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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Zephaniah 1



Verse 1

The word, &c. Compare Hosea 1:1. Joel 1:1. Micah 1:1.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

came = became: i.e. came to, or was communicated. Compare Luke 3:2. See App-82.

Zephaniah = hidden of Jehovah, or he whom Jehovah hath hidden (Psalms 27:5; Psalms 31:19, Psalms 31:20; Psalms 83:3). For the connection See Zephaniah 2:3.

Hizkiah = Hezekiah.

Verse 2

utterly consume. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6), for emphasis. Hebrew. "asoph "aseph = to end, I end.

consume = take away, or make an end of.

all. Omit "things" = All; as in Job 42:2. Psalms 8:6. Isaiah 44:24.

the land. Figure of speech Pleonasm. (App-6) = the face of the land.

land = soil, or ground.

saith the Lord = [is] Jehovah"s oracle.

Verse 3

I will consume. Note the Figure of speech Anaphora. Three times repeated.

man. Hebrew. "adam with "eth = humanity App-14.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6), for emphasis.

stumblingblocks = ruin. Occurs only here, and Isaiah 3:6. Figure of speech Metalepsis. "Stumblingblocks" put first for the idols and idolatry, and then idolatry put for the ruin brought about by them.

with = together with. Hebrew. "eth.

the wicked = the lawless ones. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

Verse 4

Mine hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia, App-6.

remnant. Septuagint reads "names", reading shem instead of she"ar, as in the next clause.

and. Some codices, with three early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read this "and" in the text.

Chemarims = Kemarim = black-robed, or cassocked. From Hebrew. Kamar, to be black. Used of idolatrous priests because so clothed; not Kohen, as appointed by Jehovah. Occurs only here; 2 Kings 23:5, and Hosea 10:5.

Verse 5

worship the host of heaven. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:19; Deuteronomy 17:3). App-92. Compare 2 Kings 23:11, 2 Kings 23:12. Jeremiah 19:13.

Malcham = king-god, or king-idol. Syriac and Vulgate read "Milcom".

Verse 6

from = from after.

sought . . . enquired. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 4:29, where the two Hebrew verbs are in the same order, and are rendered "seek . . . seek"). App-92.

LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah.(with "eth) = Jehovah Himself.

Verse 7

Hold thy peace, &c. See Amos 6:10. Habakkuk 2:20. Zechariah 3:13.

the Lord. Hebrew Adonai. App-4.

God. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

a sacrifice. Septuagint reads "His sacrifice".

bid = separated. Hebrew sanctified. See note on Exodus 3:5.

Verse 8

the day of the Lord"s sacrifice. See notes on Isaiah 2:12; Isaiah 13:6.

day. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the judgments executed in it.

punish = visit upon. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 32:34). App-92. Compare Jeremiah 9:25; Jeremiah 11:22; Jeremiah 13:21, &c.

children = sons: i.e. the royal house. Compare 1 Kings 22:26. 2 Kings 11:2. Jeremiah 36:26; Jeremiah 38:6, &c.

strange = foreign.

Verse 9

those that leap, &c. No reference to idolatrous practice, as in 1 Kings 18:26; but to the servants of rulers sent to enter the houses of others and steal Figure of speech Periphrasis (App-6), for robbers.

on = over.

violence and deceit. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the booty procured.

Verse 10

the noise of a cry. Figure of speech Pleonasm. App-6.

the second = the new city. See note on 2 Kings 22:14,

Verse 11

Maktesh = the mortar. Probably the local name of the merchants" quarter in the Tyropoeon valley, west of Zion. App-68. So called from its basin-like shape.

cut down = laid low.

Verse 12

candles = lamps.

evil = harm. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

Verse 13

they shall also build, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:30, Deuteronomy 28:39). Compare Amos 5:11. Micah 6:15; and contrast Isaiah 65:21. Amos 9:14.

wine. Heb yayin. App-27.

Verse 14

The great day, &c. Compare Isaiah 22:5. Joel 2:1, &c.

is near, &c. Hebrew [is] near, near. Figure of speech Epizeuxis, for emphasis: i.e. very near.

mighty man. Hebrew. gibbor. App-14.

Verse 15

wrath. trouble, &c. Note the Figure of speech Synonymia (App-6).

Verse 16

the trumpet and alarm = an alarming trumpet. Figure of speech Hendiadys = a trumpet, yea, a trumpet [call] "to arms"! Compare Zephaniah 2:2.

towers. Hebrew corners. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for the towers usually fixed there.

Verse 17

they shall walk, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:29).

Verse 18

land. Not the same word as in verses: Zephaniah 2:3. for, Ginsburg thinks this should be "yea".


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Zephaniah 1:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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