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Bible Commentaries

Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary

Job 32

 

 

Verses 1-22

Notes

Job . "Elihu" אֱלִיהוּא "my God is He;" or, according to some: "My God is Jehovab." Various opinions concerning him, both as to his personality, speeches, and character. He has been considered by some as Balaam, the son of Beor. So JEROME, BEDS, LYRA, and some Rabbins. BEDE saw in him a type of the enemies of the church. Bishop WARBURTON thinks him to have been Ezra, the scribe. Some, as COLEMAN, have supposed him to be the Son of God—a manifestation of the Second Person of the Trinity in the form of a man; a prelibation of His incarnation; what Melehizedech was to Abraham. HODGE regards him as a representative character of the Messiah. KITTO makes him a comparatively obscure and unknown person. According to KIEL and others he was a fourth friend of Job. ZOCKLER understands him to have been a near kinsman of the Patriarch, and not belonging to the party of friends. According to GREGORY: A mere braggadocio; full of pride and vainglory; had the knowledge of God, and boasted of it not a little: from his pride and self-conceit, a type of those who, being left to themselves, become proud of their knowledge. So CODURCUS and MICHAELIS regard him as "highly conceited." STRIGELIUS sees in him an example of an ambitious orator, full of ostentation and audacity. So HERDER, UMBREIT, HAHN, DILLMANN. Professor TURNER speaks of him as manifesting a degree of veneration for Job and his friends, but speaking as an inflated youth, wishing to conceal his self-sufficiency under an appearance of modesty. According to VAIHINGER and others, he attempts to give a solution of the problem, but cannot. An entirely opposite view, however, is taken of him by AUGUSTIN, CHRYSOSTOM, AQUINAS, BRENTIUS, CALVIN, SCHULTENS, SCHLOTTMANN, ZOCKLER, and most of the defenders of the authenticity of the speeches ascribed to him. According to COCCEIUS and others, he "excelled in modesty, as in wisdom." CARPZOV: "Younger, but not inferior to the others in piety." SCULTETUS: "Rightly, but too severely blames Job's speeches." SCOTT, the translator, observes that the sacred writer bears witness to his modesty, and that Job's attention evidences the pertinence of his speeches; while his plan for humbling Job was pursued and completed by the Almighty Himself. According to HUFNAGEL, he defines the state of the question; hits the true point of view in relation to Job's conduct more than his predecessors, neither suspecting his piety, nor charging him with vice, but objecting to his impatience, and a finding fault with Divine Providence: with much power of comprehension and real goodness of heart, he has, however, too little experience. KEIL, who defends him, observes that it was not necessary to mention him in the preface; as parties were only introduced when they were to act or speak. According to ZOCKLER, he is only introduced to point out the sinfulness and perversity of Job's speeches, and to humble his pride; his part in the poem no breach of the connection between Job's speeches and God's, and not superfluous, though leaving the mystery unsolved. Elihu the only one of the speakers whose genealogy is given: hence, thought by LIGHTFOOT and ROSENMULLER to have been the author of the book.

INTRODUCTION AND SPEECH OF ELIHU

The place of Elihu, introduced in this chapter, that of an umpire stepping forward of his own accord, under the promptings of zeal and conscious knowledge, to decide the controversy between Job and his three friends on the one hand, and between Job and the Almighty on the other. His speeches contribute to the solution, as showing reasons why Job might be afflicted as he was, without being what his friends suspected him to be—a secretly bad man, and also as pointing out wherein he erred—namely, in his too strongly justifying himself, and almost censuring the Almighty. His speeches preparatory to the appearance and address of Jehovah, who follows up what Elihu had begun. Elihu in relation to the Almighty, like John the Baptist in relation to Christ. Observe—

(1) An honour to be, like Elihu, a peacemaker, in seeking to compose disputes between brethren, and to remove a believer's controversy with God.

(2) A high privilege to be, like Elihu also, a forerunner in preparing the way for God himself. Precious to be sent, like the seventy disciples, to preach in places where Christ himself is to come (Luk ).

I. The occasion of Elihu's introduction. Job .—"So these three men ceased to answer Job, because he was righteous in his own eyes".

The great object of these friends, to make Job out to be a secret transgressor, and so deserving the sufferings inflicted on him. This view of his case required by their false theology in respect to the Divine government—God viewed by them as necessarily punishing sin and rewarding virtue in this life. Failing to convince Job that he was a bad man, and guilty of such sins as bad justly drawn upon him God's severe judgments, they "ceased to answer Job". Their arguments only in the direction of showing that bad men suffer in this life the consequences of their deeds, however secretly committed, and that good men are invariably prosperous and happy, even in this world. They had employed the last arrow in their quiver without making any impression, and now desist.

Their final charge against Job,—"He was righteous in his own eyes," partly false and partly true. False, as Job acknowledged himself a sinner (ch. Job ; Job 9:2-3). True, but both in a right and wrong sense.

1. In a right sense. In the ordinary use of the term, Job a "righteous" man. This the Divine testimony given of him. The testimony also of his own conscience. His own heart "condemned him not". Conscious of having served God sincerely, earnestly, and perseveringly. Like Paul, could testify that he had "lived in all good conscience unto this day." Had exercised himself in having "a conscience void of offence both towards God and towards men." With this consciousness, Job necessarily and justly "righteous in his own eyes." Could not truthfully deny it, or honestly confess the contrary. So far Job simply believed and maintained he was righteous, because he was so. As a matter of fact. Job's sins not the cause of his sufferings (ch. Job ).

2. In a wrong sense.

(1) As insisting too strongly on his own righteousness.

(2) In ignoring or regarding too slightly the sins that actually adhered to him.

(3) In being too prone to charge God with cruelty and injustice in dealing with him as He did.

(4) In being much more careful to justify himself than his Maker. His eye so entirely on his own integrity and uprightness as to overlook and forget his short-comings and offences against the Divine law. Righteous before men, he failed to see and acknowledge himself, as he ought, guilty before God. Job still very much in the condition of Paul before his journey to Damascus—"alive without the law" (Rom ). The commandment was yet to "come," in order to his dying in his own eyes as a sinner, and having his mouth stopped as guilty before God (Rom 3:19). Job yet to learn and realize more deeply than he had yet done, that in God's sight no man living can be justified (Psa 143:2). This change in his views and experience soon about to take place. What the three friends failed in doing, God Himself was about to accomplish, first and in part through the instrumentality of Elihu; afterwards and more especially, by the manifestation of Himself (ch. Job 42:5-6). Observe—

(1) Possible to have a conscience void of offence towards God and men, and yet to require to be humbled as a sinner before God.

(2) One of the objects of the law of God, to strip men of self-righteousness. By the law is the knowledge of sin (Rom ; Rom 7:7).

(3) The great aim in the Holy Spirit's mission into the world, to convince men of sin and of a better righteousness than their own, in order to their acceptance with God (Joh ; Joh 16:10). What was to be done in Job's case by the appearance of God Himself and the ministry of Elihu, now done by the inward operation of the Holy Ghost and the ministry of the word.

(4). Self-righteousness the great enemy to our peace, as well as to our acceptance before God through the righteousness wrought out for us by the Son of God in our nature (Rom ; Php 3:4; Php 3:9).

II. Elihu's Personality (Job ).

1. His NAME—"Elihu". Denotes—"my God is he," or, "my God is Jehovah". Given at his birth, implies piety on the part of his parents. His name a profession of the faith of his parents, and probably intended to be that of his own. Elihu constantly reminded of the true God by his very name. Probably given him to serve as a guard against advancing idolatry. That object gained. Much in a name. More meaning in names given to individuals, and more importance attached to them, in early times and in the East, than now and with ourselves. Scripture names generally significant. Observe—

(1) Wise in parents to impress Divine truth by every suitable means on the minds of their children from their earliest days, and to keep God before them as they grow up.

(2) Not enough to know that Jehovah is the true God, but that He is our God. God is to be appropriated as our own God in Christ. "My God," the language of faith and love,—"O God thou art my God" (Psa ). The first confession of Christ after his resurrection: "My Lord and my God" (Joh 20:28). Such appropriation of God and self-consecration to Him, the will of God concerning us (Jer 3:4; Jeremiah 19, 22). In the covenant of grace, of God gives Himself over to the believing sinner as his God in Christ (Jer 31:33; Heb 8:10).

2. His PARENTAGE. "Son of Barachel". Elihu the only individual in the poem whose parentage is recorded. Possibly in order to distinguish him from others of the same name, or because his father was a well-known and distinguished man in the country. Possibly because Elihu was yet a young man, and required thus to be distinguished. The addition of the father's name the ordinary way of naming men in the East, except when the party was advanced in years, or a person of great distinction. The name of Elihu's father significant as well as his own. Denotes—"the blessing of God," or "God hath blessed". God's goodness and blessing probably recognized by his parents in the gift of a son. Well to mark God's hand in in our ordinary mercies. Piety not only in Elihu's parents but his grand parents. A precious blessing to have a pious ancestry.—The privilege of all in Christ to be a "Barachel". God "hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus" (Eph ). Barachel, having realized the blessing expressed in his name, the more anxious that his son should do the same, and should be able to say: "The Lord is my God". Hence called him Elihu. Parents enjoying the blessing of a covenant-God themselves, likely to be made a blessing to their children. Elihu the worthy son of a worthy father. "Grace does not run in the blood, but often runs in the line".—P. Henry. Elihu distinguished for his piety and wisdom even while a young man. Reflected honour on the father whose name was connected with his own. Only truly pious children a real credit and honour to their parents. "My son, if thy heart be wise, my heart shall rejoice, even mine" (Pro 23:15).

3. His COUNTRY. "The Buzite". Buzthe second son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen ). A city of this name in Arabia Deserta, mentioned in connection with Dedan in Iduma (Jer 25:13). The name of the city and the country around probably derived from Buz, Nahor's son. Buz himself a Syrian. Probably some of his descendants emigrated south-westwards into Iduma or Arabia. Buz a brother of Uz, from whom the country of Job probably took its name. Job and Elihu thus perhaps not very distantly connected. The Syriaus in general already tinged more or less with idolatry. Hence the command to Abraham to leave his country and his kindred. Idols or images, probably kept as household gods, found in the family of Laban, Nahor's grandson (Gen 31:19). Strange gods worshipped by Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor (Jos 24:2; Jos 24:15). Barachel probably an exception. Hence the piety and wisdom of his son. Due to sovereign grace, that generally some are "among the faithless, faithful found". Saints in Nero's household.

4, His KINDRED. "Of the kindred (or clan) of Ram." Ram probably the same as Aram (1Ch , with Mat 1:3-4). Ram or Aram a son of Shem, and the father or brother of Uz (Gen 10:23; 1Ch 1:17). Another, the son of Kemuel the son of Nahor, and the brother of Buz and Uz (Gen 22:21). A third and later Ram or Aram, the father of Amminadab and grandfather of Nahshou, the prince of the children of Judah at the time of the Exodus (1Ch 2:9-10; Num 1:7; Num 1:2-3). From Ram or Aram, Syria had its name, Mesopotamia, the country between the rivers—namely, the Tigris and the Euphrates, also hence called Padan Aram, or the Plain of Aram. Hence the Syriac and Chaldaic language called the Aramaic, traces of which appear in the Book of Job, but more especially in the speeches of Elihu.—This particularity in the description of Elihu significant, as—

(1) An evidence of the historic truth of the poem;

(2) Indicative of the important place he occupies in the controversy, and the part he contributed to its solution;

(3) Expressive of the honour put upon Elihu himself as the most enlightened of the speakers. "Them that honour me I will honour".

5. His AGE. "Young". Probably even younger than Job. A remarkable peculiarity in his case. The other speakers elderly, and even aged men (Job ). Unusual in Arabia and the East for young men to take part in a religious controversy. Observe—Grace and wisdom not confined to age. John the most beloved and devoted of the Apostles, believed to have been the youngest, Paul, when chosen to be the Apostle of the Gentiles, a young man. Timothy, his friend and deputy while but a youth. Jesus among the doctors in the temple at the age of twelve. Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, distinguished for piety and wisdom at an early age.

III. Elihu's Character. To be gathered from the history and from his own speeches.

1. Ardent and zealous. Hence his anger both against Job and his three friends (Job ), and his eager endeavour to correct their mistakes. Full of matter, and eager to deliver himself of it (Job 32:18-19).

2. Modest. Conscious of his youth, he waits till all the other speakers had nothing more to say (Job ; Job 32:11). Hesitating and afraid to deliver his opinion (Job 32:6). Spoke at length, only because inwardly constrained to do so, and conscious of having something to say on the subject (Job 32:18). Ascribes what knowledge and understanding he had to the Spirit of God (Job 32:8). The appearance of inflation in his language probably due to Oriental poetry, and to the apologetic style which he assumes in introducing himself.

3. Enlightened. Indicated in his speeches. Answered neither by Job nor his friends. The only speaker not censured by the Almighty. Jehovah's address to Job a continuation of his own.

4. Candid and impartial. Neither justifies Job, though desirous of doing so; nor yet, like the three friends, suspects and condemns him as necessarily a wicked man. Speaks his mind, without either fear or favour, as amenable to his Maker (Job ). Reproves Job, without, like the others, losing his temper.

Elihu may be viewed—

(1) As, in character, name, and the attitude he assumes in the controversy, a type of Christ in relation to the Pharisees and doctors of the law, as well as in his office of mediator and revealer of the Father;

(2) As, in his character and speeches, an example to pastors and preachers of the Gospel.

IV. His motives and reasons for entering into the controversy

1. His displeasure with Job and his three friends. Job .—"Then was kindled the wrath of Elihu (Oriental expression for strong disapprobation and displeasure); against Job was his wrath kindled, because he justified himself rather than God (or, "made himself more righteous than God). Also against his three friends was his wrath kindled, because they had no answer [to Job which was solid and satisfactory], and yet had condemned Job" (as a hypocrite and secret transgressor). Elihu, angry with Job for his offence against God; with his friends for their offence against Job.

Observe—anger, not always sinful. "Be ye angry, and sin not" (Eph .) Anger may be either holy or unholy. Shewn by God Himself. God "angry with the wicked every day." Felt and exhibited by Christ. "Looked round about" upon his Pharisaic adversaries and opposers "with anger" (Mar 3:5). Anger a principle or passion implanted in our nature for wise and holy objects. Only right when—

(1) Directed against a proper object. This not always the case with creature anger.

(2) Excited by a just or sufficient cause. Human anger often excited by a bad cause, still more frequently by an insufficient one. Jonah first angry at Nineveh's repentance, and then at the loss of his gourd.

(3) Held under due control. Uncontrolled anger a sinful passion—a sin itself, and leading to many others.

(4) Accompanied with love. Jesus wept over the objects of His anger (Luk ).

5. Not long continued. "Let not the sun go down upon your wrath" (Eph ). Anger may enter the breast of a wise man, but rests only in the bosom of fools (Ecc 7:9). Anger in fallen creatures apt to be sinful. Hence spoken of as a work of the flesh (Gal 5:25). Believers exhorted to put it away (Eph 4:31). Anger in fallen men like gunpowder in the hands of children—useful but dangerous Often sinful even in good men. Excluded Moses, though the meekest man on earth, from the promised land (Num 20:10; Num 20:12). Anger safest where directed against the sin rather than the sinner. Causeless anger murder in the heart, and often leading to murder in the act. Excessive anger a species of madness. The New Testament rule—"Slow to speak, slow to wrath." "Not soon angry," a precept necessary both for ministers and people. One feature of charity or love that it is "not easily provoked (1Co 13:5).

2. The inability of the three friends to answer Job. Job —"They had found no answer." Job 32:10—Therefore I said, hearken unto me; I also will shew mine opinion. Behold, I waited for your words; I gave ear to your reasons (your arguments, or your views; Margin, ‘your understandings'), whilst (or till) ye searched out what to say. Yea, I attended unto you (or ‘to your testimonies'), and behold, there was none of you that convinced Job (refuted or convicted him of error), or that answered his words" (solidly, suitably, and satisfactorily). Job 32:15—"They (i.e., Job's friends,—the words addressed to Job, or to others present at the controversy as by-standers), were amazed (‘struck down,' either by Job's arguments, his confidence in God, or his obstinacy in maintaining his innocence), they left off speaking. When I had waited (or simply, ‘I waited'—spoken after an interval of silence, leaving room for remark), for (or but) they spake not, but stood still (persevered in their silence, or stood as dumb), and answered no more; I said, I will also [though so much younger] answer my part (will contribute my part to the controversy); I also will show my opinion." Becoming in juniors to be silent in a discussion, till others, older and likely to be better informed on the subject, have said what they are able to say upon it. Modesty an ornament to all, but especially to youth. "Slow to speak," in most cases a safe rule. Jesus among the doctors, first heard, then asked questions, and then gave answers.

3. The general bestowment of understanding by the Creator on mankind. Job .—"I said, days (men of advanced age) should speak, and the multitude of years should teach wisdom (understanding as to God's dealings and man's duty). But there is a spirit in man (mankind in general, without being confined to age), and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding. Great men (great either in age or position) are not always wise; neither do the aged (necessarily or exclusively) understand judgment (what is right either in doctrine or duty). Therefore I said, Hearken to me; I also will shew mine opinion." Observe:

(1) To speak on great and important subjects connected with Divine truth, the especial right and duty of men of age and experience. Growth in wisdom naturally expected to accompany growth in years.

(2) Wisdom not the monopoly of any age or class.

(3). Intelligence the gift of God. Christ the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world (Joh ).

(4) A preacher to speak in dependence on, and as the result of, Divine enlightenment. "If any speak, let him speak as the oracles of God." The manifestation of the Spirit given to every [believing] man to profit [others] withal (1Co ; 1Pe 4:11. Three things necessary for every preacher of Divine truth—

(1) A message given him by the Spirit.

(2) The unction of the Spirit in delivering it.

(3) The power of the Spirit to accompany it in the hearts of the hearers.

4. His conviction, in opposition to the self-conceit of the three friends, that the subject under discussion was capable of receiving a more satisfactory treatment. Job —"Lest ye should say (or ‘do not say'), We have found out wisdom; God casteth him down, and not man" (his afflictions are to be viewed as coming in righteous judgment from the hand of God, and not from man; or, "God must confute or overcome him and not man.") Either the language of the friends, as if they had said all that could be advanced on the subject, Job being now incorrigible to all but God himself; or the language of Elihu, as indicating that what he was about to advance was not the mere argument of man, but the teaching of God himself, by whose inspiration he was about to speak. "We have found out wisdom," generally the language of ignorance and pride, as if we ourselves had seen the whole truth in relation to a subject, and nothing more could be said about it. The language of many of the philosophers or wise men of antiquity. "Professing themselves to be wise." The name "philosopher," however, denoting a lover of wisdom, chosen in modesty by Pythagoras its inventor, to indicate, in opposition to many who called themselves "wise men," that wisdom was not yet found out, and that all that men could pretend to, was to be lovers or seekers of it; while both Socrates and Plato acknowledged the necessity of a Divine revelation, and anticipated the bestowment of it at some future period. "We have found out wisdom," still the language of a ‘vain philosophy,' and of ‘science falsely so called.' The boast of some modern as well as of ancient schools. Especially made at present in reference to the origin of man and of the universe. ‘Natural Selection' to take the place of a personal and intelligent Creator. The Bible account of creation to be set aside, according to some, for the teachings or guessings of science, which yet is obliged to confess that it neither does nor can know anything certain on the subject. "I say," says one of those who think they have ‘found out wisdom' on this subject, "that natural knowledge, seeking to satisfy natural wants, has found the ideas which alone can satisfy spiritual cravings." On a subject, in regard to which science professes it has and can have no evidence and can give no certain account, on which its teachings are far from being in harmony with each other, and one connected with matters of infinite and eternal importance,—it would seem not a little wiser to accept the professed and sufficiently-accredited Divine testimony, however it is to be intrepreted, which has been preserved and handed down to us through nearly four thousand years; which has been received as such by Jesus Christ and His Apostles, and by the best men in every age, both before and since, who have had the opportunity of doing so; and is infinitely more calculated to meet the wants and circumstances of humanity, than the theory or guesses which some professors of science would give us in its stead.

5. His having hitherto stood aloof from the controversy, and having arguments to produce which had not yet been advanced. Job .—"Now he (Job) hath not directed his words against me: neither will I answer him with your speeches" (either as to the matter or manner of them). Elihu proposes—

(1) To bring new matter to bear on the subject under discussion, viz., God's providential dealings with men;

(2) To speak in a calmer and more dispassionate tone than the three friends, as not having had anything irritating addressed to him by Job. The argument of the friends, that Job's sufferings proved him to be a transgressor. Elihu's object to show that afflictions and trials are often of a disciplinary character.—Necessary in a discussion—

(1) To be able to say something new;

(2) To keep one's temper.

6. His deep interest in the subject, his consciousness of having much to say upon it, and his earnest desire to deliver it. Job .—"For I am full of matter: the spirit within me (Heb of my belly' or heart) constraineth (or straiteneth) me. Behold, my belly (or heart, as Joh 7:38) is as wine which hath no vent (or outlet for the escape of the gas generated in the course of fermentation); it is ready to burst like new bottles (or, like skin-bottles containing new wine undergoing fermentation; old skins being more liable to burst than new ones, Mat 9:17-18). I will speak that I may be refreshed (relieved of the inward pressure to deliver what I have to say on the subject); I will open my lips and answer". In the East, a young man only justified in speaking in the presence of seniors, when he has much to say on the subject under discussion. Observe—The duty of Christians in general, and of preachers in particular:

(1) To be deeply interested in subjects pertaining to the Divine glory and the welfare of men. Well to be "zealously affected always in a good thing" (Gal ).

(2) To sympathize with the sufferings of a fellow-creature, and to seek in every way we can to alleviate them.

(3) To obtain correct views as to the cause of afflictions, and the best way to improve them.

(4) To communicate for the comfort and benefit of others what we ourselves have been taught in regard to Divine things. That preacher likely to profit who feels that he has something important to say, and is inwardly constrained to say it. Desirable for a preacher to have the prophet's experience,—God's Word as a burning fire shut up in his bones (Jer ). "We cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard" (Act 4:20). Paul pressed in the spirit at Corinth, and so testified to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ (Act 18:5). Preachers needed who are ready to burst with the good news they have to communicate to their hearers concerning the great salvation of God. Such the preachers of the Gospel who at first turned the world up-side-down, and would do so again if found in any considerable number.

V. Elihu's resolution to be plain and impartial in his discourse, and his reason for it. Job .—"Let me not, I pray you, accept any man's person (shew partiality to any on the ground either of age or reputation), neither let me give flattering titles unto man (employing titles of honour and compliment, or speaking blandly and flatteringly, instead of plainly and honestly, and calling things by their right names). For I know not (am neither able nor willing) to give flattering titles; in so doing my Maker would soon take me away" (by some signal manifestation of His displeasure; or simply, "my Maker will soon take me away," i.e., by death: I shall soon appear in His presence and render an account of what and how I have spoken). The Orientals remarkable for their employment of flattering titles in addressing others. Observe—

(1) Plainness of speech in a preacher not incompatible with courtesy. Paul an example of both.

(2) The preacher neither to be influenced by fear nor favour in delivering his message or performing his office. His business not to please but persuade men, or to please only in so far as it may tend to their edification, and with that object (Rom ; 1Co 10:33; 1Co 9:22). His duty to declare the whole counsel of God; to speak necessary truth, however unpalatable; to deliver his message faithfully, whether men will hear or whether they will forbear.

(3) Important recollection for a preacher: "My Maker will soon take me away." Good to speak "as a dying man to dying men."

(4) The remembrance of Christ's presence as a hearer the best safeguard to the faithfulness of the preacher, and the best means of deliverance from the fear of man. Fear or flattery of man on the part of a preacher, an insult to his Master. Foolish as well as base to court the page's favour instead of the sovereign's. "That man preaches before me as if he had the Almighty standing at his elbow"—James the First, of one of his Court Preachers. Latimer's introduction to his sermon before Henry the Eighth: "Remember, Hugh Latimer, that thou speakest before the king, and, therefore, take good heed to what thou sayest in presence of his majesty; but remember also, Hugh Latimer, that thou speakest before the King of Kings, whose servant thou art, and who shall one day call thee to account".

 


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Bibliography Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on Job 32:4". Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/phc/job-32.html. Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1892.

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