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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

1 Samuel 30

 

 

Verses 1-31

1 Samuel 30:1-31 — David Victory at Ziklag - 1 Samuel 30:1-31 records the story of the captivity of the families of David and his men at Ziklag, and his victory over the Amalekites to recover them.

Why would God record such a dramatic story in the Holy Scriptures? One possible answer is that this story lets us know that there is no situation too terrible that we cannot praise Him and thus, find the victory. Did not the Lord give David the victory when he encouraged himself in the Lord ( 1 Samuel 30:6)?

1 Samuel 30:6, "And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God."

Did not the Lord deliver Jonah from the belly of the whale when he began to praise and acknowledge the greatness of the Lord (see Jonah 2:1-10)?

Was not Job's captivity turned when he prayed and acknowledged God's greatness (see Job 42:1-10)?

Does not Habakkuk tell us to praise Him in difficult times ( Habakkuk 3:17-18)?

Habakkuk 3:17-18, "Although the fig tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls: Yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will joy in the God of my salvation."

Were not Paul and Silas delivered from prison when they began to praise the Lord ( Acts 16:25-26)

Acts 16:25-26, "And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and sang praises unto God: and the prisoners heard them. And suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken: and immediately all the doors were opened, and every one"s bands were loosed."

Many of the Psalm reveal to us that David worshipped the Lord during the most difficult times in his life. Even when David sinned with Bathsheba and God judged the child so that it died, David worshipped the Lord. As a result, the Lord gave David another son by Bathsheba.

2 Samuel 12:20, "Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the LORD, and worshipped: then he came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat."

Here is a proposed outline:

Suffering Overcome (How to win the battle)

Vs 1-6 - The Disaster of Everything, Devastation or Dispossession.

1 Samuel 30:6(c)-8 - The Decision of Encouragement- The decisive decision was not to pursue men first, but to pursue God first. The real battle took place here.

Vs 9-20 - The Defeat of the Enemy

Comfort Administered (How to Share the victory)

Vs 21-25 - The Disbursement to Everyone- A king makes a decree (vs 25). Distribution, Dispensing, Division, Disbursement.

Vs 26-31- The Duty of Indebtedness.

1 Samuel 30:1 And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;

1 Samuel 30:1Word Study on "Ziklag" - PTW says the Hebrew name ( צִקְלַג) (H 6860) means, "measure pressed down."

1 Samuel 30:1"the Amalekites" - Comments- Amalek was a grandson to Esau ( Genesis 36:12). In Exodus 17:11, the Amalekites were defeated as long as Moses help up his hands. This represents prayer and praise to God. So this is how David must defeat them. The Amalekites were under a curse ( Numbers 24:19-20).

Genesis 36:12, "And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau"s son; and she bare to Eliphaz Amalek: these were the sons of Adah Esau"s wife."

Exodus 17:11, "And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed."

Numbers 24:19-20, "Out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion, and shall destroy him that remaineth of the city. And when he looked on Amalek, he took up his parable, and said, Amalek was the first of the nations; but his latter end shall be that he perish for ever."

If they represent the flesh, then:

2 Corinthians 4:16, "For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day."

1 Samuel 30:1Comments- Ziklag was the only earthly security they had. Sometimes, we lose all the securities we see and only have God to trust in.

1 Samuel 30:3 So David and his men came to the city, and, behold, it was burned with fire; and their wives, and their sons, and their daughters, were taken captives.

1 Samuel 30:3Comments- David and his men had spent months and years running for their lives. Finally, in a little relief, they had a stable place to settle down in with their families. Even now the circumstances failed them. David never let his trust lean on the circumstances, but on God.

Their leaving the city was for good intention even, to help out the king, but it resulted in disaster for them. How greatly discouraged they were even while coming back from not being able to fight with Philistines.

Their loss was complete, the loss of everything that meant anything to them.

1 Samuel 30:4 Then David and the people that were with him lifted up their voice and wept, until they had no more power to weep.

1 Samuel 30:4Comments- This passage shows one of most intensively sorrowful scene in the entire Scriptures. Note that though David was just as torn up as the others, and he wept until he was weak also, ye he overcame with the Lord. It is said that Hebrew and Jews are a very emotionally expressive people.

1 Samuel 30:6 And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God.

1 Samuel 30:6"for the people spake of stoning him" - Word Study on "was grieved" - Strong says the Hebrew word "grieved" ( מָרָה) (H 4784) literally means, "to be bitter." Thus, the NIV says, "bitter in spirit." The same word is used in Exodus 15:23 as "bitter waters."

Exodus 15:23, "And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah."

Comments- The people, especially the wicked men, the men of Belial, in David"s group, looked for someone to blame. Note:

1 Samuel 30:22, "Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us, we will not give them ought of the spoil that we have recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they may lead them away, and depart."

1 Samuel 30:6"but David encourage himself in the Lord his God" - Word Study on "encouraged himself" - Holladay says the Hebrew word ( חָזַק) (H 2388) is the Hithpael, and means, "to feel oneself strengthened." This same Hebrew word is also used in:

Numbers 13:20, "And what the land Isaiah , whether it be fat or lean, whether there be wood therein, or not. And be ye of good courage, and bring of the fruit of the land. Now the time was the time of the firstripe grapes."

Deuteronomy 1:38, "But Joshua the son of Nun, which standeth before thee, he shall go in thither: encourage him: for he shall cause Israel to inherit it."

Deuteronomy 3:28, "But charge Joshua , and encourage him, and strengthen him: for he shall go over before this people, and he shall cause them to inherit the land which thou shalt see."

Deuteronomy 31:7, "And Moses called unto Joshua , and said unto him in the sight of all Israel, Be strong and of a good courage: for thou must go with this people unto the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it."

Judges 20:22, "And the people the men of Israel encouraged themselves, and set their battle again in array in the place where they put themselves in array the first day.

2 Samuel 11:25, "Then David said unto the messenger, Thus shalt thou say unto Joab, Let not this thing displease thee, for the sword devoureth one as well as another: make thy battle more strong against the city, and overthrow it: and encourage thou him."

2 Chronicles 31:4, "Moreover he commanded the people that dwelt in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and the Levites, that they might be encouraged in the law of the LORD.

2 Chronicles 35:2, "And he set the priests in their charges, and encouraged them to the service of the house of the LORD,"

Psalm 64:5, "They encourage themselves in an evil matter: they commune of laying snares privily; they say, Who shall see them?

Comments- David had learned how to be strengthened in the Lord during the most difficult times in his life. When the son of Bathsheba died, the Scriptures say that David came into the house of the Lord, and worshipped.

2 Samuel 12:20, "Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the LORD, and worshipped: then he came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat."

The Lord was David's God. The phrase "his God" brings out the fact that God was real and living in David's life, and that God was personally concerned for David as an individual ( Hebrews 11:6).

Hebrews 11:6, "But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he Isaiah , and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him."

There was absolutely no man there to give David courage to go on except God Himself. There will be times in our own lives when no one around us is able to lift us up but God.

In 2000, when I was feeling emotionally down, I had a dream. In that dream, I was caught up in heavenly worship. I joined in this angelic choir, lost in worship and adoration to the Lord. I woke up the next morning feeling refreshed and strengthen in my heart. The Lord was teaching me how to find strength in Him when the circumstances in life are difficult.

Comments- The tragedy at Ziglag was similar to Job's disaster. The righteous man's heart will always turn to God when disaster falls, and not blame God.

Job 1:21-22, "And said, Naked came I out of my mother"s womb, and naked shall I return thither: the LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; blessed be the name of the LORD. In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly."

Psalm 34:1, "A Psalm of David, when he changed his behaviour before Abimelech; who drove him away, and he departed. I will bless the LORD at all times: his praise shall continually be in my mouth."

Ephesians 5:20, "Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;"

Scripture References- God encourages Joshua ( Joshua 1:6-7)

Joshua 1:6-7, "Be strong and of a good courage: for unto this people shalt thou divide for an inheritance the land, which I sware unto their fathers to give them. Only be thou strong and very courageous, that thou mayest observe to do according to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou goest."

The children of Israel encouraged themselves ( Judges 20:22).

Judges 20:22, "And the people the men of Israel encouraged themselves, and set their battle again in array in the place where they put themselves in array the first day."

The Philistines encouraged themselves ( 1 Samuel 4:7-9).

1 Samuel 4:7-9, "And the Philistines were afraid, for they said, God is come into the camp. And they said, Woe unto us! for there hath not been such a thing heretofore. Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? these are the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness. Be strong, and quit yourselves like men, O ye Philistines, that ye be not servants unto the Hebrews , as they have been to you: quit yourselves like men, and fight."

Paul encourages Timothy ( 2 Timothy 2:1)

2 Timothy 2:1, "Thou therefore, my Song of Solomon , be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus."

Note other Scriptures regarding encouragement:

Psalm 27:13, "I had fainted, unless I had believed to see the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living."

Psalm 62:1-12, especially:

Psalm 62:1, "To the chief Musician, to Jeduthun, A Psalm of David. Truly my soul waiteth upon God: from him cometh my salvation."

Also:

Psalm 62:5,My soul, wait thou only upon God; for my expectation is from him."

Psalm 68:35, "O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places: the God of Israel is he that giveth strength and power unto his people. Blessed be God."

Isaiah 40:31, "But they that wait upon the LORD shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint."

Zechariah 10:12, "And I will strengthen them in the LORD and they shall walk up and down in his name, saith the LORD."

Ephesians 3:16, "That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man;"

Ephesians 6:10, "Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might."

Colossians 1:11, "Strengthened with all might, according to his glorious power, unto all patience and longsuffering with joyfulness;"

1 Peter 5:10, "But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you."

1 Samuel 30:6Comments- There are two reactions of people to tragedy:

1. To become grieved or embittered, or

2. To find comfort in the Lord your God.

Comments- How do we encourage ourselves?

Psalm 27:14, "Wait on the LORD: be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine heart: wait, I say, on the LORD."

Psalm 31:24, "Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your heart, all ye that hope in the LORD."

1 Samuel 30:7 And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech"s Song of Solomon , I pray thee, bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither the ephod to David.

1 Samuel 30:7 — "And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech"s son" - Comments- Abiathar was the only living priest at this time, and he had the only ephod. All other priests were killed at Nob.

1 Samuel 30:7"I pray thee, bring me hither the ephod" - Comments- Why holy garments?

1. For glory and for beauty:

Exodus 28:2, "And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty."

Exodus 28:40, "And for Aaron"s sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty."

2. To consecrate him, that he may be a minister:

Exodus 28:3, "And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of Wisdom of Solomon , that they may make Aaron"s garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest"s office."

3. That they bear not iniquity and die:

Exodus 28:43, "And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him."

Note a similar verse in the New Testament:

Ephesians 6:14, "Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness;"

Thus:

Romans 5:1-2, "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God."

Hebrews 4:15-16, "For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need."

Hebrews 5:1, "For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins: Who can have compassion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way; for that he himself also is compassed with infirmity."

1 Samuel 30:8 And David enquired at the LORD, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all.

1 Samuel 30:8"Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all" - Comments- The Lord gave Abraham this same victory, so that he recovered all ( Genesis 14:16).

Genesis 14:16, "And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people."

Scripture References- Note:

Exodus 9:16, "And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth."

Exodus 18:11, "Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods: for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them."

Job 40:11-12, "Cast abroad the rage of thy wrath: and behold every one that is proud, and abase him. Look on every one that is proud, and bring him low; and tread down the wicked in their place."

Psalm 33:10, "The LORD bringeth the counsel of the heathen to nought: he maketh the devices of the people of none effect."

Psalm 76:10, "Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain."

Psalm 119:21, "Thou hast rebuked the proud that are cursed, which do err from thy commandments."

Luke 1:51, "He hath shewed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts."

1 Peter 5:5, "Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble."

1 Samuel 30:8Comments- These things rightfully belonged to David and his men. They were going to recover what was already theirs

If we take God's Word and act upon it, we will be rewarded also.

1 Samuel 30:9 So David went, he and the six hundred men that were with him, and came to the brook Besor, where those that were left behind stayed.

1 Samuel 30:9Comments- David and his men girded up their lions. Peter gives us a spiritual application to girding up our loins ( 1 Peter 1:13).

1 Peter 1:13, "Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ; "

How do we do the same?

Hebrews 12:1-3, Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds."

1 Samuel 30:10 But David pursued, he and four hundred men: for two hundred abode behind, which were so faint that they could not go over the brook Besor.

1 Samuel 30:10Comments- David used this same strategy in 1 Samuel 25:13 when he went to fight against Nabal.

1 Samuel 25:13, "And David said unto his men, Gird ye on every man his sword. And they girded on every man his sword; and David also girded on his sword: and there went up after David about four hundred men; and two hundred abode by the stuff."

1 Samuel 30:11 And they found an Egyptian in the field, and brought him to David, and gave him bread, and he did eat; and they made him drink water;

1 Samuel 30:11Comments- David"s men had just completed a three-day journey ( 1 Samuel 30:1).

1 Samuel 30:1, "And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;"

1 Samuel 30:16 And when he had brought him down, behold, they were spread abroad upon all the earth, eating and drinking, and dancing, because of all the great spoil that they had taken out of the land of the Philistines, and out of the land of Judah.

1 Samuel 30:16Comments- The Amalekites were caught off guard because they were fulfilling the lusts of their flesh.

Luke 12:19-20, "And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry.But God said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee: then whose shall those things be, which thou hast provided?"

Luke 17:27-29, "They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all. Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded;But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all."

Luke 21:34, "And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares."

Scripture References- Note:

1 Thessalonians 5:3, "For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape."

1 Samuel 30:17 And David smote them from the twilight even unto the evening of the next day: and there escaped not a man of them, save four hundred young men, which rode upon camels, and fled.

1 Samuel 30:17"save four hundred young men" - Comments- David and his men only numbered four hundred. They fought against more men that they themselves numbered.

1 Samuel 30:18 And David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away: and David rescued his two wives.

1 Samuel 30:19 And there was nothing lacking to them, neither small nor great, neither sons nor daughters, neither spoil, nor any thing that they had taken to them: David recovered all.

1 Samuel 30:20 And David took all the flocks and the herds, which they drave before those other cattle, and said, This is David"s spoil.

1 Samuel 30:20"This is David's spoil" - Comments- The men honored David by giving him a greater spoil than all the others received ( 1 Timothy 5:17).

1 Timothy 5:17, "Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine."

1 Samuel 30:21 And David came to the two hundred men, which were so faint that they could not follow David, whom they had made also to abide at the brook Besor: and they went forth to meet David, and to meet the people that were with him: and when David came near to the people, he saluted them.

1 Samuel 30:21"he saluted them" - Comments- David greeted the men when he returned. The others returning with David perhaps did not have much to say to these men.

1 Samuel 30:22 Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us, we will not give them ought of the spoil that we have recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they may lead them away, and depart.

1 Samuel 30:22"that we have recovered" - Comments- The wicked men took the glory for overcoming the enemy.

1 Samuel 30:22"that they may lead them away and depart" - Comments- These wicked men wanted to kick these two hundred men out of the group.

1 Samuel 30:23 Then said David, Ye shall not do Song of Solomon , my brethren, with that which the LORD hath given us, who hath preserved us, and delivered the company that came against us into our hand.

1 Samuel 30:23"the Lord hath given us" - Comments- David had God on his mind. The others were thinking about themselves, that we have recovered." ( 1 Samuel 30:22)

1 Samuel 30:23Comments- The Lord both kept David and men safe and delivered the enemy into their hands.

Romans 8:31, "What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us?"

1 Samuel 30:24 For who will hearken unto you in this matter? but as his part is that goeth down to the battle, so shall his part be that tarrieth by the stuff: they shall part alike.

1 Samuel 30:24Comments- These passages teach us how we are to support and strengthen one another also. We are to be willing to give of our labours ( Ephesians 4:28).

Exodus 16:17-18, "And the children of Israel did Song of Solomon , and gathered, some more, some less. And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating."

Acts 2:45, "And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need."

2 Corinthians 8:14-15, "But by an equality, that now at this time your abundance may be a supply for their want, that their abundance also may be a supply for your want: that there may be equality: As it is written, He that had gathered much had nothing over; and he that had gathered little had no lack."

2 Corinthians 1:3-4, "Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort; Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God."

Ephesians 4:28, "Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth."

Scripture References- Note similar verses:

Numbers 31:21-24, "And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of war which went to the battle, This is the ordinance of the law which the LORD commanded Moses; Only the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead, Every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make it go through the fire, and it shall be clean: nevertheless it shall be purified with the water of separation: and all that abideth not the fire ye shall make go through the water. And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day, and ye shall be clean, and afterward ye shall come into the camp."

Joshua 22:8, "And he spake unto them, saying, Return with much riches unto your tents, and with very much cattle, with silver, and with gold, and with brass, and with iron, and with very much raiment: divide the spoil of your enemies with your brethren."

Romans 15:1, "We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves."

Galatians 6:2, "Bear ye one another"s burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ."

1 Samuel 30:23-24Comments - David's Grace- David shows grace to these wicked men by his patience with them and grace to those left at Besor by giving them also of the spoil.

1 Samuel 30:25 And it was so from that day forward, that he made it a statute and an ordinance for Israel unto this day.

1 Samuel 30:25Comments- The phrase "unto this day" implies a length of time between the event taking place and it being recorded.

1 Samuel 30:26-31David Repays Those Who Had Helped Him in Exile- When David became blessed by God, he felt indebted to those who assisted him. We have been given an obligation to share what God has given us.

Romans 1:14, "I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the wise, and to the unwise."

1 Corinthians 9:16, "For though I preach the gospel, I have nothing to glory of: for necessity is laid upon me; yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the gospel!"

1 Samuel 30:31 And to them which were in Hebron, and to all the places where David himself and his men were wont to haunt.

1 Samuel 30:31Word Study on "wont" - Webster says the word "wont" means, "using or doing customarily, accustomed, habituated."

1 Samuel 30:31Word Study on "to haunt" - Strong says the Hebrew word "haunt" ( הָלַךְ) (H 1980) means, "to walk, go, wander."

1 Samuel 30:31Comments- In 1 Samuel 30:26-31, David was paying back what he had used from these places for his men, in his appreciation.

 


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These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 30:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/1-samuel-30.html. 2013.

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