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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Psalms 22

 

 

Verse 1

Title. A Psalm. See App-65.

of David = relating to or concerning David"s Son and David"s Lord (Matthew 22:41-45). "The root and the offspring of David" (Revelation 22:16). David "being a prophet and knowing . . . spake of". These three Psalms (Psalm 22, Psalm 23, Psalm 24) relate to the sufferings and the glory of "the Man Christ Jesus." Psalm 22 = The Good Shepherd on Earth, in Death (John 10:11). Psalm 23 = The Great Shepherd, in Heaven, by Resurrection (Hebrews 13:20). Psalm 24 = The Chief Shepherd, coming in His Glory to earth and Zion, again (1 Peter 5:4. Rev 19). See the Structure (p. 721). Psalm 22 is Christ as the sin offering; Psalm 40, as the burnt offering; Psalm 69, as the trespass offering.

My GOD, my GOD. Hebrew my El (App-4. IV). God as Almighty in relation to the creature; not Jehovah (App-4.), in covenant relation with His servant. Quoted in Matthew 27:46. Mark 15:34. The Psalm is Christ"s prayer and plea on the Cross. It begins with "My God, my God" (Matthew 27:46. Mark 15:34), and it ends with "It is finished". See note on Psalms 22:31, and compare John 19:30. If the Lord uttered the whole of this Psalm on the cross, the dying malefactor must have "heard", and believed (Romans 10:17). Compare Luke 23:32, Luke 23:40-42. The "kingdom" had been referred to by Christ in Psalms 22:22-30. See note on "roaring", below. The Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6) is used for solemn emphasis.

roaring = lamentation. Hebrew. sha"ag = spoken of a lion, and of thunder.

[Note:Some versions of the Companion Bible text have the comment below, but the originally published book I have does not.]

It is believed by some scholars (including this humble student) that our Lord actually quoted all, or, most of this Psalm while hanging on the Cross. Compare Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34.


Verse 2

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

hearest not = answerest not.


Verse 3

But Thou. And yet Thou. Compare Psalms 22:9 and Psalms 22:19. Note the emphasis.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:6. Here = the Divine attribute.

inhabitest the praises. "Praises" put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the Sanctuary, where the praises were offered. The various readings and renderings arise from trying to make sense, not seeing this figure of speech. Compare Psalms 80:1; Psalms 99:1.


Verse 4

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. See App-69.


Verse 6

worm. Hebrew. tola", not the ordinary word for "worm", but the crimson coccus from which the scarlet dye was obtained. Hence rendered "scarlet" in Exodus 25:4; Exodus 26:1, &c. See note on Joshua 2:18, and Exodus 12:13. Jacob, so called Isaiah 41:14. Christ thus took the lowest place of His People.

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

despised. Compare Isaiah 53:3.


Verse 7

All. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Genus), App-6, put for most or greater part. (Some believed.)

shoot out = open.


Verse 8

He, &c. Figure of speech Eironeia (Irony). App-6. Quoted in Matthew 27:43. Mark 15:29. Luke 23:35.

trusted, &c. = devolved all on Jehovah. Hebrew. galal. See App-69.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.


Verse 9

make = cause.

hope = trust, or confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.


Verse 11

none to help. Compare Psalms 69:20. He was alone in this wondrous work.


Verse 14

in the midst of my bowels = within me.


Verse 15

dried up. Compare John 19:28.


Verse 16

dogs. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis. App-6. "Enemies" being implied (not expressed).

assembly = congregation: in civic aspect.

wicked = breakers up. Hebrew. ra"a. App-44.

They pierced, &c. = "As a lion [they break up] my hands and my feet". The Hebrew text reads ka"ari = as a lion (the "k" = as). The Authorized Version and Revised Version, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, take the "k" as part of the verb k"aru, and alter the vowel points, making it read "they pierced". It is better to translate the Hebrew text literally, and supply the Ellipsis of the verb from Isaiah 38:13, "they break up". The meaning is exactly the same, and agrees with John 19:37.


Verse 17

tell = count. The whole description applies to death by crucifixion only.

look and stare = look for and see. In this idiom the former verb includes the feeling implied by the context. Compare 1 Samuel 17:42.


Verse 18

part, &c. Quoted in Matthew 27:35. Mark 15:24. Luke 23:34. John 19:24.


Verse 19

LORD *. One of the 134 emendations of the Sopherim (App-32) by which "Jehovah" of the primitive text was changed to "Adonai".


Verse 20

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

darling = only one. Hebrew. yahid. See note on Deuteronomy 6:4. = my one own priceless possession; put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for "my life", answering to "my soul" in the preceding line. Compare psuche. (John 12:27).

power. Hebrew hand, or paw. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the power exercised by it.


Verse 21

lion"s. See note on "They pierced" (Psalms 22:16).

For = Yea.

heard me = answered me. Compare Psalms 22:2. Supply Ellipsis, "[and delivered me]".

from the horns, &c. This clause may be joined on to the end of the preceding line. "Thou hast heard me "may be read on to Psalms 22:22, "I will declare".

unicorns = the bulls of Psalms 22:12. Note here the Parenthesis of the present Dispensation: for which see App-72.


Verse 22

I will declare. These words are Christ"s in resurrection. See Hebrews 2:12.

Thy Name = Thee (emphatic). Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the Person and all His attributes. See note on Psalms 20:1.

brethren. Compare John 20:17.

congregation = assembly: in its military aspect.


Verse 23

Ye: i.e. the Gentiles of Psalms 18:49; Psalms 117:1. Deuteronomy 32:43. Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10. word as in third line.

that fear = that stand in awe. Hebrew. gur. Not the same Jacob . . . Israel. See notes on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28.

fear = revere. Referring to Israel. Hebrew. yare". Not the same word as in first line and Psalms 22:25.


Verse 24

the affliction = the humiliation.

the afflicted = the patient One.


Verse 26

meek = the patient or wronged ones.


Verse 27

the ends, &c. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject) App-6, for the people dwelling in the farthest regions.

world = earth. Hebrew. "erez.


Verse 28

For, &c. Compare Matthew 6:13.


Verse 29

All they that be fat = All the great ones.

shall bow. Compare Philippians 1:2, Philippians 1:9-11, and references there.

And none can = Even He cannot: reference to Matthew 27:42. Compare Acts 1:8.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.


Verse 30

A seed. Septuagint and Vulg, read "My seed". Compare Isaiah 53:10.

accounted to = recounted of.

for a generation = unto a generation that shall come (reading the first part of Psalms 22:31 with the end of Psalms 22:30).


Verse 31

shall declare His righteousness = His righteousness shall be declared.

that shall be born. Referring to the new birth as declared by Christ to Nicodemus (John 3:3-7). Compare Ezekiel 36:25-27.

That = For. Corresponding with "for", Psalms 22:24 and Psalms 22:28, not Psalms 22:21.

He hath done this = It is finished. Compare John 19:30. Thus concluding the Psalm. Compare the beginning. Hebrew. "asah, to accomplish or finish, as in 2 Chronicles 4:11.

 


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Psalms 22:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/psalms-22.html. 1909-1922.

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