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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Leviticus 19



Verse 1

spake. See note on Leviticus 5:14.

Verse 2

all the congregation, &c. Only here in Leviticus, and once more in the Pentateuch (Exodus 12:3).

children. Hebrew sons.

holy = set apart. See note on Exodus 3:5.

I the LORD, &C. There are fifteen groups in this body of laws (Lev 19), seven ending with the longer formula, "I am the LORD your God" (23, 4, 10, 25, 31, 34, 36), and eight with the shorter formula "I am the LORD" (12, 14, 16, 18, 28, 30, 32, 37)

Verse 3

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

Verse 4

idols = Hebrew. "elilim. See Leviticus 26:1.

Verse 5

offer = slay for sacrifice. Hebrew. zabach. App-43.

Verse 6

burnt = burnt up. Hebrew. saraph. App-43.

Verse 8

iniquity. Hebrew. "avah. App-44.

hallowed = set apart. See note on. Leviticus 12:4.

soul = person. Hebrew. nephesh.

cut off. See note on Leviticus 7:20.

Verse 9

GLEANINGS. (Compare Ruth 2:14-16.)

Verse 13

the. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel and Septuagint, read "and the".

wages. Hebrew "work". Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for wages earned by it. Note the Divine care for the labourer (Deuteronomy 24:14, Deuteronomy 24:15. Jeremiah 22:13. Malachi 3:5. James 5:4).

Verse 16

talebearer. A solemn warning here. Rendered "slandering" in Jeremiah 6:28; Jeremiah 9:4. Ezekiel 22:9 (margin). (Compare 1 Samuel 22:9-18.)

Verse 17

suffer: or countenance him in his sin; or, lest on his account thou bear sin. This is the Divine method, and the best.

sin. Hebrew. chata. App-44.

upon him = in him.

Verse 18

thou shalt love. See Matthew 7:12; Matthew 22:39, Matthew 22:40. Luke 6:31; Luke 10:27.

neighbour. Not merely one who is "near", but any one with whom one has dealings. This is the point of Luke 10:29. Compare John 4:9.

Verse 19

diverse kind. Everything created "after his kind". See note on Genesis 1:11; a deep, moral, and spiritual lesson is contained in this prohibition.

mingled. Another lesson here as to mingling the clean and unclean, human and Divine, flesh and spirit, &c. This law relates only to "seeds" which are used for food and actually eaten. Compare Luke 13:6.

Verse 20

redeemed = set free (by power). Hebrew. padah. See note on Exodus 13:13.

not free. Otherwise death. Deuteronomy 22:24.

Verse 21

trespass. Hebrew. "asam. App-44.

door = entrance.

tabernacle = tent. Hebrew. "ohel.

Verse 22

make an atonement. See note on Exodus 29:33.

hath done = hath sinned. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

Verse 23

when ye shall come. The second of four prospective laws. See note on Leviticus 14:34. Compare Leviticus 19:23; Leviticus 23:10; Leviticus 23:25.

uncircumcised: or, uncovenanted. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia. App-6.

Verse 24

holy to praise. Hebrew "holiness of praises". "Praises" in plural. Figure of speech. Heterosis (of Number), App-6, for emphasis, and noun, "holiness", put for adjective by figure of speech Antimereia (of Noun), App-6, for emphasis = "for a sacred and great praise unto Jehovah".

Verse 26

observe times: i.e. watch clouds, or days, for good or ill luck, e.g. not commencing a journey on a Friday. See note on Leviticus 19:31 below.

Verse 27

not round the corners of your heads: i.e. to cut round, so as to have a tuft of hair, like the Canaanitish priests. Compare Jeremiah 9:26; Jeremiah 25:23; Jeremiah 49:32.

corners of thy beard = whiskers, as Egyptians did. Compare Genesis 41:14.

Verse 28

cuttings. A practice in Canaanitish heathen worship. Compare Leviticus 21:5. Deuteronomy 14:1. 1 Kings 18:28. Jeremiah 48:37.

the dead = a dead soul. Hebrew. nephesh (App-13). Thus there is such a thing as "a dead soul" as well as a "living soul" (Genesis 2:7); go also in Leviticus 21:1; Leviticus 22:4. Numbers 5:2; Numbers 6:11. Nephesh is incorrectly rendered "body" in Leviticus 21:11. Numbers 6:6; Numbers 19:11, Numbers 19:13; and "dead body" in Numbers 9:6, Numbers 9:7, Numbers 9:10. Haggai 2:13. In all these passages the Hebrew nephesh (soul) is thus rendered, and yet it is rendered "life" in Leviticus 17:14 and elsewhere.

I am the LORD. Some codices, with Targum of Onkelos, Septuagint, and Syriac, add "your God".

Verse 29

prostitute thy daughter. The common practice, as a religious act, by the Canaanite and other ancient forms of idolatry.

wickedness = lewdness. Hebrew. zimmah. App-44.

Verse 31

familiar spirits. These are evil spirits personating dead human beings, and attaching themselves only to "mediums" and those who give up their will to them. A dread reality is provided against by these enactments. Compare Leviticus 20:27. Deuteronomy 18:10-12. 1 Chronicles 10:13-14. Isaiah 8:19. The Hebrew "ob, borrowed from an Akkadian word, ubi = a charm, used of one who was mistress of the spell, or spirit. Isaiah 29:4. See Acts 16:16, where it is defined as "a spirit of Python" (= Pythius Apollo), i.e. the devil.

Wizards = knowing ones: those having occult knowledge,

Verse 32

fear thy. Perhaps an Ellipsis (App-6), "fear [a visitation from] thy God". Compare Leviticus 25:17, Leviticus 25:36, Leviticus 25:43.

Verse 33

thee. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, Targum of Onkelos, The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "you".

vex = oppress.

Verse 34

But. This is better omitted.

unto you. Authorized Version, 1611, omitted these words.

as thyself. Compare Leviticus 19:18.

ye were strangers. Occurs four times in the Pentateuch: Exodus 22:21; Exodus 23:9. Exodus 19:34. Deuteronomy 10:19.

Verse 35

meteyard = measures of length or dimension.

Weight = measures of weight.

Measure = measures of capacity.

Verse 36

Just balances = Hebrew balances of justice. Genitive of character. So with the other measures in this verse. Compare Deuteronomy 25:13-16. Proverbs 11:1; Proverbs 16:11; Proverbs 20:10, Proverbs 20:23.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Leviticus 19:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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