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Bible Commentaries

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

Mark 16

 

 

Verse 1

1. διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου. When the Sabbath was past (A.V., R.V.). The verb is used of passing intervals of time in Acts 25:13; Acts 27:9; cf. 2 Maccabees 11:26. After sunset on Saturday they bought ἀρώματα, a comprehensive term for sweet-smelling substances, whether solid or liquid. They proposed to pour these over the Body as it lay wrapped in gravecloths. Christ’s words to Judas (Mark 14:8) might suggest this. When they had finished their preparations it was too dark to do anything at the tomb; they must wait till dawn on Sunday.


Verses 1-8

1–8. THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE TOMB

Matthew 28:1-8. Luke 24:1-10. Cf. John 20:1-18


Verse 2

2. ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου. When the sun was risen. Mk’s fondness for fulness of expression (Mark 14:58; Mark 14:61; Mark 14:68) here leads him into inconsistency. If the sun had already risen, it would not be λίαν πρωί. Mt. becomes still more confused about the time of day. Elsewhere (Mark 1:32, Mark 2:20, Mark 6:35, Mark 14:30), when Mk gives two notes of time, Mt. omits one (Matthew 8:16, Matthew 9:15, Matthew 14:15, Matthew 26:34). Here he gives two which are even less harmonious than Mk’s two. Mk confuses the time of the women’s leaving home with the time when they reached the tomb. Mt. confuses the time when they bought the unguents with the time of their setting out to use them. At the latter hour it was still dark (Jn), which agrees with λίαν πρωί here. Even if λίαν πρωί means only “as early as they possibly could,” it does not harmonize with “at sunrise.”

τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων. So also Lk. and Jn. Lit. “On day one of the week,” not (as Coverdale in Lk.) “upon one of the Sabbathes.” Here and in Jn, Vulg. has una sabbatorum, in Lk. and Acts 20:7 una sabbati. This is a more important point than the hour of starting or of reaching the sepulchre. All the Evangelists agree that the tomb was found empty on the morning of Sunday.


Verse 3

3. ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς. Cf. Mark 11:31, Mark 14:4. Two of them had seen Joseph and Nicodemus, possibly with assistance and a lever, roll the stone to close the tomb, and they began to discuss among themselves whom they could get to open it. Here k has a strange interpolation about a sudden darkness at the third hour and Angels coming down from heaven and going up again with the risen Christ.


Verse 4

4. ἀνακεκύλισται. Is rolled back (R.V.), has been rolled back and remains so. Rolled back ἐκ τῆς θύρας, as Mk accurately says, rather than ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου (Lk.). It was probably rolled sideways and was leaning against the rock. The ἀνα- implies that it had gone back to the place whence Joseph and Nicodemus had moved it. See crit. note. Mk may have believed that the risen Christ had moved the stone, but he gives no hint of this belief. He states what those who were there reported; ἀνακεκύλισται is their exclamation.

ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα. It was so large that they could see at a distance that it had been rolled back. But the words may be a belated remark to explain why they were anxious about the matter; and [3588] with other authorities have the remark at the end of Mark 16:3. All four Evangelists state that the stone had been removed. Mt., as at the Crucifixion, mentions an earthquake about which the other three say nothing; also that an Angel rolled away the stone and sat on it. This looks like conjectural explanation of a well-known fact. In Mk the Angel is found inside the tomb. Lk. and Jn mention two Angels. What is said about Angels is in harmony with Jewish modes of thought, but it may also be substantially in harmony with fact. We cannot safely attribute all the details of the narrative to Jewish ideas of what would be likely to happen rather than to experience of what did happen. We know so little about the nature of Angels that it is rash to be peremptory as to what is credible or not. On the whole subject see Swete, The Appearances of our Lord after the Passion; also the introductory note to John 20. Jn mentions only one of the women mentioned here, and his narrative about her is quite different.


Verse 5

5. νεανίσκον. Mk leaves us to infer that this was an Angel. The sobriety of all four narratives is in marked contrast to the grotesque story in the Gospel of Peter, and it leaves us with the impression that there is a basis of solid fact. Cf. 2 Maccabees 3:26; 2 Maccabees 3:33; 2 Maccabees 10:29; 2 Maccabees 11:8. We must allow [1] for the intense excitement of the women at finding the sepulchre open and empty, [2] for the diversity of the impressions which each of them received, and [3] for the difficulty which each of them would have in describing her own experiences. We must also allow [4] for the unintentional inaccuracy with which those to whom they told their experiences would repeat what they had been told. It is more reasonable to believe that facts have been misunderstood and misreported, than to believe that there are no facts, but that all the narratives are the outcome of delusion or deliberate fiction. The substantial facts, common to all the narratives, are that early on Sunday morning women went to the tomb to see the Body which had been placed there, and that what they sought was not found; the tomb was empty. The explanation, slowly grasped at the time and confirmed afterwards, was that He had risen. All this is more like sober history than myth.

στολὴν λευκήν. See on Mark 12:38.

ἐξεθαμβήθησαν. See on Mark 9:15. They were amazed (R.V.), but no doubt something of fright (A.V.) was mingled with their astonishment.


Verse 6

6. ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς. As on the Lake (Mark 6:49-50), the figure which they see shows by addressing them that he is no mere phantasm; and he addresses them in much the same way.

΄ὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε, Cease to be amazed, = θαρσεῖτε, “Be of good cheer.” What follows may be taken interrogatively, “Is it Jesus that ye are seeking? That is useless labour.”

τὸν Ναζαρηνόν. Mk alone has this touch; it would appeal to Christ’s friends from Galilee. See on Mark 1:24.

τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον. Cf. 1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 2:2; Galatians 3:1; He is now permanently “the Crucified.”

ἠγέρθη. “You are too late; He is already risen.” Hence the aor. rather than the perf. That He remains raised is not here the main point. One might have expected οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε to have come first, as in Mt. and Lk., but Mk puts the supreme fact first and then gives the evidence for its truth. “He is risen. Do you doubt that? The tomb is empty; look at the place where the Body was laid.” As we know from Jn, the gravecloths were lying there, but the Body had gone from within them. The Angel speaks with marvellous simplicity and directness. The short sentences, without connecting particles, are very impressive, and his calmness is in marked contrast to the women’s excitement.


Verse 7

7. ἀλλὰ ὑπάγετε. Mk only. “Do not linger here wondering, but go to those who greatly need the knowledge of this fact.” We may say that the Apostles needed the glad tidings even more than the women; but it was those who sought that were the first to find. The energy of the women had its reward.

καὶ τῷ Πέτρῳ. “And in particular to Peter.” Here again we seem to have Peter behind the Evangelist. This special encouragement, sent to the chief Apostle, who was still lamenting his threefold denial, would be treasured and repeated by him. Vocatur ex nomine ne desperaret ex negatione. No other Evangelist reports this mention of Peter, but it is in harmony with St Paul’s statement that there was a special manifestation “to Kephas” (1 Corinthians 15:5), and with the report quoted by Lk. (Luke 24:34), that Christ had appeared “to Simon.” The three statements mutually confirm one another.

Προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τ. Γαλιλαίαν. This seems to look back to Mark 14:28. The predictions that He would rise again had made too little impression on the Apostles; and it was therefore all the more necessary to remind them that He had appointed a meeting-place in Galilee. They might be sure that all would be done even as (καθώς, as in Mark 1:2, Mark 9:13, Mark 11:6, Mark 14:21) He said to them. In Mark 4:33, Mark 14:16, and here, R.V. has simply “as” for καθώς. The appendix (Mark 16:9-20) contains no note of this appearance in Galilee.


Verse 8

8. ἐξελθοῦσαι ἔφυγονεἶχεν. The change from aor. to imperf. is impressive. Their flight from the tomb was instantaneous; the trembling and astonishment were lasting. Terror at the supernatural utterance had held them fast for a few moments. As soon as the utterance ceased, their first impulse was to get away from the scene of such awful experiences and from the cause of such unwelcome emotions. It is clear from what follows that it was not eagerness to deliver the Angel’s message which made them fly in such haste.

εἶχεν γὰρ αὐτὰς τρόμος καὶ ἔκστασις. This use of ἔχω of the grip of fear and pain is common; ἔχουσιν δέ μου τὰς σάρκας ὀδύναι (Job 21:6), ὠδῖνες αὐτοὺς ἕξουσιν (Isaiah 13:8). Cf. Job 31:23; also Hom. Il. iv. 79. Elsewhere in N.T. τρόμος is always connected with φόβος (1 Corinthians 2:3; 2 Corinthians 7:15; Ephesians 6:5; Philippians 2:12). Mk seems to wish to show that fear was not the only emotion. See on Mark 5:42.

οὐδενὶ οὐδὲν εἶπον. The double negative again; cf. Mark 14:60-61, Mark 15:4-5, etc. At first their tremor was so great that they were unable to think of the gracious and joyous contents of the Angel’s utterance, and they quite forgot to communicate the glad tidings to others. They were too frightened to think of anything but escape; all which is true to nature. Mt. records the later stage, when “great joy” was mingled with their fear, and then they ran to tell the disciples. Lk., with his fondness for πᾶς, says that they told “all these things to the Eleven and to all the rest.” We may reasonably suppose that, if we had the conclusion of this Gospel, we should have some account of the transition from a terrified silence to a joyous eagerness to communicate the good news, and also perhaps some report of the delivery of the special message to Peter.

ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ. It is difficult to believe that Mk intended to end his Gospel at this point and in this exceedingly abrupt way. It is possible that ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ is not even a finished sentence, but that the words introduce a statement as to what it was that they feared when for a time they told no one what they had seen and heard. Still, as Mark 9:6 shows, this need not be so; but Mark 9:6 does not support the theory that ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ is meant to close even the section about the visit to the tomb. The words give us the impression of a ragged edge to an imperfect document.


Verse 9

9. Ἀναστὰς δὲ πρωὶ πρώτῃ σαββάτου ἐφάνη. These words again give the impression of a ragged edge. The preceding passage has no proper conclusion. This passage has no proper beginning, for there is no nom. to ἐφάνη. Evidently something has preceded in which Jesus has been mentioned. The two edges do not fit one another. Whatever these twelve verses may be, they were not written as a conclusion to Mk’s account of the first hours of the first Easter Day. Instead of giving the sequel of the first visit to the tomb, they begin with another account of the first visit to the tomb, agreeing with that of Jn, but not agreeing with that of Mk. Mary Magdalen, one of the three women mentioned by Mk, is here quite alone, and she is introduced, not as a person who has just been mentioned, but as a person who needs to be described. In Mark 15:40; Mark 15:47 and Mark 16:1 she is named as one about whom the reader is sure to know; here she is introduced as a stranger. We should probably take πρωί with ἀναστάς rather than with ἐφάνη.

πρώτῃ σαββάτου. The expression is found nowhere in Mk, who never uses either σάββατου or σάββατα in the sense of “week.” Contrast Mark 16:2 and parallels. Excepting Luke 18:12, “the week” in N.T. is generally plural, τῶν σαββάτων. The nearest parallel to πρώτῃ σαββάτου is κατὰ μίαν σαββάτου (1 Corinthians 16:2).

ἐφάνη. Another expression not found elsewhere in N.T. In Luke 9:8, ἐφάνη is used of the reappearance of Elijah, but nowhere is this verb used of an Appearance of the risen Lord. Contrast Luke 24:34; Acts 13:31; Acts 26:16; 1 Corinthians 15:5-8.

παρʼ ἧς ἐκβεβλήκει. A third expression not found elsewhere. The usual constr. is ἐκβάλλω ἐκ. Where ἐκ is not suitable we have ἀπό, as in Acts 13:50; Exodus 10:11; Exodus 23:31; Leviticus 21:7, etc.; παρά is not suitable.

ἑπτὰ δαιμόνια. Lk. states this in his first mention of Mary Magdalen (Mark 8:2); it indicates an obsession of special malignity. It is out of place to suggest a parallel with the “seven other spirits more evil than himself” (Matthew 12:45), or a contrast with “the seven Spirits which are before His throne” (Revelation 1:4; Revelation 3:1). We have no ground for thinking that Mary of Magdala had been exceptionally wicked, or that demoniacs generally were persons of very vicious lives. See on Mark 15:40. Seven is a typical number, as made up of two other typical numbers, three and four. These ideas about numbers are widely spread, and there is no need to suppose any borrowing from astrology, or Mazdeism, or other foreign sources. Plurality on an impressive scale is meant. The demons could not be counted.


Verses 9-11

9–11. THE APPEARANCE TO MARY MAGDALEN

John 20:11-18


Verse 10

10. ἐκείνη πορευθεῖσα. This use of ἐκεῖνος, merely to recall the main subject, is very freq. in Jn (John 1:8; John 1:18; John 1:33; John 5:11; John 5:37; John 5:39; John 5:43, etc.), but is not in Mk’s style; yet we have it three times in this appendix (10, 11, 20). And πορεύομαι, so very freq. in Mt., Lk., Jn, and Acts, occurs only once in Mk (Mark 9:30), and then with the definite meaning of travelling; yet we have it three times in six verses (10–15).

τοῖς μετʼ αὐτοῦ γενομένοις. This periphrasis for the disciples is found in no Gospel; it is as comprehensive as Lk.’s “to the Eleven and to all the rest.”

πενθοῦσιν καὶ κλαίονσιν. This was an early fulfilment of what had been foretold (John 16:20). The disciples were mourning and weeping while the world was rejoicing in keeping the Feast; but the sorrow was soon to be turned into joy. The two verbs are often combined (Luke 6:25; James 4:9; Revelation 18:11; Revelation 18:15; Revelation 18:19). The Gospel of Peter has ἐκλαίομεν καὶ ἐλυπούμεθα, but there is reason for believing that the Mk known to that writer ended at Mark 16:8.


Verse 11

11. κἀκεῖνοι. Here and Mark 16:13 the crasized form is found in the best MSS.; καὶ ἐκεῖνοι (Mark 4:20) is a very rare exception.

ἐθεάθη. Like ἐκεῖνοι as here used, this is a Johannine word (1 John 1:1; 1 John 4:12; 1 John 4:14; John 1:14, etc.), and it occurs nowhere in Mk. It was the persistent testimony of those who had had this experience, that they had seen the risen Lord with their own eyes; and few believed that He was alive again until they had seen Him. That the confident expectation of seeing Him again led the disciples to believe that they had seen Him is quite contrary to clear evidence.

ἠπίστησαν. Unbelief was the general result when the testimony of others was received; Thomas was only one of many sceptics (Mark 16:16; Luke 24:11; Luke 24:41; John 20:24). Ἀπιστέω (here and Mark 16:16) is not found in Mk.

Whether or no we regard the narrative about the visit of the three women to the tomb (Mark 16:1-8) as referring to the same event as that which is recorded here and John 20:11-18, it is remarkable that Christ’s Appearance to Mary Magdalen, with or without other women, is not mentioned by St Paul, when he enumerates those who, from personal experience, could be cited as witnesses for the reality of Christ’s Resurrection. Jn also, when He calls the Appearance at the Sea of Tiberias “the third time” of Christ’s manifesting Himself (John 21:14), does not count the Appearance to Mary which he himself records. Women were not official witnesses; and perhaps from the first it was noticed that, owing to emotion and excitement, the story which they told was not coherent. St Paul begins with the “first” of the Apostles and ends with the “least” of them, giving six Appearances in all. St John gives three Appearances, at all of which he himself was present. But, if in examining the witnesses for the Resurrection “the believer is confronted with details that do not harmonize, the unbeliever has to explain away the triumphant progress of the new sect” (Burkitt). Can the success and vitality of the Christian religion be explained, if Jesus of Nazareth died on the cross and never rose again?


Verse 12

12. ΄ετὰ δὲ ταῦτα. ΄ετὰ ταῦτα or τοῦτο is a Lukan and Johannine expression, but it is not found in Mk. The two are the two who were walking to Emmaus on the evening of Easter Day.

ἐφανερώθη. Jn has the same verb in the same sense (John 21:1; John 21:14).

ἐν ἑτέρᾳ μορφῇ. The meaning is not clear. It cannot mean that He was glorified as at the Transfiguration. It might mean that He was in a form different from that in which He appeared to Mary; she took Him to be a gardener, the two regarded Him as an ordinary wayfarer. It probably means that His form was different from that in which He had previously been known to them; but it has little point unless one knows that the two disciples failed to recognize Him.

εἰς ἀγρόν. The position of Emmaus is unknown. El Kubeibeh about seven miles N.W. of Jerusalem is perhaps the most probable conjecture; but either Kulonieh or Beit Mizzeh nearer to Jerusalem on the W. may be right. Amwâs, about twenty miles N.W. of Jerusalem, is impossible, although Christian writers from Eusebius to the Crusades take the similarity of name as decisive.


Verse 12-13

12, 13. APPEARANCE TO TWO DISCIPLES

Luke 24:13-22


Verse 13

13. κἀκεῖνοι. See on Mark 16:10-11.

οὐδὲ ἐκείνοις ἐπίστευσαν. This does not agree with Luke 24:34, where the two, on their return from Emmaus, are greeted with the news that the Lord is risen and has appeared to Simon. But Thomas did not believe this, and there may have been others who were convinced neither by these two nor by the Ten. The compiler of these notes is evidently not copying from Lk., and what follows seems to show that he had been told that the Apostles had refused to believe the evidence from Emmaus. The Apostles may have been allowed to hear of the Resurrection before seeing the risen Christ in order that they might know from personal experience what it was to have to depend upon the testimony of others, as would be the case with their converts (John 20:29; John 20:31). See Hort on 1 Peter 1:8.


Verse 14

14. Ὕστερον. These verses seem to be a summary of what the writer had heard or read respecting manifestations of the risen Lord to the Apostles on and after Easter Day. What may have been said on different occasions is strung together and assigned to a single occasion, the scene of which seems to be Jerusalem. But the narrative does not seem to be dependent on the Canonical Gospels, although the language is less unlike the language of those Gospels than Mark 16:9-13 are. Ὕστερον, seven times in Mt. and once each in Lk. and Jn, is found nowhere in Mk, who prefers ἔσχατον.

αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἕνδεκα. To the Eleven themselves (R.V.), ipsis undecim (Beza), i.e. to the official body as distinct from Mary Magdalen and the two unnamed disciples. “The Eleven” proves nothing as to the presence of Thomas; both “the Eleven” and “the Twelve” are used to designate the Apostolic College, independently of the exact number (John 20:24; 1 Corinthians 15:5). The terms Decemviri and Centumviri were used in a similar manner. Cf. the English “hundred.”

ὠνείδισεν. Nowhere else is this verb used of Christ’s rebuking His disciples, not even when Peter ventured to rebuke Him (Mark 8:32-33). R.V. renders “upbraid” here and Matthew 11:20, but “reproach” Mark 15:32; Matthew 5:11; Matthew 27:44; Luke 6:22. Vulg. commonly has exprobro, but also convicior (Mark 15:32), inpropero (Matthew 27:44), and dico omne malum adversus (Matthew 5:11).

ἀπιστίαν καὶ σκληροκαρδίαν. Nowhere else is either of these grave faults laid to the charge of the Apostles. They had shown ὀλιγοπιστία (Matthew 17:20), had had πεπωρωμένην τὴν καρδίαν (Mark 8:17); but they were neither unbelieving nor impenitent. We conclude that the words are not Christ’s but the narrator’s, who seems to have been much impressed by the fact that many of Christ’s disciples treated the report of His Resurrection as something too good to be true. He emphasizes this (Mark 16:11; Mark 16:13-14; cf. Mark 16:16-17).

It was probably because the change from this severe rebuke to the commission in Mark 16:15 appeared to be intolerably abrupt that an insertion was made of a reply on the part of the disciples. Respecting this interesting interpolation, of which we have now recovered the whole in the original Greek, see Appendix. But there is point in the abrupt change which this interpolation seeks to mitigate. The disciples are told, not merely to believe, but to preach to all the world, what they themselves had doubted. In a similar way Christ shows to Saul of Tarsus, not merely that he must cease to persecute Him, but how great things he must suffer for His sake (Acts 9:16).

ADDITIONAL NOTE

ON Mark 16:14

The now well-known interpolation in this verse was known to Jerome, who says that it existed in “some copies and especially Greek MSS.” (Dial. c. Pelag. ii. 15), and he quotes a portion of the reply put into the mouths of the Apostles. His quotation runs thus: Et illi satisfaciebant dicentes; Saeculum istud iniquitatis et incredulitatis sub Satana est, qui non sinit per immundos spiritus veram Dei apprehendi virtutem. Idcirco jam nunc revela justitiam tuam. Instead of sub Satana est qui some MSS. have substantia est quae, which yields very poor sense and is now known to be certainly wrong. For in 1907 Mr C. L. Freer bought in Cairo a very interesting MS. of the Four Gospels in Greek, and the text of Mk contains the whole of the interpolation of which Jerome has given part in a Latin translation. This Greek MS. is believed to be of the fifth or sixth century; indeed some critics have thought that it may be of the fourth. The order of the Gospels is that of [3589][3590] and the old Latin MSS., viz. Mt., Jn, Lk., Mk, and the MS. (or that from which it was copied) seems to have been made from different texts. The text of Jn is superior to that of Mt. In Jn it generally agrees with [3591] in Mt. generally with the later official or Byzantine text. In Lk. down to Mark 8:12 it agrees mainly with [3592] and for the rest of the Gospel mainly with the later text. These features, however, do not greatly concern us. In Mk the text varies, but it has one or two unique readings. In Mark 1:27 it has “What is this new, this authoritative teaching, and that He commandeth even the unclean spirits and they obey Him?” In Mark 9:24 it has “the spirit of the child” instead of “the father of the child.” But for us the most interesting feature is that it contains the appendix to Mk (Mark 16:9-20) and after Mark 16:14 has the interpolation in question. The text of it runs thus:—

κἀκεῖνοι ἀπελογοῦντ(ο) λέγοντες ὅτι ὁ

αἰὼν οὗτος τῆς ἀνομίας καὶ τῆς ἀπιστίας

ὑπὸ τὸν Σατανᾶν ἐστιν ὁ μὴ ἐῶν τὰ ὑπὸ

τῶν πνε(υμ)άτων ἀκάθαρτα τὴν ἀλήθειαν

τοῦ θ(εο)ῦ καταλαβέσθαι (καὶ) δύναμιν. διὰ

τοῦτο ἀποκάλυψον σοῦ τὴν δικαιοσύ-

νην ἤδη, ἐκεῖνοι ἔλεγον τῷ Χ(ριστ)ῷ καὶ ὁ

Χ(ριστὸ)ς ἐκείνοις προσέλεγεν ὅτι πεπλήρω-

ται ὁ ὅρος τῶν ἐτῶν τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ

Σατανᾶ, ἀλλὰ ἐγγίζει ἄλλα δ(ε)ινά· καὶ ὑ-

πὲρ (τ)ῶν [ἐγὼ] ἁμαρτησάντων (ἐγὼ) παρεδόθην

εἰς θάνατον ἵνα ὑποστρέψωσιν εἰς τὴν

ἀλήθειαν καὶ μηκέτι ἁμαρτήσωσιν,

ἵνα τὴν ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ πν(ευματ)ικὴν καὶ ἄ-

φθαρτον τῆς δικαιοσύνης δόξαν

κληρονομήσωσιν. ἀλλὰ πορευθέντες

This is evidently the work of a careless and unintelligent scribe, and the text here and there is evidently corrupt, but the disciples’ reply to Christ’s rebuke is clear enough, and what He said to them in resuming His address is also fairly clear. We may render the whole thus:—“And they excused themselves (Romans 2:15; 2 Corinthians 12:19), saying that this age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who, through the agency of unclean spirits, suffereth not the truth and power of God to be apprehended (Ephesians 3:18). For this cause reveal Thy righteousness now, they said to Christ. And Christ addressed them, The limit of the years of the authority of Satan has been fulfilled, but other terrors draw nigh. And for the sake of those who have sinned I was delivered over unto death, that they may return unto the truth and sin no more, that they may inherit the spiritual and incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven. But go ye into all the world, etc.”

When we had only the short extract in Jerome, Zahn was inclined to believe that it was not a gloss, but a bit of conversation handed down by tradition (Introd. to N.T. II. p. 472). The words attributed to Christ have not much resemblance to those which are preserved in the Gospels; they most probably represent what some Egyptian Christians of the second or third century thought that He might have said.


Verses 14-18

14–18. THE APPEARANCES TO THE ELEVEN

Luke 24:36-43. John 20:19-23. Cf. 1 Corinthians 15:5 f.


Verse 15

15. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς. This introductory formula intimates that there is some break between Mark 16:14 and Mark 16:15. What follows was probably said on a different occasion, perhaps a week later. Between Luke 24:43-44 there is a similar break.

Πορευθέντες. See on Mark 16:10. This is their primary duty, to go into all the world and proclaim the good tidings. Note the strong form ἅπαντα, and cf. Romans 10:18 and Revelation 14:6.

πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει. To the whole creation (R.V.). Contrast the limitation when the Apostles were first sent out, Matthew 10:5-6. Except in the phrase ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως (Mark 10:6, Mark 13:9), in which it means the creative act rather than the sum of that which is created, κτίσις is not found elsewhere in the Gospels. It is fairly freq. in Paul, esp. in Romans.


Verse 16

16. ὁ πιστεύσας. It is no longer faith in the Resurrection that is specially emphasized, as in Mark 16:11; Mark 16:13-14, but faith in the Gospel message, in Christ, the Son of God, who had died and risen again, as the Saviour of the world.

βαπτισθείς. Baptism involves profession of the necessary faith; but quisquis credidit, baptismum suscepit (Beng.), just as in the Eucharist, crede et manducasti (Aug.) holds good. Baptism is required where it may be had, and it is regarded as part of the means of salvation (Titus 3:5; cf. Galatians 3:27). See esp. 1 Peter 3:21, ὑμᾶς σώζει βάπτισμα, διʼ ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, we are saved through baptism by virtue of the Resurrection. The disciples were already accustomed to baptize (John 4:2), but their main duty was to preach, as here stated, for it is by the word of God (1 Peter 1:23) that men are saved.

σωθήσεται. In the spiritual sense. Just as faith is necessary for the healing of the body (Mark 2:5, Mark 5:34, Mark 9:23, Mark 10:52), so also it is necessary for the healing of the soul. This higher meaning of σῴζω is found Mark 8:35, Mark 10:26; also in Mark 13:13, which guards against the supposition that if one has but believed and been baptized one is safe; there must be “endurance to the end.” The meaning in Mark 13:20 is different.

ὁ δὲ ἀπιστήσας κατακριθήσεται. But he that disbelieveth shall be condemned (R.V.), condemnabitur (Vulg.). The rendering “shall be damned” is seriously misleading. Whatever may be the authority of this appendix to Mk, it gives no sanction to the damnatory clauses of the Quicunque vult. The error begins with Wiclif, and although it is corrected in the Rhemish Version, it is retained in A.V. Cf. ὁ μὴ πιστεύως ἤδη κέκριται (John 3:18), where the ἤδη and the use of κέκριται rather than κατακέκριται (a verb found in no Johannine writing) are safeguards against misinterpretation. In the case of ὁ ἀπιστήσας there was no need to say anything about baptism; that of course was rejected.


Verse 17

17. τοῖς πιστεύσασιν. The writer does not say τῷ πιστεύσαντι, nor does he add πᾶσιν. His own experience must have taught him that not each individual believer, but only some of those who believed, had these χαρίσματα ἰαμάτων (1 Corinthians 12:30); πολλὰ τοιαῦτα πολλοῖς παρηκολούθησαν ἁγίοις (Euthym.), and even that may be too strong. In any case, the promise was to the Church collectively. The writer would not have put into the mouth of Christ a prediction which everyone knew had not been fulfilled. On the other hand, both in 1 Corinthians 12:10 and Galatians 3:5, St Paul treats the possession of extraordinary powers by some of his converts as a well-known fact. Cf. John 14:12.

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου. These words are placed first with great emphasis. The power is not their own to be used for their own aggrandisement. Cf. Mark 9:38; Acts 3:6; Acts 16:18; Acts 19:13. The disciples had already exercised this power (Mark 3:15; Matthew 10:1; Luke 9:1; Luke 10:17). Justin repeatedly testifies that in his day the power of thus exorcizing demons was possessed by Christians, who were more successful with the Name of Jesus Christ than Jews were with the Name of the God of Abraham (Try. 30, 85, Apol. ii. 8). Tertullian bears similar testimony (Apol. 23, Ad Scap. 2, 4). Origen says, “We ourselves, by the use or prayers and other means which we learn from Scripture, drive demons out of the souls of men” (Cels. vii. 67). Soon there arose the idea that the mere uttering of the Name of Jesus had a magical effect, which cannot have been Christ’s meaning. The exact meaning of “in My Name” depends upon the context; e.g. “by My authority and power,” “in My character,” “as My representative.” Cf. John 14:13; John 15:16; John 16:24; John 16:26.

γλώσσαις λαλήσουσιν. Cf. Acts 2:4; Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 14:5 f. Irenaeus states that this continued in his day (5. 6. 1), as well as the driving out of demons (II. xxxii. 4). Thus far all that is mentioned in this summary of what Christ promised to the disciples is confirmed by statements in N.T. as well as by other evidence. In the next verse elements which seem to be akin to legend are mingled with well-attested facts.


Verse 18

18. ὄφεις ἀροῦσιν. Christ’s words to the Seventy (Luke 10:19), which mean that they will triumph over fraud and treachery (cf. Psalms 91:13), would easily be understood literally, and what is said here may be an inference from that, or from what happened to St Paul at Malta (Acts 28:3-6). There is no need to think of Moses’ rod or the brazen serpent. Even if ἐν ταῖς χερσίν be omitted (see crit. note), “take up in their hands” must be the meaning. “Remove” or “drive away” (Luther, vertreiben), as in 1 Corinthians 5:2, or “kill” (Euthym., Theoph., ἀφανίζειν), as in Luke 23:18; John 19:15; Acts 21:36, is certainly not the meaning. The extermination of snakes is not regarded as a special work of believers. The writer thinks of them as miraculously preserved from the bite of venomous creatures.

θανάσιμόν τι πίωσιν. The famous legend about St John drinking hemlock without being harmed (Hastings’ D.B. II. p. 682 a) may have grown out of this verse or Mark 10:39. Eusebius (H. E. iii. 39) quotes from Papias a similar story about Justus Barsabbas, and there are many such. Nowhere else in Bibl. Grk is θανάσιμος found; in class. Grk it means “near death” of persons and “deadly” of things. The narrator understands the words literally in each case. He is not thinking of spiritual serpents or spiritual poisons. The cessation of the power of serpents and poisons and wild beasts is often given as a feature of the Golden Age (Isaiah 11:8-9, Isaiah 35:9, Isaiah 65:25; Ezekiel 34:25; Job 5:22-23; Hosea 2:18). Virgil has the same idea (Ecl. iv. 24, viii. 71, Geor. ii. 152).

χεῖρας ἐπιθήσουσιν. The hands which can take up serpents with impunity can heal the diseases of their fellows. Christ Himself used this method of healing, and the Apostles did so also (Mark 6:5; Acts 9:12; Acts 9:17; Acts 28:8). It is remarkable that anointing with oil (Mark 6:13; James 5:14) is not mentioned. It is perhaps accidental, but the order in which the signs are placed runs thus; casting out demons (time of Christ); speaking with tongues (Apostolic Age); taking up snakes and drinking poison (Growth of Legend); healing by laying on of hands (all ages). Contrast Matthew 28:20.

καλῶς ἕξουσιν. The expression is classical, but is not found elsewhere in N.T., but κακῶς ἔχοντες is not rare (Mark 1:32; Mark 1:34, Mark 2:17, Mark 6:55).


Verse 19

19. Ὁ μὲν οὖν κύριος. The οὖν (rare in Mk) refers to what precedes, the μέν (also rare in Mk) anticipates the δέ in Mark 16:20. The Lord did one thing, those whom He had addressed did another.

ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς. In Luke 24:3 this combination is possibly a very early interpolation; it is freq. in Acts and Epistles, but is found nowhere else in the Gospels. Even if we omit Ἰησοῦς we have an expression which is not found in Mk or Mt., but is coming into use in Lk. and Jn. The use in Mark 11:3 is different.

μετὰ τὸ λαλῆσαι αὐτοῖς. This need not be confined to the condensed summary of Christ’s farewell addresses given in Mark 16:15-17. It may mean “After all His communications with them.”

ἀνελήμφθη. Cf. Acts 1:2; Acts 1:11; Acts 1:22 and 1 Timothy 3:16, where the same verb is used; also Acts 1:9, where ἐπαρθῆναι also regards the Ascension from the side of the Divine power rather than that of Christ’s own will and act. But the latter is also recognized; ἀναβαίνω, John 6:62; John 20:17 (bis), Ephesians 4:8; πορεύομαι, 1 Peter 3:22; διέρχομαι, Hebrews 4:14. As we might Suppose it is the former view that is taken of Elijah; he “was taken up” (2 Kings 2:11; Sirach 48:9; 1 Maccabees 2:58). In the Greek Church the regular name is ἡ Ἀνάληψις, i.e. the Assumption rather than the Ascension.

ἐκάθισεν ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ. A highly metaphorical phrase to indicate the transcendent glory of the Ascended Lord. In this glory He was revealed to the dying Stephen, not, however, sitting to rule and judge, but standing to succour and save (Acts 7:55-56). The sitting is mentioned Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 12:2. This session at God’s right hand signifies permanence, rest, and dominion,—in glory, majesty, and felicity (Psalms 110:1)—after the toils, humiliations, and sufferings of life upon earth. Τὸ μὲν καθίσαι δηλοῖ ἀνάπαυσιν καὶ ἀπόλαυσιν τῆς θείας βασιλείας· τὸ δὲ ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ οἰκείωσιν καὶ ὁμοτιμίαν πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα (Euthym.). Excepting Mark 16:5, the regular phrase in Gospels and Acts is ἐκ δεξιῶν (Mark 10:37; Mark 10:40, Mark 12:36, etc.), but in the Epistles ἐν δεξιᾷ, which [3593][3594] have here, prevails. Pearson, On the Creed, Art. VI. 275 f., gives many quotations to illustrate the metaphor.


Verse 19-20

19, 20. THE ASCENSION OF THE LORD AND HIS COOPERATION WITH HIS DISCIPLES

Luke 24:50-53. Acts 1:9 f


Verse 20

20. ἐκεῖνοι δέ. The Apostles and their colleagues in the ministry of the word; cf. Mark 16:10-11; Mark 16:13.

ἐξελθόντες. This shows how condensed this summary of Apostolic labour is. Much took place before there was a Church at Jerusalem which could send out missionaries to preach everywhere.

συνεργοῦντος. The verb is found nowhere in the Gospels, and it is used nowhere in the N.T. of Christ cooperating. In Romans 8:28 it is used of the cooperation of God, if ὁ θεός is the right reading. In the Testaments we have ὁ θεὸς συνεργεῖ τῇ ἁπλότητί μου (Issach. Mark 3:7; Gad Mark 4:7).

βεβαιοῦντος. Confirming. The verb is not found elsewhere in any of the Gospels, but it is often used of confirming a bargain. Deissmann, Bib. St. p. 109.

ἐπακολουθούντων. This verb also is not found in the Gospels. The ἐπί indicates the direction of the attesting signs; see on 1 Timothy 5:10 and cf. 1 Peter 2:21. In papyri, ἐπηκολούθηκα is found in accounts in the sense of “verified.” That may be the meaning here; “signs which authenticated the word” (G. Milligan, N.T. Documents, p. 78). Perhaps the best comment on the verse is Hebrews 2:4, a passage which “is of deep interest as shewing the unquestioned reality of miraculous gifts in the early Church; and the way in which they were regarded as coordinate with other exhibitions of divine power” (Westcott).

APPENDIX

ADDITIONAL NOTE ON Mark 16:14

The now well-known interpolation in this verse was known to Jerome, who says that it existed in “some copies and especially Greek MSS.” (Dial. c. Pelag. ii. 15), and he quotes a portion of the reply put into the mouths of the Apostles. His quotation runs thus: Et illi satisfaciebant dicentes; Saeculum istud iniquitatis et incredulitatis sub Satana est, qui non sinit per immundos spiritus veram Dei apprehendi virtutem. Idcirco jam nunc revela justitiam tuam. Instead of sub Satana est qui some MSS. have substantia est quae, which yields very poor sense and is now known to be certainly wrong. For in 1907 Mr C. L. Freer bought in Cairo a very interesting MS. of the Four Gospels in Greek, and the text of Mk contains the whole of the interpolation of which Jerome has given part in a Latin translation. This Greek MS. is believed to be of the fifth or sixth century; indeed some critics have thought that it may be of the fourth. The order of the Gospels is that of [3595][3596] and the old Latin MSS., viz. Mt., Jn, Lk., Mk, and the MS. (or that from which it was copied) seems to have been made from different texts. The text of Jn is superior to that of Mt. In Jn it generally agrees with [3597] in Mt. generally with the later official or Byzantine text. In Lk. down to Mark 8:12 it agrees mainly with [3598] and for the rest of the Gospel mainly with the later text. These features, however, do not greatly concern us. In Mk the text varies, but it has one or two unique readings. In Mark 1:27 it has “What is this new, this authoritative teaching, and that He commandeth even the unclean spirits and they obey Him?” In Mark 9:24 it has “the spirit of the child” instead of “the father of the child.” But for us the most interesting feature is that it contains the appendix to Mk (Mark 16:9-20) and after Mark 16:14 has the interpolation in question. The text of it runs thus:—

κἀκεῖνοι ἀπελογοῦντ(ο) λέγοντες ὅτι ὁ

αἰὼν οὗτος τῆς ἀνομίας καὶ τῆς ἀπιστίας

ὑπὸ τὸν Σατανᾶν ἐστιν ὁ μὴ ἐῶν τὰ ὑπὸ

τῶν πνε(υμ)άτων ἀκάθαρτα τὴν ἀλήθειαν

τοῦ θ(εο)ῦ καταλαβέσθαι (καὶ) δύναμιν. διὰ

τοῦτο ἀποκάλυψον σοῦ τὴν δικαιοσύ-

νην ἤδη, ἐκεῖνοι ἔλεγον τῷ Χ(ριστ)ῷ καὶ ὁ

Χ(ριστὸ)ς ἐκείνοις προσέλεγεν ὅτι πεπλήρω-

ται ὁ ὅρος τῶν ἐτῶν τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ

Σατανᾶ, ἀλλὰ ἐγγίζει ἄλλα δ(ε)ινά· καὶ ὑ-

πὲρ (τ)ῶν [ἐγὼ] ἁμαρτησάντων (ἐγὼ) παρεδόθην

εἰς θάνατον ἵνα ὑποστρέψωσιν εἰς τὴν

ἀλήθειαν καὶ μηκέτι ἁμαρτήσωσιν,

ἵνα τὴν ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ πν(ευματ)ικὴν καὶ ἄ-

φθαρτον τῆς δικαιοσύνης δόξαν

κληρονομήσωσιν. ἀλλὰ πορευθέντες

This is evidently the work of a careless and unintelligent scribe, and the text here and there is evidently corrupt, but the disciples’ reply to Christ’s rebuke is clear enough, and what He said to them in resuming His address is also fairly clear. We may render the whole thus:—“And they excused themselves (Romans 2:15; 2 Corinthians 12:19), saying that this age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who, through the agency of unclean spirits, suffereth not the truth and power of God to be apprehended (Ephesians 3:18). For this cause reveal Thy righteousness now, they said to Christ. And Christ addressed them, The limit of the years of the authority of Satan has been fulfilled, but other terrors draw nigh. And for the sake of those who have sinned I was delivered over unto death, that they may return unto the truth and sin no more, that they may inherit the spiritual and incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven. But go ye into all the world, etc.”

When we had only the short extract in Jerome, Zahn was inclined to believe that it was not a gloss, but a bit of conversation handed down by tradition (Introd. to N.T. II. p. 472). The words attributed to Christ have not much resemblance to those which are preserved in the Gospels; they most probably represent what some Egyptian Christians of the second or third century thought that He might have said.

INDEX

II. GREEK

ἀγαθοποιέω, Mark 3:4

ἀγαθός, Mark 10:17-18

ἀγαπάω, Mark 10:21; Mark 12:30-31

ἀγαπητός, Mark 1:11, Mark 9:7, Mark 12:6

ἄγγελος, Mark 1:13, Mark 8:38, Mark 12:25, Mark 13:27

ἅγιος, Mark 1:24, Mark 6:20

ἀγνοέω, Mark 9:32

ἀγορά, Mark 6:56, Mark 7:4

ἀγοράζω, Mark 6:37

ἀγρός, Mark 5:14, Mark 6:36, Mark 11:8, Mark 13:16, Mark 15:21

ἀγρυπνέω, Mark 13:33

ἄγω, Mark 1:38

ἀδελφή, Mark 3:35, Mark 6:3

ἀδελφός, Mark 3:35, Mark 6:3, Mark 12:19, Mark 12:12

ἀδημονέω, Mark 14:33

ἄζυμος, Mark 14:1

ἀθετέω, Mark 6:26

αἷνα, Mark 5:25, Mark 14:24

αἴρω, Mark 2:3; Mark 2:12; Mark 2:21, Mark 4:15, Mark 6:43, Mark 8:34, Mark 15:21

αἰτέω, Mark 6:22; Mark 6:24, Mark 10:38, Mark 11:24

αἰτία, Mark 15:26

αἰών, Mark 3:29, Mark 4:19, Mark 10:30

αἰώνιος, Mark 3:29, Mark 10:17

ἄκανθα, Mark 4:7

ἀκάνθινος, Mark 15:17

ἀκοή, Mark 1:28, Mark 13:7

ἀκολουθέω, Mark 2:14, Mark 3:7, Mark 5:24, Mark 9:38, Mark 10:21; Mark 10:28; Mark 10:52

ἀκούω, Mark 2:1, Mark 3:8, Mark 4:3; Mark 4:9; Mark 4:15, Mark 6:11; Mark 6:14; Mark 6:20, Mark 7:25

ἀκρίς, Mark 1:6

ἄκρον, Mark 13:27

ἀκυρόω, Mark 7:13

ἀλάβαστρος, Mark 14:3

ἅλας, Mark 9:50

ἁλεεύς, Mark 1:17

ἁλείφω, Mark 6:13, Mark 16:1

ἀλέκτωρ, Mark 14:30; Mark 14:72

ἀλήθεια, Mark 5:33, Mark 12:14; Mark 12:32

ἀληθής, Mark 12:14

ἀληθῶς, Mark 14:70, Mark 15:39

ἀλλά, Mark 2:17; Mark 2:22, Mark 3:29, Mark 4:22, Mark 6:9, Mark 7:19, Mark 9:37, Mark 10:40

ἀλλήλων, Mark 4:41, Mark 15:31

ἄλλος, Mark 4:18; Mark 4:36, Mark 6:15

ἅλυσις, Mark 5:3

ἁμαρτία, Mark 1:4, Mark 2:5

ἁμαρτωλός, Mark 2:15

ἀμήν, Mark 3:28, Mark 10:15, Mark 12:43, Mark 13:30, Mark 14:18

ἄμπελος, Mark 14:25

ἀμπελών, Mark 12:1

ἀναβαίνω, Mark 4:7, Mark 6:51, Mark 10:32

ἀναβλέπω, Mark 6:41, Mark 7:34, Mark 8:24, Mark 10:51

ἀναγινώσκω, Mark 2:25, Mark 12:10; Mark 12:26, Mark 13:14

ἀναγκάζω, Mark 6:45

ἀναθεματίζω, Mark 14:71

ἀνάκειμαι, Mark 14:18

ἀνακλίνω, Mark 6:39

ἀνακράζω, Mark 1:23

[3610][3611]ἀνακυλίω, Mark 16:4

ἀναλαμβάνω, Mark 16:19

ἄναλος, Mark 9:50

ἀναμιμνήσκω, Mark 11:21

ἀναπαύω, Mark 14:41

ἀνασείω, Mark 15:11

ἀνάστασις, Mark 12:18

ἀναστενάζω, Mark 8:12

ἀνατέλλω, Mark 4:5, Mark 16:2

ἀναφέρω, Mark 9:2

ἀναχωρέω, Mark 3:7

ἄνεμος, Mark 13:27

ἀνήρ, Mark 6:44

ἄνθρωπος, Mark 1:17, Mark 2:27, Mark 4:26, Mark 7:7, Mark 8:24, Mark 14:21

ἀντάλλαγμα, Mark 8:37

ἀντί, Mark 10:45

ἀπαγγέλλω, Mark 5:19

ἀπαίρομαι, Mark 2:20

ἀπαντάω, Mark 14:13

ἀπαρνέομαι, Mark 8:34, Mark 14:30

ἅπας, Mark 11:32, Mark 16:15

ἀπάτη, Mark 4:19

ἀπέρχομαι, Mark 1:42, Mark 5:24, Mark 6:32, Mark 7:24

ἀπέχω, Mark 14:41

ἀπιστέω, Mark 16:16

ἀπιστία, Mark 9:24, Mark 16:14

ἄπιστος, Mark 9:19

ἀπὸ μακρόθεν, Mark 5:6, Mark 8:3

ἀποβάλλω, Mark 10:50

ἀποδημέω, Mark 12:1

ἀποδίδωμι, Mark 12:17

ἀποδοκιμάζω, Mark 8:31, Mark 12:10

ἀποθνήσκω, Mark 5:35; Mark 5:39, Mark 12:20

ἀποκαθιστάνω, Mark 3:5, Mark 9:12

ἀποκεφαλίζω, Mark 6:16

ἀποκρίνομαι, Mark 3:33, Mark 7:28, Mark 8:29, Mark 9:5, Mark 10:3; Mark 10:51, Mark 11:14, Mark 12:28, Mark 14:48

ἀπολαμβάνω, Mark 7:33

ἀπόλλυμι, Mark 1:24, Mark 8:35, Mark 12:9

ἀπολύω, Mark 6:36; Mark 6:45, Mark 8:3, Mark 15:6; Mark 15:15

ἀποπλανάω, Mark 13:22

ἀπορέω, Mark 6:20

ἀποστάσιον, Mark 10:4

ἀποστέλλω, Mark 3:14, Mark 4:29, Mark 6:7; Mark 6:27, Mark 11:1; Mark 11:3, Mark 12:3; Mark 12:13, Mark 13:27, Mark 14:13

ἀποστερέω, Mark 10:19

ἀπόστολος, Mark 3:14, Mark 4:30

ἀποτάσσομαι, Mark 6:46

ἅπτομαι, Mark 5:30

ἀπώλεια, Mark 14:4

ἄρα, Mark 11:13

ἄρτοι τῆς προθέσεως, Mark 2:26

ἄρτον φαγεῖν, Mark 7:2

ἄρτος, Mark 6:8; Mark 6:38

ἀρτύω, Mark 9:50

ἀρχή, Mark 1:1, Mark 10:6

ἀρχιερεύς, Mark 2:26, Mark 8:31, Mark 11:18; Mark 11:27, Mark 15:31

ἀρχισυνάγωγος, Mark 5:22; Mark 5:35

ἄρχομαι, Mark 1:45, Mark 4:1, Mark 10:47, Mark 11:15, Mark 13:5, Mark 14:19

ἄρχω, Mark 10:42

ἄρχων τῶν δαιμονίων ὁ, Mark 3:22

ἄρωμα, Mark 16:1

ἄσβεστος, Mark 9:43

ἀσέλγεια, Mark 7:22

ἄσκος, Mark 2:22

ἀσπασμός, Mark 12:38

ἀσφαλῶς, Mark 14:44

ἄτιμος, Mark 6:4

αὐλή, Mark 14:54; Mark 14:66, Mark 15:16

αὐτόματος, Mark 4:28

αὐτός, Mark 3:13, Mark 4:28; Mark 4:38, Mark 6:17; Mark 6:45, Mark 14:15

ἀφαιρέω, Mark 14:47

ἄφεσις, Mark 1:4, Mark 3:29

ἀφίημι, Mark 1:18, Mark 2:5, Mark 4:36, Mark 5:37, Mark 7:12; Mark 7:27, Mark 10:14; Mark 10:28, Mark 11:6; Mark 11:25, Mark 12:12; Mark 12:19, Mark 13:34, Mark 14:6

ἀφροσύνη, Mark 7:22

βάλλω, Mark 2:22, Mark 4:26, Mark 9:42, Mark 11:23, Mark 12:41

βαπτίζω, Mark 1:4-5; Mark 1:8, Mark 16:16

βάπτισμα, Mark 1:4, Mark 10:38, Mark 11:30

βαπτιστής, Mark 6:25, Mark 8:28

βασανίζω, Mark 5:7, Mark 6:48

βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ, , Mark 1:15, Mark 9:1; Mark 9:47, Mark 10:15, Mark 14:25

βασιλεύς, Mark 6:14

βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, , Mark 15:2; Mark 15:9; Mark 15:18

βασιλεὺς Ἰσραήλ, , Mark 15:32

βάτος, Mark 12:26

βδέλυγμα, Mark 13:14

βεβαιοῦν, Mark 16:20

Βεελζεβούλ, Mark 3:22

βιβλίον ἀποστασίου, Mark 10:4

βίος, Mark 12:44

βλαστάνω, Mark 4:27

βλασφημέω, Mark 2:7, Mark 3:28-29, Mark 15:29

βλασφημία, Mark 7:22, Mark 14:64

βλέπω, Mark 4:12; Mark 4:24, Mark 8:15; Mark 8:23-24, Mark 12:14; Mark 12:38, Mark 13:2; Mark 13:5; Mark 13:33

Βοανηργές, Mark 3:17

βουλευτής, Mark 15:43

βρώματα, Mark 7:19

γαζυφολάκιον, Mark 12:41

γαλήνη, Mark 4:39

Γαλιλαία, Mark 1:14; Mark 1:28

Γαλιλαίας, ἡ θάλασσα τῆς, Mark 1:16

γαμίζομαι, Mark 12:25

γέεννα, Mark 9:43

Γεθσημανεί, Mark 14:32

γεμίζω, Mark 4:37

γενεὰ αὕτη, , Mark 8:12, Mark 13:30

γενέσια, Mark 6:21

γένημα, Mark 14:25

Γεννησαρέτ, Mark 6:53

Γερασηνός, Mark 5:1

γεύομαι, Mark 9:1

γεωργός, Mark 12:1

γίνομαι, Mark 1:4; Mark 1:9; Mark 1:11; Mark 1:17, Mark 4:11, Mark 5:14, Mark 6:35

γινώσκω, Mark 4:13, Mark 6:38, Mark 7:24, Mark 12:12, Mark 13:29

γέγραπται, Mark 1:2, Mark 7:6, Mark 9:12, Mark 14:21

Γολγοθά, Mark 15:22

γραμματεῖς, Mark 1:22, Mark 2:16, Mark 3:22, Mark 9:14, Mark 11:18, Mark 12:28

γραφή, Mark 12:10

γρηγορέω, Mark 13:34

δαιμονίζομαι, Mark 1:32, Mark 5:15; Mark 5:18

δαιμονίων, ὁ ἄρχων τῶν, Mark 3:22

δεῖ, Mark 8:31; Mark 13:7; Mark 13:10; Mark 13:14

δειλός, Mark 4:40

δέρω, Mark 12:3

δεῦτε, Mark 1:17, Mark 12:7

δέχομαι, Mark 9:37

διὰ παντός, Mark 5:5

διʼ ἡμερῶν, Mark 2:1

διαγίνομαι, Mark 16:1

διαθήκη, Mark 14:24

διακρίνομαι, Mark 11:23

διαλογίζομαι, Mark 9:33, Mark 11:31

διαλογισμός, Mark 7:21

διάνοια, Mark 12:30

διανοίγω, Mark 7:34

διαπεράω, Mark 5:21, Mark 6:53

διαστέλλομαι, Mark 5:43, Mark 7:36, Mark 8:15

διδασκαλία, Mark 7:7

διδάσκαλος, Mark 4:38, Mark 9:17; Mark 9:38, Mark 10:17

διδαχή, Mark 4:2; Mark 12:38

διεγείρομαι, Mark 4:39

διέρχομαι, Mark 4:35

διηγέομαι, Mark 5:16

δίκαιος, Mark 6:20

δοκέω, Mark 10:42

δόλος, Mark 7:22

δοῦλος, Mark 12:2, Mark 13:34

δύναμις, Mark 6:5; Mark 6:14, Mark 9:1, Mark 13:25

δύναμαι, Mark 1:40

δυνατός, Mark 9:23, Mark 10:27

δύσκολος, Mark 10:24

δώδεκα, οἱ, Mark 6:7, Mark 9:35

δῶμα, Mark 13:15

δωρέομαι, Mark 15:45

ἐάν, Mark 5:28, Mark 14:9

ἐαυτῶν, Mark 13:9

ἐγείρω, Mark 2:11-12, Mark 3:3, Mark 6:14, Mark 13:8

ἐγκαταλείπω, Mark 15:34

ἔθνος, Mark 11:17, Mark 13:10

εἰρηνεύω, Mark 9:50

εἰρήνην, ὕπαγε εἰς, Mark 5:34

εἷς κατὰ εἷς, Mark 14:19

ἐκβάλλω, Mark 1:12; Mark 1:43, Mark 5:40

ἐκδίδομαι, Mark 12:1

ἐκεῖνος, Mark 12:7, Mark 14:21

ἐκλύομαι, Mark 8:3

[3629][3630]ἐκπερισσῶς, Mark 14:31

ἐκπλήσσομαι, Mark 1:22, Mark 6:2, Mark 10:26

ἔκστασις, Mark 5:42, Mark 16:8

ἔκφοβος, Mark 9:6

ἐκφύω, Mark 13:28

ἐλαιών, Mark 11:1

ἐλωεί, Mark 15:34

ἐμβλέπω, Mark 10:21, Mark 14:67

ἐμβριμάομαι, Mark 1:43, Mark 14:5

ἐμπαίζω, Mark 10:34

ἐμπτύω, Mark 14:65

ἐνεργέω, Mark 6:14

ἐνέχω, Mark 6:19

[3635][3636]ἔννυχα, Mark 1:35

ἔνοχος, Mark 3:29, Mark 14:64

ἔνταλμα, Mark 7:7

ἐντρέπομαι, Mark 12:6

ἐξάπινα, Mark 9:8

ἔξεστιν, Mark 2:26

ἐξίστημι, Mark 2:12, Mark 3:21

ἐξομολογέω, Mark 1:5

ἐξορύσσω, Mark 2:4

ἐξουσία, Mark 1:22, Mark 2:10, Mark 3:15, Mark 11:28

ἔξω, οἱ, Mark 4:11

ἐπακολουθέω, Mark 16:20

ἐπανίστημι, Mark 13:12

ἐπερωτάω, Mark 5:9

ἐπιβάλλω, Mark 4:37, Mark 14:46

ἐπιβαλὼν ἔκλαιεν, Mark 14:72

ἐπγινώσκω, Mark 2:8, Mark 5:30, Mark 6:54

ἐπιλαμβάνω, Mark 8:23

ἐπιλύω, Mark 4:34

[3640][3641]ἐπιράπτω, Mark 2:21

ἐπισκιάζω, Mark 9:7

ἐπίσταμαι, Mark 14:68

ἐπισυνάγω, Mark 1:33

ἐπιτιμάω, Mark 1:25

ἐρωτάω, Mark 4:10

ἐσχάτως, Mark 5:23

εὐαγγέλιον, Mark 1:1; Mark 1:14-15

εὐδοκέω, Mark 1:11

εὐθύς, Mark 1:10; Mark 1:12; Mark 1:18; Mark 1:20-21

εὐκοπώτερον, Mark 2:9, Mark 10:25

εὐλογέω, Mark 6:41, Mark 11:9-10, Mark 14:22

εὐλογητός, Mark 14:61

εὐσχήμων, Mark 15:43

εὐχαριστέω, Mark 8:6, Mark 14:23

εὐώνυμος, Mark 10:40

[3643][3644]ἐφφαθά, Mark 7:34

ζύμη, Mark 8:15

ζωὴ αἰώνιος, Mark 10:17

ἡμέρα ἐκείνη, Mark 13:32

θάλασσα, Mark 1:16, Mark 6:48

θαρσέω, Mark 6:50

θεωρέω, Mark 5:38

[3647][3648]θυγάτριον, Mark 5:23, Mark 7:25

θυρωρός, Mark 13:34

θύω, Mark 14:12

ἱερόν, Mark 11:11

Ἰεροσόλυμα, Mark 10:32

ἱμάτιον, Mark 5:28, Mark 10:50, Mark 11:7, Mark 13:16, Mark 15:24

ἰσχύω, Mark 5:4, Mark 9:18, Mark 14:37

ἰχθύδιον, Mark 8:7

κάθημαι, Mark 2:6

καθώς, Mark 1:2, Mark 4:33, Mark 14:16

καινός, Mark 1:27, Mark 2:22

καιρός, Mark 1:15

κακολογέω, Mark 7:10

καλῶς, Mark 7:6; Mark 7:9, Mark 12:32

κάμηλος, Mark 10:25

καταγελάω, Mark 5:40

κατάκειμαι, Mark 2:15

κατακλάω, Mark 6:41

κατακυριεύω, Mark 10:42

καταλείπω, Mark 14:52

κατάλυμα, Mark 14:14

καταρτίζω, Mark 1:19

καταφιλέω, Mark 14:45

κληρονομέω, Mark 10:17

κλίνη, Mark 4:21

κοδράντης, Mark 12:42

κοινός, Mark 7:2

κολαφίζω, Mark 14:65

κολοβόω, Mark 13:20

κόπος, Mark 14:6

[3657][3658]κούμ, Mark 5:41

κόφινος, Mark 6:43, Mark 8:19

κράβαττος, Mark 2:4

κρατέω, Mark 1:31, Mark 3:21

κτίσις, Mark 10:6

κυλλός, Mark 9:43

κυνάριον, Mark 7:27

κύριος, Mark 5:19

λαῖλαψ, Mark 4:37

λεπτόν, Mark 12:42

λῃστής, Mark 11:17

λίθος, Mark 12:10, Mark 16:4

λόγος, Mark 2:2, Mark 4:14

λοιπός, Mark 4:19

λύτρον, Mark 10:45

λύχνος, Mark 4:21

μᾶλλον, Mark 7:36

μάστιξ, Mark 3:10

μάχαιρα, Mark 14:47

μεγιστᾶνες, Mark 6:21

μέλλω, Mark 10:32

μέριμνα, Mark 4:19

μεταμορφόω, Mark 9:2

μετάνοια, Mark 1:4

μηδέ, Mark 3:20, Mark 8:26

μήτι, Mark 4:21

μικρός, Mark 15:40

μόδιος, Mark 4:21

μοιχαλίς, Mark 8:38

μύρον, Mark 14:3

μυστήριον, Mark 4:11

νέος, Mark 2:22

νίπτομαι, Mark 7:3

[3665][3666]νουνεχῶς, Mark 12:34

νυμφών, Mark 2:19

ξηραίνομαι, Mark 9:18

ὁλοκαύτωμα, Mark 12:33

ὀνειδίζω, Mark 15:32, Mark 16:14

ὄξος, Mark 15:36

ὀπίσω, Mark 8:33

ὁρκίζω, Mark 5:7

ὅσος, Mark 3:8

ὅστις, Mark 4:20, Mark 12:18

ὅταν, Mark 3:11, Mark 11:19; Mark 11:25

οὐᾶ, Mark 15:29

οὐαί, Mark 13:17, Mark 14:21

ὄχλος, Mark 2:4

πάντοτε, Mark 14:7

παραβολή, Mark 3:23, Mark 4:30

παράγω, Mark 1:16

παραδίδωμι, Mark 1:14, Mark 4:29, Mark 9:31

παράδοσις, Mark 7:3

παραλαμβάνω, Mark 4:36, Mark 5:40

παράπτωμα, Mark 11:25

παρασκευή, Mark 15:42

παρατηρέω, Mark 3:2

[3670][3671]παρόμοιος, Mark 7:13

παρρμησία, Mark 8:32

πεζῇ, Mark 6:33

πειράζω, Mark 1:12

πενθερά, Mark 1:30

περιβλέπομαι, Mark 3:5

περίλυπος, Mark 6:26, Mark 14:34

πετρώδης, Mark 4:5

πίναξ, Mark 6:25

πλανάω, Mark 13:5

πλεονεξία, Mark 7:22

πορνεία, Mark 10:12

πορφύρα, Mark 15:17

[3675][3676]προαύλιον, Mark 14:68

πρόθεσις, Mark 2:26

[3677][3678]προμεριμνάω, Mark 13:11

προσκαρτερέω, Mark 3:9

[3681][3682]προσορμίζομαι, Mark 6:53

πρωτοκαθεδρία, Mark 12:39

πρωτοκλισία, Mark 12:39

πτῶμα, Mark 6:29, Mark 15:45

πώρωσις, Mark 3:5

ῥάπισμα, Mark 14:65

σάββατον, σάββατα, Mark 1:21

σανδάλιον, Mark 6:9

σάρξ, Mark 13:20, Mark 14:38

σημεῖον, Mark 13:22

σίναπι, Mark 4:31

σινδών, Mark 14:51, Mark 15:46

σπεῖρα, Mark 15:16

[3689][3690]σπεκουλάτωρ, Mark 6:27

στιβάς, Mark 11:8

στολή, Mark 12:38

σχίζω, Mark 1:10, Mark 15:38

τέκνον, Mark 2:5

τέκτων, Mark 6:3

[3699][3700]τηλαυγῶς, Mark 8:25

τοιοῦτος, Mark 9:37, Mark 10:14

τολμάω, Mark 15:43

τρύβλιον, Mark 14:20

[3706][3707]ὑπερπερισσῶς, Mark 7:37

ὕψιστος, Mark 5:7, Mark 11:10

φάντασμα, Mark 6:49

φιμόω, Mark 1:25

φραγμός, Mark 12:1

φρονέω, Mark 8:33

φῶς, Mark 14:54

χειμών, Mark 13:18

χιλίαρχος, Mark 6:21

χιτών, Mark 6:9, Mark 14:63

χορτάζω, Mark 6:42

χωρίον, Mark 14:32

ψυχή, Mark 3:4, Mark 8:35, Mark 10:45, Mark 12:30

ὠδίν, Mark 13:8

*ὠτάριον, Mark 14:47

 


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Bibliography Information
"Commentary on Mark 16:4". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/mark-16.html. 1896.

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