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Bible Commentaries

Arthur Peake's Commentary on the Bible

Luke 19

 

 

Verses 1-10

Luke 19:1-27. Lk. here inserts an incident and a parable between Mark 10:52 and Matthew 11:1.

Luke 19:1-10. Jesus and Zacchæus (Lk. only).—The incident is akin to that of Levi, Luke 5:27-32. The tree which Zacchæus used was a fig-mulberry, one with a short trunk and horizontal branches. Jesus, seeing him there, probably asked the bystanders who he was, and at once sees a way of redeeming an outcast. He asks hospitality of him, and enjoys it, to the vexation of all, not simply of Scribes and Pharisees. The tax-gatherer is pricked in his heart, regards his wealth as the product of injustice, and makes the restitution demanded in the Law, e.g. Exodus 22:1, as well as a promise to distribute half his property in charity.

Luke 19:9. unto him: possibly "of him." It is a nice question whether Zacchus represents the Gentile world, now admitted to the household of Israel, or whether Jesus means that his offensive occupation had not cancelled his Jewish birthright, especially since his promise of reparation. We may note that Zacchus was not called to "leave all" and follow Jesus.


Verses 11-27

Luke 19:11-27. Parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:14-30*).—There are some differences in the two versions. In Lk. the "man" of Mt. becomes a prince who (like the sons of Herod the Great) journeys (to Rome) to have his title and dominions confirmed. So Jesus departs to heaven to be invested with the Messianic Kingdom. All the servants (ten in number) receive the same endowment (contrast Mt.), a "pound" ("mina," 100 drachmae, say £3, 15s.; Mt.'s "talent" was worth 60 minæ). The protest of the citizens (Luke 19:14) had an historical precedent in the deputation of fifty Jews that besought the Emperor not to instai Archelaus on the throne of Judæa. Similarly the claim of Jesus had been objected to. Lk. may be thinking of the refusal of the Jews to recognise the Risen Jesus as the Messiah. The reward (Matthew 5:12*) of faithful service is association in rule; cf. Matthew 19:28. Luke 19:27 stands related to the parable much as Matthew 25:30* does to Mt.'s version; with it contrast Matthew 5:44. A comparison of the two forms suggests that Lk. has grafted another parable on to that of the talents. Luke 19:11 shows that the main teaching is (as in Mt.) the duty of using in the best possible way the interval (which may be long, despite the entry into Jerusalem) before the Parousia.


Verses 28-40

Luke 19:28-40. The Triumphal Entry (Mark 11:1-11*, Matthew 21:1-11*).—There is nothing peculiar in Lk.'s narrative except Luke 19:28, which recalls Luke 9:51, till we come to Luke 19:37. There the crowd is defined as consisting of disciples, and their exultation ascribed to the mighty works which they had seen." Luke 19:38 b reminds us of Luke 2:14, though here we have "peace in heaven" (cf. Job 25:2), part of Lk.'s paraphrase of Hosanna.

Luke 19:39 f. Lk. only. Syr. Sin. omits "of the Pharisees." The verses are Lk.'s equivalent for Matthew 21:15 f., the praise of the children. Jesus accepts the acclaiming homage of the crowd as Divinely ordained.


Verses 41-44

Luke 19:41-44. The Fall of Jerusalem Predicted (Lk. only).—Cf. the words of Jesus to the "daughters of Jerusalem," Luke 23:28-31. The passage takes the place of the withering of the fig-tree narrated by Mk. and Mt., which Lk. has already dealt with in different fashion, Luke 13:6-9. The use of the word "bank" (Luke 19:43), i.e. rampart, has been held to show that the prediction, if not composed, was at least revised, after the Fall of Jerusalem.

Luke 19:44. "You would not understand when God was visiting you" (Moffatt); visitation is a neutral term, here denoting the day of opportunity and testing.


Verses 45-48

Luke 19:45-48. The Cleansing of the Temple (Mark 11:15-19*, Matthew 21:12 f.*).—Lk. abbreviates; only the sellers are ejected. Jesus teaches daily in the Temple, a statement repeated at Luke 20:1 and Luke 21:37. Luke 19:48 points to the popularity of Jesus in Jerusalem, cf. Luke 21:38, Luke 23:27; Luke 23:48.

 


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Bibliography Information
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Luke 19:4". "Arthur Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pfc/luke-19.html. 1919.

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