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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Lamentations 3

 

 

Verse 1

This chapter contains twenty-two verses: each verse having three lines: each line beginning with the same letter: and so, onward to the end of the alphabet.

I am the man. The prophet is representative of the nation, and speaks in the name of the whole. He is also typical and prophetical of Another, Who, in after years, took on Himself and bore the nation"s sin. App-85. The chapter must be read in connection with the Passion Psalms (Psalms 22:69, Psalms 22:88). The Figure of speech is Prosopopoeia (App-6), by which the nation speaks as one man.

man = strong man. Hebrew. geber. App-14.

affliction: or, humiliation.


Verse 5

builded against = built up against.

gall. Compare Lamentations 3:19, and Psalms 69:21, with Matthew 27:34.

travel = travail, or labour. This line probably is put for the fortifications and the trench.


Verse 6

set me = made me to dwell.

as they, &c. = like the age-long dead.


Verse 7

chain = iron, or bronze. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause). App-6, for the fetters made of it. Compare Judges 16:21 and 2 Kings 25:7. 2 Chronicles 83:11; 2 Chronicles 36:6. Jeremiah 39:7; all of distinguished men.


Verse 9

crooked = to turn or wind back.


Verse 10

as a lion. See note on Psalms 22:16.


Verse 12

His bow. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.


Verse 13

arrows = sons. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. As "sparks" are called "sons of the flame".


Verse 14

derision. Compare Jeremiah 20:8.

all my People. A special various reading called Sevir (App-34), with some codices, and Syriac, read "all peoples".

song = mocking-song. Compare Lamentations 3:63 and Psalms 69:12.


Verse 18

strength = strength (for endurance). Hebrew. nezah. See notes on Isaiah 40:9, Isaiah 40:10, Isaiah 40:26, Isaiah 40:29, Isaiah 40:31.


Verse 19

Remembering = Remember.


Verse 20

My soul. The primitive reading was "Thy soul", which the Sopherim have recorded, and state that they altered it to "My soul" (see App-33), considering it an offensive anthropomorphism. By so doing they destroyed the logical sequence and deep pathos of the primitive text. The three verses (Lamentations 3:19-21) retranslated will show this:
19) "Remember my humiliation and my misery, The wormwood and the gall
20) Yea, verily, Thou wilt remember, And Thy soul will mourn over me.
21) This I bring back to my heart, Therefore I shall have hope. "


Verse 21

mind = heart.

hope = expectation.


Verse 22

mercies = lovingkindnesses.

because = verily.


Verse 23

new = fresh.

every morning. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), for always and continually.


Verse 25

wait for Him. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 49:18, same word).


Verse 26

quietly wait = wait, and he silent.


Verse 29

He. See note on Lamentations 1:12.


Verse 30

giveth his cheek. Compare Isaiah 50:6.


Verse 31

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered "Jehovah" of the primitive text to "Adonai". See App-32. Here some codices, with two early printed editions, also read "Jehovah".


Verse 33

willingly = from His heart.

children = sons.

men. Hebrew. "ish (sing).


Verse 35

turn aside, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 16:19; Deuteronomy 24:17; Deuteronomy 27:19, same word).

the MOST HIGH. Hebrew. "Elyon. App-4.


Verse 41

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.

the heavens. Supply the Ellipsis thus: "the heavens [saying], We have", &c.


Verse 42

transgressed = revolted. Hebrew. pasha". App-44. Compare Lamentations 1:22.


Verse 43

persecuted = pursued. Compare Psalms 35:6.


Verse 45

people = peoples.


Verse 46

All our enemies, &c. Here again, as in Lamentations 2:16 and Lamentations 2:17, the letters Pe (= P) and Ayin () are transposed; not from any "mistake" or "forgetfulness", but to call our attention to the truth which might otherwise have been overlooked: viz. the sorrow, on account of the destructive work of the enemies (verses: Lamentations 3:46-48), which would have been averted by true sorrow for the sins which caused it (verses: Lamentations 3:49-51).

opened their mouths. Compare Psalms 22:13. Psalms 22:45

people = peoples.


Verse 47

Fear and a snare. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. pachad vapachath. Compare Isaiah 24:17. Jeremiah 48:43. In English, "Scare and snare".


Verse 48

Mine eye runneth down. Compare Luke 19:41. App-85.

eye = tears: "eye" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the tears which flow from it.


Verse 51

mine heart = my soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.


Verse 53

dungeon = pit. Compare Jeremiah 38:6; and Psalms 88:6.


Verse 54

over mine head. Compare Psalms 69:2.

I am cut off. Compare Psalms 88:5.


Verse 55

Thy name = Thee, or Thy attributes. See note on Psalms 20:1.


Verse 56

at my breathing. See note on Malachi 3:16.

at my cry. Some codices, with Vulgate, read "and at my cry" (or outcry).


Verse 58

redeemed. Hebrew. ga"al. See note on Exodus 6:6.


Verse 62

device = meditation. Hebrew. Higyon. See App-66.


Verse 63

their musick = their mocking song, as in Lamentations 3:14.


Verse 65

Give them sorrow of heart = Thou wilt suffer them a veiling (or obstinacy) of heart. See Isaiah 6:9, Isaiah 6:10.

sorrow = covering, or veiling.

 


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Lamentations 3:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/lamentations-3.html. 1909-1922.

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