corner graphic

Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

1 Kings 1

 

 

Verses 1-43

The Reign of King Solomon over a United Israel (970-930 B.C.) - 1 Kings 1:1 to 1 Kings 11:43 records the story of the reign of King Solomon. The plot of this historical account of Solomon's life takes a familiar structure as it discusses the establishment, prosperity and failure of his reign as king over Israel.

1. The Establishment of Solomon' Reign — 1 Kings 1:1 to 1 Kings 2:46

2. The Prosperity of Solomon's Reign — 1 Kings 3:1 to 1 Kings 10:29

3. The Failure of Solomon's Reign — 1 Kings 11:1-40

4. Epilogue — 1 Kings 11:41-43


Verses 1-53

1 Kings 1:1-4 — King David's Old Age - The story of King Solomon's reign begins with an account of David's old age and test of sexual vigour, which event begins the struggle to find his successor. The Hebrews understood that a man's sexual vigour was indicative of his physical strength and mental alertness, which were important aspects in ruling a kingdom. David's failure to pass this text of sexual vigour prompted a struggle for a new king between his sons Adonijah and Solomon.

1 Kings 1:5 Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king: and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.

1 Kings 1:5Comments- Adonijah was the fourth son of King David ( 2 Samuel 3:2-5, 1 Chronicles 3:1-4). The first Song of Solomon , Amnon and the third Song of Solomon , Absalom, were dead. The second Song of Solomon , named Chileab, or Daniel , is mentioned nowhere else in the Scriptures. Therefore, it appears that Adonijah believed that he had the right to the throne as the eldest living sons of King David. Adonijah had the same mother as Absalom ( 1 Kings 1:6), which was Maacah the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. Because the Geshurites were not Israelites, but heathen tribes that survived the conquest of Joshua ( Joshua 13:13), Adonijah was not a full Israelite by birth. Therefore, Adonijah's bloodline would have disqualified him from being chosen the king of Israel.

2 Samuel 3:2-5, "And unto David were sons born in Hebron: and his firstborn was Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; And his second, Chileab, of Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite; and the third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; And the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith; and the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital; And the sixth, Ithream, by Eglah David"s wife. These were born to David in Hebron."

Joshua 13:13, "Nevertheless the children of Israel expelled not the Geshurites, nor the Maachathites: but the Geshurites and the Maachathites dwell among the Israelites until this day."

1 Kings 1:6 And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why hast thou done so? and he also was a very goodly man; and his mother bare him after Absalom.

1 Kings 1:6 — "and his mother bare him after Absalom" - Comments- Thus, Adonijah had he same mother as Absalom, which was Maacah the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur.

1 Kings 1:9 And Adonijah slew sheep and oxen and fat cattle by the stone of Zoheleth, which is by Enrogel, and called all his brethren the king"s sons, and all the men of Judah the king"s servants:

1 Kings 1:9Word Study on "Enrogel" - Strong says the Hebrew name "Enrogel" ( רׂגֵל עֵין) (H 5883) literally means, "the fountain of a traveller." John Gill says the Targum calls it the "Fuller"s Fountain," where the fuller"s washed their fabrics. 16] This word only occurs four times in the entire Old Testament.

16] John Gill, 1 Kings , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on 1Kings .

Joshua 15:7, "And the border went up toward Debir from the valley of Achor, and so northward, looking toward Gilgal, that is before the going up to Adummim, which is on the south side of the river: and the border passed toward the waters of Enshemesh, and the goings out thereof were at Enrogel:"

Joshua 18:16, "And the border came down to the end of the mountain that lieth before the valley of the son of Hinnom, and which is in the valley of the giants on the north, and descended to the valley of Hinnom, to the side of Jebusi on the south, and descended to Enrogel,"

2 Samuel 17:17, "Now Jonathan and Ahimaaz stayed by Enrogel; for they might not be seen to come into the city: and a wench went and told them; and they went and told king David."

We can see from the other three references that it was located in the Kidron valley beside Jerusalem. There was a spring of water here, which made it an ideal place to slaughter and wash animals for a meal.

1 Kings 1:11 Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathsheba the mother of Song of Solomon , saying, Hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith doth reign, and David our lord knoweth it not?

1 Kings 1:11Comments- Nathan knew the prophecy of Solomon's succession over the nation of Israel that the Lord had given to David. We see that God had previously spoken to King David about a son being born to him and that his name would be called "Solomon."

1 Chronicles 22:8-9, "But the word of the LORD came to me, saying, Thou hast shed blood abundantly, and hast made great wars: thou shalt not build an house unto my name, because thou hast shed much blood upon the earth in my sight. Behold, a son shall be born to thee, who shall be a man of rest; and I will give him rest from all his enemies round about: for his name shall be Song of Solomon , and I will give peace and quietness unto Israel in his days."

The birth and naming of Solomon took place in 2 Samuel 12:24-25.

2 Samuel 12:24-25, "And David comforted Bathsheba his wife, and went in unto her, and lay with her: and she bare a Song of Solomon , and he called his name Solomon: and the LORD loved him. And he sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet; and he called his name Jedidiah, because of the LORD."

God revealed to King David that Solomon was to succeed him on the throne.

1 Chronicles 28:5-6, "And of all my sons, (for the LORD hath given me many sons,) he hath chosen Solomon my son to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the LORD over Israel. And he said unto me, Solomon thy Song of Solomon , he shall build my house and my courts: for I have chosen him to be my Song of Solomon , and I will be his father."

We also see evidence in Proverbs 4:3-4 that King David favored his son Solomon above his other sons.

Proverbs 4:3, "For I was my father"s Song of Solomon , tender and only beloved in the sight of my mother. He taught me also, and said unto me, Let thine heart retain my words: keep my commandments, and live."

As he groomed Solomon for the kingship, his other sons appear to be raised without discipline and training. We see immorality in Amnon, murder and rebellion in Absalom, and insurrection and pride in Adonijah. Thus, we see how Solomon was corrected in the smallest of areas, while his brothers remained without discipline in their sins.

1 Kings 1:50 And Adonijah feared because of Song of Solomon , and arose, and went, and caught hold on the horns of the altar.

1 Kings 1:50Comments - Adonijah ran to the brazen altar and held onto the horns, hoping that the king would not kill him and shed human blood at the sacred altar, thus defiling it forever. The Jewish people would have reacted against such shedding of blood at this altar. Joab would do the same thing in fear for his life ( 1 Kings 2:28).

1 Kings 2:28, "Then tidings came to Joab: for Joab had turned after Adonijah, though he turned not after Absalom. And Joab fled unto the tabernacle of the LORD, and caught hold on the horns of the altar."

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 1 Kings 1:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/1-kings-1.html. 2013.

Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology