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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Romans 1



Other Authors
Verse 1

Paul. Paul"s name heads all his Epistles, except Hebrews.

servant. Greek. doulos. App-190. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:5. Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:10. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:1. Titus 1:1.

Jesus Christ. App-98. XL

called, &c. Literally a called apostle; called at his conversion (Acts 26:17, Acts 26:18).

apostle. App-189.

separated = set apart. Greek. aphorizo. Compare Acts 13:2; Acts 19:9. 2 Corinthians 6:17. Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:15; Galatians 2:12. Note the three stages in Paul"s "separation" for God"s purpose: birth (Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:15, Galatians 1:16); conversion (Acts 9:15); work (Acts 13:2).

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

the gospel of God: i.e. the "gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 20:24. Compare Acts 15:7), not the "gospel of the kingdom". See App-140. .

God. App-98.

Verse 2

had. Omit.

promised afore. Greek. proepangello. Only here: epangello occurs fifteen times; always rendered "promise", save 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Timothy 6:21 (professing).

Prophets. App-189.

scriptures. Greek. graphe. Occurs fifty-one times (sing, and plural) Fourteen times by Paul, but only here with adjective hagios, holy.

Verse 3

Concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

Son. Greek. huios. App-108.

Jesus . . . Lord. In the Greek these words follow after "dead" in Romans 1:4. Figure of speech Hyperbaton. App-6.

Lord. App-98.

Which was made = Who was born (Galatians 1:4, Galatians 1:4, Revised Version.)

seed: i.e. of David"s line, but ending specifically in Mary, who was here the "seed" of David. App-99. And Christ was "the Seed" of the woman (Genesis 3:15. Isaiah 7:14. Matthew 1:23).

David. Compare John 7:42. 2 Timothy 2:8.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

flesh = human nature. Greek. sarx. See Romans 9:3, Romans 9:5.

Verse 4

declared = marked out. Greek. horizo. See Acts 2:23. Compare Psalms 2:7.

Son of God. App-98.

with power = in (Greek. en) power (Greek. dunamis. App-172.); i.e. powerfully. Compare Philippians 3:10.

spirit. App-101.

holiness. Greek. hagiosune. Only here, 2 Corinthians 7:1. 1 Thessalonians 3:13. Nowhere in Greek. literature. It is the Genitive of apposition (App-17.) The expression is not to be confounded with pneuma hagion (App-101.) His Divine spiritual nature in resurrection is here set in contrast with His human flesh as seed of David.

resurrection. Greek. anastasis. App-178. Compare Acts 26:23.

from = of.

dead. App-139. See Matthew 27:52, Matthew 27:53.

Verse 5

grace and apostleship. Some see here the Figure of speech Hendiadys (App-6), and read "apostolic grace".

grace. Greek. charis. App-184.

apostleship. See Acts 1:25.

obedience to the faith = faith-obedience.

faith. App-150.

among. Greek. en. App-104.

nations = Gentiles. Greek. ethnos. Occurs in Romans twenty-nine times; translated "Gentiles" except here, Romans 4:17, Romans 4:18; Romans 10:19; Romans 16:26.

for = on behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104.

name. See Acts 2:21.

Verse 6

the called. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:24.

Verse 7

all, &c.: i.e. all God"s beloved ones in Rome.

beloved. Greek. agapetos. App-135.

saints. See Acts 9:13, and compare Psalms 16:3.

our Father. Compare Romans 8:15; Galatians 1:4, Galatians 1:6; and see App-98.

the = our.

Lord. App-98. This salutation is found in all Paul"s Epistles save Hebrews and the three Pastorals, where "mercy" is added.

Verse 8

thank. See Acts 27:35.

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 1:1. Compare John 14:6.

for. Greek. huper, as in Romans 1:5, but the texts read peri, concerning (App-104.)

spoken of. Greek. katangello. App-121.

throughout. Greek. en. App-104.

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129.

Verse 9

witness. Greek. martus; only here in Romans. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:23. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:8. 1 Thessalonians 2:5, 1 Thessalonians 2:10.

serve. Greek. latreuo. App-137 and App-190.

spirit. App-101. Compare Philippians 1:3, Philippians 1:3.

the gospel of His Son. This expression only here; elsewhere, the Apostle speaks of "the gospel of Christ", 1 Corinthians 9:12, 1 Corinthians 9:18; 2 Corinthians 2:12. Philippians 1:27. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:4.

without ceasing, Greek. adialeiptos. Only here and 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:17.

make mention. Compare Ephesians 1:16. Philippians 1:3. 1 Thessalonians 1:2; 1 Thessalonians 3:6. 2 Timothy 1:3. Philemon 1:4. The same expression appears in a papyrus of second cent., from the Fayoum, in a letter from a Roman soldier to his sister.

prayers. Greek. proseuche. App-134.

Verse 10

Making request. Greek. deomai. App-134.

if by any means. Greek. eipos. App-118.

might . . . journey. Greek. euodoumai. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 16:2. 3 John 1:2.

will. Greek. thelema. App-102.

come. Greek. erchomai. App-106.

Verse 11

long. Greek. epipothes. Elsewhere, 1 Corinthians 5:2; 1 Corinthians 9:14. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:8; Philippians 2:26. 1 Thessalonians 3:6. 2 Timothy 1:4. James 4:5. 1 Peter 2:2.

see. App-133.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

impart. Greek. metadidomi. Elsewhere, Romans 12:8. Luke 3:11. Ephesians 4:28. 1 Thessalonians 2:8.

unto = to.

spiritual. Greek. pneumatikos. See 1 Corinthians 12:1.

gift. Greek. charisma. App-184. Compare Romans 12:6. 1 Corinthians 12:4, &c.

to the end. Greek. eis. App-104.

established. Greek. sterizo. Elsewhere, Romans 16:25. Luke 9:51; Luke 16:26; Luke 22:32. 1 Thessalonians 3:2, 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:17; 2 Thessalonians 3:3. James 5:8. 1 Peter 5:10. 2 Peter 1:12. Revelation 3:2.

Verse 12

That is, &c. = But this (imparting some spiritual gift) is (or means) our being comforted by our mutual faith.

comforted together. Greek. sumparakaleo. Only here.

mutual = in (Greek. en) one another.

Verse 13

would, &c. First of six occurances: Romans 11:25. 1 Corinthians 10:1; 1 Corinthians 12:1. 2 Corinthians 1:8. 1 Thessalonians 4:13. See the positive form, 1 Corinthians 11:3. Colossians 2:1.

would. Greek. thelo. App-102.

have you, &c. = that you should be ignorant. Greek. agnoeo. Compare Mark 9:32. Luke 9:45.

purposed. Greek. protithemi; only here, Romans 3:25. Ephesians 1:9.

let = hindered. (Anglo-Saxon lettan, to delay.) Greek. kdluo; Occurs twenty-three times (seventeen times "forbid").

other. Greek. loipos. App-124. Paul frequently uses the significant term, "the rest", to designate the unsaved. See Romans 11:7. Ephesians 2:3; Ephesians 4:17. 1 Thessalonians 4:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:6. See also Revelation 20:5.

Verse 14

the. Omit.

Greeks. Greek. Hellen. See John 7:35 with John 12:20.

Barbarians. See Acts 28:2, Acts 28:4.

wise. Corresponds generally to "learned".

unwise. Greek. anoetos, unintelligent. Such as the Pharisees despised (John 7:49). Elsewhere, Luke 24:25. Galatians 1:3, Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:3; 1 Timothy 6:9. Titus 3:3.

Verse 15

as much as in me is = as for (Greek. kata. App-104.) me.

ready. Greek. prothumos. Only here. Matthew 26:41. Mark 14:38.

preach the gospel. Greek. euangelizo. App-121.

you, &c. = you also that are at (Greek. en) Rome.

Verse 16

For. This is Figure of speech Aetiologia. App-6.

I am, &c: i.e. I count it my highest honour and glory to proclaim the gospel. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.

ashamed. Greek. epaischunomai. Here, Romans 6:21. Mark 8:38. Luke 9:26. 2 Timothy 1:8, 2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:16. Hebrews 2:11; Hebrews 11:16.

of Christ. All the texts omit.

believeth. App-150.

first. In point of national precedence and privilege. Compare Romans 2:9, Romans 2:10; Romans 8:1, Romans 8:2.

Greek. See Romans 1:14. Representing all non-Jews.

Verse 17

therein = in (Greek. en) it.

the. Omit.

righteousness of God = God"s righteousness.

righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune. App-191.

revealed. Greek. apokalupto. App-106.

from. Greek. ek. App-104.

to. Greek. eis. App-104. God"s righteousness is revealed on the ground of faith (faith-principle) (ek pisteos), as the absolute condition of salvation, and is operative only for those who believe (eis pistin). For the use of ek pisteos, Compare Romans 3:26, Romans 3:30; Romans 4:16; Romans 5:1; Romans 10:6; Romans 14:23. Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:16.

written. See Matthew 2:5 (first occ).

just. Greek. dikaios. App-191.

live. Quoted from Habakkuk 2:4. Compare Galatians 1:3, Galatians 1:11. Hebrews 10:38.

Verse 18

For. In the gospel not only is God"s salvation revealed, but God"s wrath also, and both are the revelation of God"s righteousness.

the wrath of God. This expression Occurs only here, John 3:36. Ephesians 5:6. Colossians 3:6. Compare Revelation 19:15. Referred to many times in N.T., e.g. Romans 2:5; Romans 5:9; Romans 9:22. Matthew 3:7. Ephesians 2:3; Ephesians 5:6. Revelation 6:16, Revelation 6:17.

heaven. Singular. No article. See Matthew 6:10.

against. Greek. epi, App-104.

ungodliness. Greek. asebeia. App-128.

unrighteousness. Greek. adikia. App-128.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

hold = hold down, suppress. Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:6.

the truth. Greek. alethieia, p. 1511. Compare App-175and App-2.

Verse 19

known. See Acts 1:19.

manifest. Greek. phaneros. App-106.

hath. Omit.

shewed = manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106.

Verse 20

invisible. Greek. aoratos. Here, Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:16, 1 Timothy 1:17. Hebrews 11:27.

clearly seen. Greek. katkorao. Only here.

things that are made. Greek. poiema. Only here and Ephesians 2:10.

eternal. Greek. aidios. App-151.

Godhead. App-98.

so that, &c. = to the end (Greek. eis) of their being. Compare Romans 1:11.

without excuse. Greek. anapologetos. Only here and Romans 2:1.

Verse 21

knew. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

glorified. Seep. 1511.

but. Emphatic.

became vain. Greek. mataioomai. Only here. Compare Acts 14:15.

imaginations = reasonings. See Matthew 15:19.

foolish. Greek. asunetos, as Romans 1:31.

Verse 22

Professing, &c. = saying that they were. Greek. phasko. See Acts 24:9.

became fools. Literally were fooled (i.e. by their perverted mind). Greek. moraino. Here, Matthew 5:13. Luke 14:34. 1 Corinthians 1:20.

Verse 23

changed. Greek. allasso. see Acts 6:14.

glory. Greek. doxa. See p. 1511.

uncorruptible. Greek. aphthartos. Here; 1 Corinthians 9:25; 1 Corinthians 15:52. 1 Timothy 1:17. 1 Peter 1:4, 1 Peter 1:23; 1 Peter 3:4.

image, &c. = likeness (Greek. homoioma. Here, Romans 5:14; Romans 6:5; Romans 8:3. Philippians 1:2, Philippians 1:7. Revelation 9:7) of an image of.

image. Greek. eikon. Occurs twenty-three times; always so rendered. This is the Figure of speech Pleonasm. App-6.

corruptible. Greek. phthartos. Here, 1 Corinthians 9:25; 1 Corinthians 15:53, 1 Corinthians 15:54; 1 Peter 1:18, 1 Peter 1:23.

birds, &c. In Egypt they worshipped the hawk and the ibis.

fourfooted beasts. Greek. tetrapous. See Acts 10:12. As the bull and the cow, held by the Egyptians sacred to. Apis and Hathor (Venus); the dog to Anubis; &c.

creeping things. Greek. herpeton. See Acts 10:12. The asp, sacred to the gods of Egypt and found in every heathen pantheon; indeed, the worship of the serpent plays a prominent part in all forms of Paganism. The crocodile, tortoise, frog, and the well-known Scarabaeus beetle, sacred to the sun and to Pthah, and used as an emblem of the world (Wilkinson).

Verse 24

also. Omit.

gave them up. See John 19:30.

uncleanness. Greek. akatharsia. Occurs ten times, always so rendered. The cognate word akathartes in Revelation 17:4 only. Ceasing to know God (Romans 1:21) results in idolatry, and idolatry ends in "filthiness of the flesh and spirit" (2 Corinthians 7:1).

through. App-104.

lusts. See John 8:44.

to dishonour, &c. = that their bodies should be dishonoured. Greek. atimazo. See Acts 5:41.

between. Greek. en. App-104.

Verse 25

Who = Since they.

changed. Greek. metallasso; only here and Romans 1:26. A stronger word than in Romans 1:23.

the truth of God into a lie = the truth of God for the lie. Man transferred his worship from God (the Truth) to the devil. Compare John 8:44. Ephesians 4:25. 2 Thessalonians 2:9-11.

a lie = the lie. Greek. to pseudos. Compare 2 Thessalonians 2:11. The He is that Satan is man"s benefactor and is to be worshipped.

worshipped. Greek. sebazomai. App-137. Only here.

served. Greek. latreuo. App-137and App-190.

creature = the things created; not only sun, moon, stars, men, the animate creation, but Satan himself, the arch-enemy, who by means of his "lie" (Genesis 3:4, Genesis 3:5) transferred the worship of man from the Creator to himself, the creature.

more than. Greek. para. App-104.

blessed. Greek. eulogetos. Compare Romans 9:5. Mark 14:61. (The) Blessed One. Not a statement of doctrine, but a well-known Hebraism of praise to God as Creator.

for ever. App-151. a.

Amen. See Matthew 5:18. John 1:51, and p. 1511.

Verse 26

For this cause = Because of (App-104. Romans 1:2) this.

vile affections = passions of infamy (Greek. atimia. Here, Romans 9:21. 1 Corinthians 11:14; 1 Corinthians 15:43. 2 Corinthians 6:8; 2 Corinthians 11:21. 2 Timothy 2:20).

affections = passions, or lusts. Greek. pathos. Only here; Colossians 3:5. 1 Thessalonians 4:5.

natural. Greek. phusikos. Only here, Romans 1:27; 2 Peter 2:12.

use. Greek. chresis. Only here and Romans 1:27.

against. Greek. para. App-104.

Verse 27

also the men = the men also.

men. App-123.

leaving = having forsaken. App-174.

burned = were inflamed. Greek. ekkaiomai. Only here.

lust. Greek. orexis. Only here.

toward. App-104.

working. Greek. katergazomai. Occurs eleven times in Romans, seven in 2 Corinthians. See also James 1:3, James 1:20; 1 Peter 4:3.

that which is unseemly. Greek. aschemosune. Only here and Revelation 16:15. Compare Genesis 19:7.

receiving = receiving back, or in full. Greek. apolambano.

that = the.

recompence. Greek. antimisthia, retribution; only here and 2 Corinthians 6:13.

error. Greek. plane, literally a wandering = wrong action, wickedness. Here, Matthew 27:64. Ephesians 4:14. 1 Thessalonians 2:3. 2 Thessalonians 2:11. James 5:20. 2 Peter 2:18; 2 Peter 3:17. 1 John 4:6. Jude 1:11.

Verse 28

And even . . . mind. There is a play upon two words here, not easily expressed in Eng. "As they rejected God, God rejected them. "

did . . . like. Greek. dokimazo, to accept after testing, to approve. Compare Romans 2:18; Romans 12:2; Romans 14:22. 1 Corinthians 9:27.

knowledge. App-132.

reprobate. Greek. adokimos. The negative of dokimos. Compare dokimazo, above. Here, 1 Corinthians 9:27. 2 Corinthians 13:5, 2 Corinthians 13:6, 2 Corinthians 13:7; 2 Timothy 3:8. Titus 1:16. Hebrews 6:8.

convenient. Greek. kathekon. See Acts 22:22.

Verse 29

filled. Greek. pleroo. App-125.

fornication. The texts omit.

wickedness Greek. poneria. App-128.

maliciousness. Greek. kakia. App-128.

envy = jealousy. Greek. phthonos. Compare Matthew 27:18.

murder. Greek. phonos. Note the Paronomasia, phthonos, phonos. App-6. See Acts 9:1.

debate = strife.

deceit. Greek. dolos. See Acts 13:10.

malignity. Greek. kakoetheia, literally disposition for mischief. Only here.

whisperers = calumniators. Greek. psithuristes. Only here.

Verse 30

Backbiters = evil speakers (not necessarily behind the back). Greek. katalalos. Only here. Compare 2 Corinthians 12:20. 1 Peter 2:1.

haters of God = hateful to God. Greek. theostuges. Only here.

despiteful = insolent. Greek. hubristes. Only here and 1 Timothy 1:13.

proud. Greek. huperephanos. Here, Luke 1:51. 2 Timothy 3:2. James 4:6. 1 Peter 5:6.

boasters. Greek. alazon. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:2.

inventors. Greek. epheuretes. Only here.

evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.

disobedient. See Acts 26:19.

Verse 31

Without understanding. Greek. asunetos. See Romans 1:21. Note the Paronomasia with next word. App-6.

covenantbreakers. Greek. asunthetos. Only here.

without natural affection. Greek. astorgos. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:3.

implacable. The texts omit.

unmerciful = pitiless. Greek. aneleemon. Only here.

Verse 32

knowing. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.

judgment = righteous sentence. Greek. dikaioma. App-177.

commit = practise.

have pleasure in = consent also to. See Acts 8:1.

do. Same as "commit", above. This list of heathen iniquities is the Figure of speech Synathroesmos. App-6.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 1:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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