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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

1 Kings Overview

 

 


STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

Using a Theme-based Approach

to Identify Literary Structures

By Gary H. Everett

THE BOOKS OF 1AND 2KINGS

January 2013Edition

All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.

All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed, Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c 1925, morphology c 1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c 1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong"s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author's daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.

Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.

Foundational Theme - How to Serve the Lord with All Our Strength

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:

And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart,

and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.

Deuteronomy 6:4-5

Structural Theme - The Glorification and Decline of the David Lineage

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOKS OF 1AND 2KINGS

Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

Introductory Material- The introduction to the books of 1,2Kings will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework. 1] These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God's message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.

1] Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel's well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalm: (1) "a common setting in life," (2) "thoughts and mood," (3) "literary forms." In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses "Form/Structure/Setting" preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).

HISTORICAL SETTING

"We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture

if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible."

(J. Hampton Keathley) 2]

2] J. Hampton Keathley, III, "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah," (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the books of 1,2Kings will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Jeremiah the prophet was the most likely author of the books of 1,2Kings.

I. The Title

There are a number of ancient titles associated with the books of 1,2Kings.

A. The Ancient Jewish Title "Kings" - In the earliest Hebrew canon and in the Masoretic Text, 1,2Samuel form a single book called "Samuel" ( שמואל), and 1,2Kings form a single book called "Kings" ( מלכים). Origen (c 185 - c 254) says the book of Kings carried a modified title "The Kingdom of David" by the Jews in his day. 3] Jerome (A.D 342to 420) was familiar with this title as "Kings." 4] Scholars tell us that in the sixteenth century Daniel Bomberg (d 1549), a printer of Hebrew books, introduced the divisions of the books of Samuel and Kings into 1,2Samuel, 1,2Kings in the first publication of his Rabbinic Hebrew bible in Venice in 1516. 5] Thus, the Hebrew titles ( א מלכים) (1Kings) and ( ב מלכים) (2Kings) can be found in the modern, standard work Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 6]

3] Eusebius, the early Church historian, writes, "the First and Second of Kings, among them one, Samouel, that Isaiah , ‘The called of God'; the Third and Fourth of Kings in one, Wammelch David, that Isaiah , ‘The kingdom of David'; of the Chronicles, the First and Second in one, Dabreiamein, that Isaiah , ‘Records of days';" Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6251-2, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 272-3.

4] Jerome says, "Then comes Samuel, which we call First and Second Kings. The fourth is Malachim, that Isaiah , Kings, which is contained in the third and fourth volumes of Kings. And it is far better to say Malachim, that is Kings, than Malachoth, that is Kingdoms. For the author does not describe the Kingdoms of many nations, but that of one people, the people of Israel, which is comprised in the twelve tribes." See Jerome, "Prefaces to the Books of the Vulgate Version of the Old Testament: The Books of Samuel and Kings," trans. W. H. Freemantle, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol 6, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1893), 489-90.

5] C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Books of Samuel, in Clark's Foreign Theological Library, fourth series, vol 9, trans. James Martin (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1880), 1; Henry Preserved Smith, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel, in The International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh: T & T. Clark, c 1899, 1951), xi.

6] Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, eds. A. Alt, O. Eifelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c 1967-77).

B. The Ancient LXX Title "1,2Kingdoms" - Swete says the divisions of the Hebrew books of Samuel and Kings originated in the LXX , which divided them into four books, and collected them under one general title called "Books of the Kingdoms" ( βίβλοι βασιλειῶν). KD explains that the "Kingdoms" refer to the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. 7] Melito, bishop of Sardis (d. c 190), 8] Origen, and Jerome knew these four books by the Greek title "1, 2, 3, 4Kings." The Latin Vulgate followed the LXX with these four books collected under the general title "Liber Regnorum," with Jerome modifying the title to "Liber Regum." 9] They understood these two books contained the history of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah from their founding unto their demise.

7] C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Books of Samuel, in Clark's Foreign Theological Library, fourth series, vol 9, trans. James Martin (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1880), 1.

8] Eusebius writes, "‘I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis ,, Exodus ,, Numbers ,, Leviticus , Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges , Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalm of David; the Proverbs of Song of Solomon , Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes ,, Song of Solomon , Job; of Prophets, Isaiah , Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book; Daniel ,, Ezekiel , Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books.' Such are the words of Melito." Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 42614, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff, (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 206.

9] Biblia Sacra juxta Vulgatam Clementinam (Ed. electronica), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc, 2005); David Erdmann, The Books of Samuel, trans. C. H. Toy and John A. Broadus, in A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, vol 5, ed. John Lange (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1877), 2; A. F. Kirkpatrick, The First Book of Samuel, in The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, ed. J. J. J. Perowne (Cambridge: The University Press, 1884), 9.

C. The Modern English Title "1,2Kings" - Jerome restored the divisions of Samuel and Kings, so that modern English bibles followed his division of Samuel into 1,2Samuel, 1,2Kings. 10] This title reflects the main character of the book, in the prophet and judge Samuel, who served as the founder of the kingdom of Israel, anointing both Saul and David as kings. He exerts more influence upon the founding of the kingdom than any other individual.

10] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 214.

II. Historical Background

A. The Source of Historical Material Recorded in the Books of Kings- The author of the books of Kings sometimes ends a section about a king by saying if you want to know more about him, then refer to the book of the acts of Song of Solomon , or the chronicles of the kings of Israel or the chronicles of the kings of Judah ( 1 Kings 11:41; 1 Kings 14:19; 1 Kings 14:29; 1 Kings 15:7; 1 Kings 15:23; 1 Kings 15:31; 1 Kings 16:5). Scholars generally agree that these books being referred to in Scripture are not a part of the canonical writings, but are simply a reference to the royal chronicles of the kings that were recorded by the king's recorder, and still in existence at that time. The reason these references are made is because the author of 1,2Kings felt the need to draw upon the available resources at hand, although he had a religious purpose in mind when writing, in contrast to a historical purpose for the secular writings of the chronicles of the kings. The author of Kings tells the readers that if they want to know the historical records, then there are chronicles available for their reference. The author writes his chronicle to explain to the children of Israel and Judah why God judged their nation and sent them into Captivity. Without doubt, the historical books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles relied heavily upon these lost historical chronicles of the kings as a major source of information, but wrote under the divine inspiration of the Spirit of God ( 2 Timothy 3:16).

1 Kings 11:41, "And the rest of the acts of Song of Solomon , and all that he did, and his Wisdom of Solomon , are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon?"

1 Kings 14:19, "And the rest of the acts of Jeroboam, how he warred, and how he reigned, behold, they are written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel."

1 Kings 14:29, "Now the rest of the acts of Rehoboam, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?"

1 Kings 15:7, "Now the rest of the acts of Abijam, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? And there was war between Abijam and Jeroboam."

1 Kings 15:23, "The rest of all the acts of Asa, and all his might, and all that he did, and the cities which he built, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? Nevertheless in the time of his old age he was diseased in his feet."

1 Kings 15:31, "Now the rest of the acts of Nadab, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?"

1 Kings 16:5, "Now the rest of the acts of Baasha, and what he did, and his might, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?"

2 Timothy 3:16, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:"

III. Authorship

Jewish tradition attributes the authorship of 1,2Kings to Jeremiah the prophet.

A. Internal Evidence - There are several internal witnesses that imply Jeremiah may have written or compiled the book of Kings.

1. Emphasis Upon the Office of the Prophet- The books of 1,2Kings give a strong emphasis to the office of the prophet, in contrast to 1,2Chronicles, which gives the emphasis to the office of the priests. This emphasis supports the Jewish tradition that Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings, while Ezra was the author of Chronicles. The books of Kings show us that the office of the prophet was used to guide the king, and thus the kingdom, into the will of God. When the king rejected the prophet, the king fell into the judgment of the Lord.

2. Common Passages- Another evidence of Jeremiah as the author is the fact that the books of 2Kings and Jeremiah have some common passages. For example, 2 Kings 24:18 to 2 Kings 25:30 is almost identical to Jeremiah 52:1-34.

3. Several Individuals are Only Found Both in Kings and Jeremiah - Another evidence of Jeremiah as the author is the fact that the individual named Jehonadab, or Jonadab, the son of Rechab, is only mentioned in the books of 2Kings and Jeremiah ( 2 Kings 10:15; 2 Kings 10:23, Jeremiah 35:6; Jeremiah 35:19).

2 Kings 10:15, "And when he was departed thence, he lighted on Jehonadab the son of Rechab coming to meet him: and he saluted him, and said to him, Is thine heart right, as my heart is with thy heart? And Jehonadab answered, It is. If it be, give me thine hand. And he gave him his hand; and he took him up to him into the chariot."

2 Kings 10:23, "And Jehu went, and Jehonadab the son of Rechab, into the house of Baal, and said unto the worshippers of Baal, Search, and look that there be here with you none of the servants of the LORD, but the worshippers of Baal only."

Jeremiah 35:6, "But they said, We will drink no wine: for Jonadab the son of Rechab our father commanded us, saying, Ye shall drink no wine, neither ye, nor your sons for ever:"

Jeremiah 35:19, "Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Jonadab the son of Rechab shall not want a man to stand before me for ever."

B. External Evidence- If we look outside of biblical literature for clues to authorship and into other ancient Jewish literature from which much Jewish tradition is found, the Babylonian Talmud says that Jeremiah wrote his own book, Kings, and Lamentations.

"And who wrote all the books? Moses wrote his book and a portion of Bil'am , xxii.], and Job. Jehoshua wrote his book and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch beginning: "And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died." Samuel wrote his book, Judges , and Ruth. David wrote Psalm , with the assistance of ten elders, viz.: Adam the First, Malachi Zedek, Abraham, Moses, Hyman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach. Jeremiah wrote his book, Kings, and Lamentations. King Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah ,, Proverbs ,, Song of Solomon , and Ecclesiastes. The men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel , the Twelve Prophets, Daniel , and the Book of Esther. Ezra wrote his book, and Chronicles the order of all generations down to himself. [This may be a support to Rabh's theory, as to which, R. Jehudah said in his name, that Ezra had not ascended from Babylon to Palestine until he wrote his genealogy.] And who finished Ezra's book? Nehemiah ben Chachalyah." (Babylonian Talmud, Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate), 1.Mishna 5) 11]

11] Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 13 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 45.

IV. Date

Note the phrase, "unto this day" is used often in the book of 1Kings.

1 Kings 8:8, "And they drew out the staves, that the ends of the staves were seen out in the holy place before the oracle, and they were not seen without: and there they are unto this day."

1 Kings 9:13, "And he said, What cities are these which thou hast given me, my brother? And he called them the land of Cabul unto this day."

1 Kings 9:21, "Their children that were left after them in the land, whom the children of Israel also were not able utterly to destroy, upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of bondservice unto this day."

1 Kings 10:12, "And the king made of the almug trees pillars for the house of the LORD, and for the king"s house, harps also and psalteries for singers: there came no such almug trees, nor were seen unto this day."

1 Kings 12:19, "So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day."

Note the phrase, "unto this day" is used often in the book of 2Kings.

2 Kings 2:22, "So the waters were healed unto this day, according to the saying of Elisha which he spake."

2 Kings 8:22, "Yet Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah unto this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time."

2 Kings 10:27, "And they brake down the image of Baal, and brake down the house of Baal, and made it a draught house unto this day."

2 Kings 14:7, "He slew of Edom in the valley of salt ten thousand, and took Selah by war, and called the name of it Joktheel unto this day."

2 Kings 16:6, "At that time Rezin king of Syria recovered Elath to Syria, and drave the Jews from Elath: and the Syrians came to Elath, and dwelt there unto this day."

2 Kings 17:23, "Until the LORD removed Israel out of his sight, as he had said by all his servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day."

2 Kings 17:34, "Unto this day they do after the former manners: they fear not the LORD, neither do they after their statutes, or after their ordinances, or after the law and commandment which the LORD commanded the children of Jacob, whom he named Israel;"

2 Kings 17:41, "So these nations feared the LORD, and served their graven images, both their children, and their children"s children: as did their fathers, so do they unto this day."

2 Kings 20:17, "Behold, the days come, that all that is in thine house, and that which thy fathers have laid up in store unto this day, shall be carried into Babylon: nothing shall be left, saith the LORD."

2 Kings 21:15, "Because they have done that which was evil in my sight, and have provoked me to anger, since the day their fathers came forth out of Egypt, even unto this day."

V. Recipients

VI. Occasion

LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)

"Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.

If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew."

(Thomas Schreiner) 12]

12] Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011), 11.

Within the historical setting of the Kingdom of Israel, the author of the books of 1,2Kings chose to write using the literary style of the historical narrative. Thus, the books of 1,2Kings is assigned to the literary genre called "historical narrative literature."

A. Deuteronomic Content - The collection of books called the Early Prophets ( Joshua ,, Judges , Samuel, Kings) is generally understood to reflect an underlying theme of Israel's adherence to and violation of the Deuteronomic codes set forth by Moses. T. R. Hobbs notes the deuteronomic content within the book of 2Kings, saying, "It comes as little surprise, then, that the writer should use the ‘Torah of Moses' as the standard of behavior by which he judges both nations and kings. The manner in which he refers to the standard is sometimes quite general ( 2 Kings 10:31; 2 Kings 16:3-4; 2 Kings 18:4-6), but where more specific allusions or precise quotations are needed, he leaves one in no doubt that the law which is found in the book of Deuteronomy is in mind ( 2 Kings 14:5-6; 2 Kings 17:2-23; 2 Kings 21:3-9). The measures taken by Josiah in chap 23are the clearest example of this and are widely recognized as dependent upon the prohibitions of the book of Deuteronomy." 13]

13] T. R. Hobbs, 2 Kings , in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 13, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), xxii.

THEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

"Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework."

(Andreas Ksenberger) 14]

14] Andreas J. Ksenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.

Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the books of 1,2Kings, an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the books of 1,2Kings for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.

VII. Purpose

Lyman Abbott says the purpose of 1,2Kings is to show that the prophecies of the David lineage were being fulfilled. He notes that the narrative material in Kings has a prophetic emphasis, while Chronicles has a priestly emphasis. For example, Kings describes at length (fourteen chapters) the ministries of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, while being entirely omitted by Chronicles ( 1 Kings 17:1 to 2 Kings 8:15). Again, Chronicles contains lengthy descriptions (fifteen chapters) of David's preparations for building the Temple, the orders of the Levite's, and Solomon's construction and dedication of the Temple ( 1 Chronicles 22:1 to 2 Chronicles 7:11), while Kings reduces this narrative material to two chapters ( 1 Kings 5-6). Again, in the chronicles of Hezekiah, Kings emphasizes his role in reforming the nation back to the Lord, with Isaiah prophetic role in defeating Sennacherib, and in Hezekiah's healing ( 2 Kings 18-20), while Chronicles emphasizes Hezekiah's role in restoring Temple worship, priestly duties, the Passover festival ( 2 Chronicles 29-30). Again, Kings records the prophetic death of Jezebel ( 2 Kings 9:30-37), while being omitted in Chronicles. 15]

15] Lyman Abbott, The Life and Literature of the Ancient Hebrews (Cambridge, Mass: Riverside Press, 1901), 32-33.

VIII. Thematic Scheme

The prophecy by Hannah in 1 Samuel 2:1-10 is the theme of the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles. God lifts up the humble men and obedient nations out of the dust and He brings the proud low. The emphasis throughout the book of Kings is on the moral integrity of each king. For example, we find the phrase "and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD" twenty-eight times in the books of 1,2Kings. We see where God often sent His prophets to guide the nation back into obedience to the Law, but his message was often rejected and the prophet punished.

IX. Literary Structure

X. Outline

The books of 1,2Kings are divided by the reigns of each king over Judah and Israel. This outline reveals that God honoured each individual king who reigned over His people because He inspired the author of the book of Kings to record Israel's history according to the periods of each king's reign. This book of history reveals that God's blessings or curses came upon a nation according to the works of each king.

1 Kings 1:1 to 1 Kings 22:53

I. The Kingdom United Under Solomon (970-930 B.C.) 1 Kings 1:1 to 1 Kings 11:43

A. Judgment of His Adversaries 1 Kings 1:1 to 1 Kings 2:46

B. Establishment of His Throne 1 Kings 3:1 to 1 Kings 4:34

C. Institution of National Worship 1 Kings 5:1 to 1 Kings 8:66

D. God Makes a Covenant with Solomon 1 Kings 9:1-9

E. The Prosperity of Solomon's Reign 1 Kings 9:10 to 1 Kings 10:29

F. Solomon's Sin and Judgment 1 Kings 11:1-40

G. Epilogue to Solomon's Reign 1 Kings 11:41-43

II. The Kingdom Divided 1 Kings 12:1 to 1 Kings 22:53

A. The Reign of Jeroboam over Northern Israel (930-909 B.C.) to 1 Kings 14:20

1. Jereboam Establishes His Throne 1 Kings 12:1-24

2. Jereboam Institutes National Worship 1 Kings 12:25-33

3. God Speaks to Jereboam thru a Prophet 1 Kings 13:1-32

4. Jereboam's Sin and Judgment 1 Kings 13:33 to 1 Kings 14:18

5. Epilogue to Jereboam's Reign 1 Kings 14:19-20

B. The Reign of Rehoboam over Judah (930-913 B.C.) 1 Kings 14:21-31

C. The Reign of Abijam over Judah (913-910 B.C) 1 Kings 15:1-8

D. The Reign of Asa over Judah (910-869 B.C.) 1 Kings 15:9-24

E. The Reign of Nadab Over Israel (909-908 B.C.) 1 Kings 15:25-32

F. The Reign of Baasha Over Israel (908-886 B.C.) 1 Kings 15:33 to 1 Kings 16:7

G. The Reign of Elah Over Israel (886-885 B.C.) 1 Kings 16:8-14

H. The Reign of Zimri Over Israel (885 B.C.) 1 Kings 16:15-20

I. The Reign of Omri Over Israel (885-874 B.C.) 1 Kings 16:21-28

J. The Reign of Ahab Over Israel (874-853 B.C.) 1 Kings 16:29 to 1 Kings 22:40

K. The Reign of Jehoshaphat Over Judah (872-848 B.C.) 1 Kings 22:41-50

L. The Reign of Ahaziah Over Israel (853-852 B.C.) 1 Kings 22:51-53

2 Kings 1:1 to 2 Kings 25:30

M. The Reign of Ahaziah Over Israel (853-852 B.C.) (cont'd) 2 Kings 1:1 to 2 Kings 2:25

N. The Reign of Jehoram Over Israel (852-841 B.C.) 2 Kings 3:1 to 2 Kings 8:15

O. The Reign of Jehoram Over Judah (848-841 B.C.) 2 Kings 8:16-24

P. The Reign of Ahaziah Over Judah (841 B.C.) 2 Kings 8:25 to 2 Kings 9:28

Q. The Reign of Jehu Over Israel (841-814 B.C.) 2 Kings 9:29 to 2 Kings 10:36

R. The Reign of Queen Athaliah Over Judah (841-835 B.C.) 2 Kings 11:1-21

S. The Reign of Jehoash Over Judah (835-796 B.C.) 2 Kings 12:1-21

T. The Reign of Jehoahaz Over Israel (814-798 B.C.) 2 Kings 13:1-9

U. The Reign of Jehoash Over Israel (798-782 B.C.) 2 Kings 13:10-25

V. The Reign of Amaziah Over Judah (796-767 B.C.) 2 Kings 14:1-22

W. The Reign of Jeroboam II Over Israel (783-753 B.C.) 2 Kings 14:23-29

X. The Reign of Azariah Over Judah (792-740 B.C.) 2 Kings 15:1-7

Y. The Reign of Zechariah Over Israel (753 B.C.) 2 Kings 15:8-12

Z. The Reign of Shallum Over Israel (752 B.C.) 2 Kings 15:13-16

AA. The Reign of Menahem Over Israel (752-742 B.C.) 2 Kings 15:17-22

BB. The Reign of Pekahiah Over Israel (742-740 B.C.) 2 Kings 15:23-26

CC. The Reign of Pekah Over Israel (752-732 B.C.) 2 Kings 15:27-31

DD. The Reign of Jotham Over Judah (750-735 B.C.) 2 Kings 15:32-38

EE. The Reign of Ahaz Over Judah (735-715 B.C.) 2 Kings 16:1-20

FF. The Reign of Hoshea Over Israel & Its Captivity (732-722) 2 Kings 17:1-41

GG. The Reign of Hezekiah Over Judah (715-686 B.C.) 2 Kings 18:1 to 2 Kings 20:21

HH. The Reign of Manasseh Over Judah (697-642 B.C.) 2 Kings 21:1-18

II. The Reign of Amon Over Judah (642-640 B.C.) 2 Kings 21:19-26

JJ. The Reign of Josiah Over Judah (640-609 B.C.) 2 Kings 22:1 to 2 Kings 23:30

KK. The Reign of Jehoahaz Over Judah (609 B.C.) 2 Kings 23:31-34

LL. The Reign of Jehoiakim Over Judah (609-598 B.C.) 2 Kings 23:35 to 2 Kings 24:7

MM. The Reign of Jehoiachin Over Judah (598-597 B.C.) 2 Kings 24:8-17

NN. The Reign of Zedekiah Over Judah (597-586 B. C.) 2 Kings 24:18 to 2 Kings 25:21

OO. The Governorship of Gedaliah Over Judah (586 B.C.) 2 Kings 25:22-26

PP. King Jehoiachin Raised Up Out of Prison 2 Kings 25:27-30

BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, A. A. 2Samuel. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 11. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Bhr, Karl Chr. W. F. The Books of the Kings. Trans. Edwin Harwood and W. G. Summer. In A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletical, with Special Reference to Ministers and Students. Ed. John Peter Lange. New York: Scribner, Armstrong and Company, 1872.

Clarke, Adam. 2 Kings , In Adam Clarke"s Commentary, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Erdmann, David. The Books of Samuel. Trans. C. H. Toy and John A. Broadus. In A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, vol 5. Ed. John Lange. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1877.

Gill, John. 1Kings. In John Gill's Expositor. In e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.

Gill, John. 2Kings. In John Gill's Expositor. In e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.

Hobbs, T. R. 2Kings. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 13, second edition. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Keil, C. F. and F. Delitzsch. Biblical Commentary on the Books of Samuel. In Clark's Foreign Theological Library, fourth series, vol 9. Trans. James Martin. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1880.

Keil, C. F. and F. Delitzsch. The Books of the Kings. In Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Trans. James Martin. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Kirkpatrick, A. F. The First Book of Samuel. In The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Ed. J. J. J. Perowne. Cambridge: The University Press, 1884.

Klein, Ralph W. 1Samuel. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 10, second edition. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Metzger, Bruce M, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.

Montgomery, James A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Kings. In The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. Eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951.

Murphy, Roland E. Proverb. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 22. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Wesley, John. Notes on the Old Testament: 1Samuel - Psalm. In The Wesleyan Heritage Library Commentary [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2002.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abbott, Lyman. The Life and Literature of the Ancient Hebrews. Cambridge, Mass: Riverside Press, 1901.

Athanasius. Festal Letters. Trans. Archibald Robertson. In Select Writings and Letters of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 4. Eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff. Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1891.

Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin, Folio 107b. Trans. I Epstein [on-line]. Accessed 11August 2009. Available from http://www.come-and-hear.com/sotah/sotah 47.html; Internet.

Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Sotah, Folio 47a. Trans. I Epstein [on-line]. Accessed 11August 2009. Available from http://www.come-and-hear.com/sotah/sotah 47.html; Internet.

Bentley, Todd. Journey Into the Miraculous. Victoria, BC, Canada: Hemlock Printers, Ltd, 2003.

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Eds. A. Alt, O. Eifelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c 1967-77.

Biblia Sacra juxta Vulgatam Clementinam (Ed. electronica). In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc, 2005.

Bruce, F. F. The Books and the Parchments. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963.

The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Ed. A. J. Rosenberg. New York: The Judaica Press Company, 1963 [on-line]. Accessed 13December 2009. Available from http//www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16445/showrashi/true; Internet,

Eusebius. Ecclesiastical History. Trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1. Eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff. Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905.

Hagin, Kenneth. Following God's Plan For Your Life. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1993, 1994.

Goll, Jim W. The Seer: The Prophetic Power of Visions, Dreams, and Open Heavens. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, Inc, 2004.

Gunkel, Hermann. The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction. Trans. Thomas M. Horner. In Biblical Series, vol 19. Ed. John Reumann. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967.

Hagin, Kenneth. Understanding the Anointing. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1983, 1994.

Hallo, William W. and K. Lawson Younger, Jeremiah , Context of Scripture, 3vols. Leiden; Brill, 2000. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Herodotus. Herodotus, vol 1. Trans. A. D. Godley. In The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Herodotus, Herodotus, vol 2. Trans. William Beloe. London: A. J. Valpy, 1803.

Irenaeus. Against Heresies. In The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol 1. Eds. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A.Cleveland Cox. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913.

Jerome. "Prefaces to the Books of the Vulgate Version of the Old Testament: The Books of Samuel and Kings." Trans. W. H. Freemantle. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol 6. Eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1893.

Joyner, Rick. The Call, Charlotte, North Carolina: Morning Star Publications, 1999.

Keathley, III, J. Hampton. "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah." (Bible.org) [on-line]. Accessed 23May 2012. Available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Ksenberger, Andreas J. Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011.

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature A Book of Readings, 3vols. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1908. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Munroe, Myles. Interviewed by Benny Hinn. This is Your Day (Irving, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Munroe, Myles. Kingdom Principles: Preparing for Kingdom Experience and Expansion (Understanding the Kingdom). Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publications, Inc, 2006.

Nicol, T. "Tiglath-Pileser." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Negev, Avraham, ed. The Archaelogical Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, 3ed. New York: Prentice Hall Press, c 1990, 1996. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Peake, A. S. "Baal." In A Dictionary of the Bible Dealing with Language, Literature, and Contents Including the Biblical Theology, vol 1. Ed. James Hastings. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908.

Pett, Peter. "The Use of Numbers in the Ancient Near East and in Genesis." [on-line]. Accessed 3August 2009. Available from http://www.geocities.com/genesiscommentary/numbers.html; Internet.

Prince, Joseph. Destined to Reign. On Lighthouse Television (Kampala, Uganda). Television program, 21May 2012.

Roberts, Frances J. Come Away My Beloved. Ojai, California: King's Farspan, Inc, 1973.

Roberts, Frances J. Dialogues With God. Uhrichsville, Ohio: Barbour Publishing, Inc, c 1968.

Rodkinson, Michael L. New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 13. New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902.

Saddika, Nasir. Interviewed by Rod Parsley. Breakthrough (Columbus, Ohio). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California, 2January 2009). Television program.

Savelle, Jerry. Interviewed by Kenneth Copeland. Believer's Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Sayce, A. H. "Asherah." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Sayce, A. H. "Baal." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Schambach, R. W. "Sermon." Schambach Ministries (Flint, Texas). Cassette tape.

Schreiner, Thomas R. Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011.

Sheets, Dutch. Intercessory Prayer. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1996.

Smith, Henry Preserved. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel. In The International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T & T. Clark, c 1899, 1951.

Swete, Henry B. An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek. Cambridge: University Press, 1902.

Waltke, Bruce K. "The Book of Proverbs and Ancient Wisdom Literature," in Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 136 (July 1979): 222-239. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Wommack, Andrew. Gospel Truth. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Andrew Wommack Ministries). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Youngblood, R. F, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers. Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM], Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

 


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Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 1 Kings:4 Overview". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/1-kings-0.html. 2013.

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