is gracious, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 34:6, Exodus 34:7. Numbers 14:18). App-92. Compare 2 Chronicles 30:9. Nehemiah 9:17, Nehemiah 9:31. Psalms 86:5, Psalms 86:15; Psalms 103:8; Psalms 145:8.

kindness = grace.

repenteth. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

evil. Hebrew. raa. App-44.

Verse 14

Who knoweth . . . ? That this refers to Jehovah is clear from Jonah 3:9.

return turn away from (His fierce anger], as in Jonah 3:9, whore it is ascribed to "God". Same word as in Joel 2:12.

a blessing: i.e. a new harvest. Compare Isaiah 65:8.

meat . . . drink offering, &c. See note on Joel 1:9, Joel 1:13 .

Verse 15

a solemn assembly = a day of restraint. See note on Joel 1:14.

Verse 16

Gather = Gather in.

sanctify the congregation = hallow a convocation. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 19:10, Exodus 19:22). App-92.

gather = gather out.

closet = bridal canopy. See notes on Psalms 19:5 and Isaiah 4:5. The only three occurrences of Heb chuppah,

Verse 17

the priests, the ministers of the LORD. See note on Joel 1:9.

between, &c. Compare Ezekiel 8:16.

Spare Thy People, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 32:11, Exodus 32:12, Deuteronomy 9:26, Deuteronomy 9:29). App-92. Compare Nehemiah 13:22.

Thine heritage. Reference to Pentateuch, (Deuteronomy 32:9). App-92.

heathen = nations.

wherefore. ? Figure of speech Erotesis., App-6. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 9:26-29). App-92. Compare Psalms 42:10; Psalms 79:10; Psalms 115:2. Micah 7:10.

people = peoples,

Verse 18

Jealous for His land, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:36-43). App-92. These remind us of the concluding words of the "Song of Moses", and sum up the object and outcome of all the events which go to make up "the day of the Lord".

Verse 19

Behold. Figure of speech Astertismos (App-6), to call attention to the "blessing"

mentioned in Joel 2:14. corn, &c. Compare Joel 1:10; Malachi 3:11, Malachi 3:12, The Article is used with each of these in theHebrew text.

wine. Hebrew. tirosh. App-27.

make you a reproach. See note on "rule", Joel 2:17.

Verse 20

the northern army. This is what the "locusts" of Joel 1:4 are the symbol of. The prophet does not "forget for a moment" the locusts of Joel 1:4; but, here explains the symbol. Locusts do not come from the north. The armies of Rev 9, Dan 11do.

the east sea: i.e. the Dead Sea. Compare Ezekiel 47:18, Zechariah 14:8.

the utmost sea = . the Great Sea. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 11:24; Deuteronomy 34:2). App-92. Compare "hinder" in Zechariah 14:8.

stink shall come up. Referring to the destruction of Isaiah 66:24.

he. The invader, the antichrist or beast of Dan 7and Dan 8,

hath done great things = he magnified himself

to do great things. Compare Joel 8:9, Joel 8:11, Joel 11:36, and notes there. This is quite inapplicable to locusts.

Verse 21

Fear not. Figure of speech Apostrophe. App-6.

land = soil. Hebrew. "adamah. See note on Joel 1:10.

will do great things. Greater than the foe himself (Joel 2:20).

Verse 22

Be not afraid, &c. Figure of speech Apostrophe (App-6), as in Joel 2:21. Compare Joel 1:18, Joel 1:20.

pastures, &c. Compare Joel 1:19.

strength = abundance.

Verse 23

Be glad, &c. Figure of speech Apostrophe (App-6), to the people.

children = sons.

moderately = in due measure. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:4. Deuteronomy 11:14; Deuteronomy 28:12). App-92.

in the first month = [as at] the first, or [as] aforetime. Obviously, the two rains do not come in one and the same month.

Verse 24

floors = threshing-floors.

wheat = corn.

fats = vats. Anglo-Saxon (northern) faet, (southern) vat= a vessel, or cask. Literally = that which contains. Hebrew yekeb the reservoir for receiving the wine; not gath, the press where the grapes are pressed. See note on Isaiah 5:2.

Verse 25

restore: make good.

locust, &c. See note on Joel 1:4.

My great army. Here the symbol, and what is symbolized, are joined together, and the army of men (verses: Joel 2:11, Joel 2:20) is implied by the Figure of speech Hypocatastasis (App-6).

Verse 26

ye shall eat, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:5). App-92.

eat = eat on.

praise, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 19:24. Deuteronomy 12:7; Deuteronomy 16:11; Deuteronomy 26:11). App-92.

shall never be ashamed. This is repeated at the end of the next verse by the Figure of speech Epistrophe (App-6) for emphasis. Not "a copyist"s error", alleged.

Verse 27

ye shall know, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:11-13. Deuteronomy 23:14). App-92. Compare Ezekiel 37:26-28.

Verse 28

afterward: i.e. after the "good bestowed" had begun to be enjoyed (Joel 2:21-27 for the nation had been restored under Ezra and Nehemiah; "the light had sprung up" (Isaiah 42:7. Matthew 4:12-16. Luke 2:32); "the days of the Son of Man" were then present (Luke 17:22). "Afterward" would come the days of the Spirit; and "this is that" which was area on "the day of Pentecost", when Joel 2:28, Joel 2:29 began to be fulfilled. Had the nation repented at the summons of Peter in Acts 3:18-26, "all things which God bad spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets" would have been fulfilled, including Joel 2:30, Joel 2:31-32, (S and R). Malachi 4:5 also would have been taken of John the Baptist if they had received it (Matthew 11:14): the Hebrew "acharei-ken always referring to what follows.

I will pour out My spirit. Note the Figure of speech Epanadiplosis (App-6) used to emphasise the statement included within this sentence, and the repetition of it at the end of Joel 2:29.

spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9. This must be put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the "power from on high", or spiritual gifts. See note on Acts 2:4. God the Holy Spirit cannot be "poured out".

all flesh. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Genus), App-6, for all sorts and conditions of men, as described in the words which follow.

and your daughters. Women are not excluded from spiritual gifts.

prophesy. Not necessarily foretelling, but forthtelling, by speaking for God. Only such as were thus called and gifted could be His spokesmen. Compare Numbers 11:16, Numbers 11:17, Numbers 11:29. See App-78.

Verse 29

servants, &c. Any whom God might call. Elisha was a ploughman, Amos a herdsman.

Verse 30

I will shew. Compare Matthew 24:29. Mark 13:24.

blood, and fire. These are symbols of Divine, judgment; not of salvation by grace.

Verse 31

the terrible, &c. This is the time for the fulfilment of Joel"s prophecy. Compare Joel 2:1, Joel 2:11, Malachi 4:5.

Verse 32

in mount Zion. Compare Isaiah 46:13; Isaiah 59:20. Obadiah 1:17. Zechariah 14:1-5. Romans 11:26.

Jerusalem. As distinct from Mount Zion. See App-68.

deliverance = a delivered remnant. Compare Joel 2:3.

as = according as.

hath said: by Joel and other prophets.

remnant = an escaped set,

shall call = is going to call.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Joel 2:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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