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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

John 8



Verse 1

But Jesus went (Ιησους δε επορευτηIēsous de eporeuthē). Same deponent use of πορευομαιporeuomai as in John 7:53 and in contrast to the Sanhedrin‘s conduct, though it seems “pointless” (Dods). Apparently Jesus was lodging in the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.

Verse 2

Early in the morning (ορτρουorthrou). Genitive of time, ορτροςorthros meaning daybreak, old word, not in John, though in Luke 24:1; Acts 5:21. John uses πρωιprōi (John 18:28; John 20:1; John 21:4).

He came again into the temple (παλιν παρεγενετο εις το ιερονpalin paregeneto eis to hieron). If the paragraph is genuine, the time is the next day after the eighth and last day of the feast. If not genuine, there is no way of telling the time of this apparently true incident.

And all the people came unto him
(και πας ο λαος ηρχετο προς αυτονkai pās ho laos ērcheto pros auton). Imperfect middle of ερχομαιerchomai picturing the enthusiasm of the whole (παςpas) crowd now as opposed to the divisions in chapter 7.

(εδιδασκενedidasken). Imperfect active of διδασκωdidaskō He took his seat (κατισαςkathisas ingressive active participle of κατιζωkathizō) as was customary for Jesus and began to teach (inchoative imperfect). So the picture.

Verse 3

The scribes and the Pharisees (οι γραμματεις και οι Παρισαιοιhoi grammateis kai hoi Pharisaioi). John does not mention “scribes,” though this combination (note two articles) is common enough in the Synoptics (Luke 5:30; Luke 6:7, etc.).

Bring (αγουσινagousin). Vivid dramatic present active indicative of αγωagō Dods calls this “in itself an unlawful thing to do” since they had a court for the trial of such a case. Their purpose is to entrap Jesus.

Taken in adultery
(επι μοιχειαι κατειλεμμενηνepi moicheiāi kateilemmenēn). Perfect passive participle of καταλαμβανωkatalambanō old compound to seize (Mark 9:18), to catch, to overtake (John 12:35), to overcome (or overtake) in John 1:5.

Having let her in the midst
(στησαντες αυτην εν μεσωιstēsantes autēn en mesōi). First aorist active (transitive) participle of ιστημιhistēmi Here all could see her and what Jesus did with such a case. They knew his proneness to forgive sinners.

Verse 4

Hath been taken (κατειληπταιkateilēptai). Perfect passive indicative of καταλαμβανωkatalambanō (see John 8:3), caught and still guilty.

In adultery (μοιχευομενηmoicheuomenē). Present passive participle of μοιχευωmoicheuō “herself suffering adultery” (Matthew 5:32). Used of married people. Not in John.

In the very act
(επ αυτοπωρωιep' autophōrōi). Old adjective (αυτοπωροσ αυτοςautophōros class="greek-hebrew">πωρ — autos self, and phōr thief) caught in the act of theft, then extended to any crime in which one is caught. Old idiom, but not elsewhere in the Greek Bible. One example in a Berlin papyrus.

Verse 5

Commanded (ενετειλατοeneteilato). First aorist middle indicative of εντελλωentellō old verb to enjoin (Matthew 4:6).

To stone such (τας τοιαυτας λιταζεινtas toiautas lithazein). Present active infinitive of λιταζωlithazō (from λιτοςlithos), from Aristotle on. Stoning was specified for the case of a betrothed woman guilty of adultery (Deuteronomy 22:23.) and for a priest‘s daughter if guilty. In other cases just death was commanded (Leviticus 20:10; Deuteronomy 22:22). The Talmud prescribes strangulation. This case may have strictly come within the regulation as a betrothed virgin.

What then sayest thou of her?
(συ ουν τι λεγεισsu oun ti legeis). “Thou then, what dost thou say?” This was the whole point, to catch Jesus, not to punish the woman.

Verse 6

Tempting him (πειραζοντες αυτονpeirazontes auton). Evil sense of this present active participle of πειραζωpeirazō as so often (Mark 8:11; Mark 10:2, etc.).

That they might have whereof to accuse him (ινα εχωσιν κατηγορειν αυτουhina echōsin katēgorein autou). Purpose clause with ιναhina and present active subjunctive of εχωechō This laying of traps for Jesus was a common practice of his enemies (Luke 11:16, etc.). Note present active infinitive of κατηγορεωkatēgoreō (see Matthew 12:10 for the verb) to go on accusing (with genitive αυτουautou). It was now a habit with these rabbis.

Stooped down
(κατω κυπσαςkatō kupsas). First aorist active participle of κυπτωkuptō old verb to bow the head, to bend forward, in N.T. only here and John 8:8; Mark 1:7. The use of κατωkatō (down) gives a vivid touch to the picture.

With his finger
(τωι δακτυλωιtōi daktulōi). Instrumental case of δακτυλοςdaktulos for which see Matthew 23:4.

Wrote on the ground
(κατεγραπεν εις την γηνkategraphen eis tēn gēn). Imperfect active of καταγραπωkatagraphō old compound, here only in N.T., to draw, to delineate, to write down, apparently inchoative, began to write on the sand as every one has done sometimes. The only mention of writing by Jesus and the use of καταγραπωkatagraphō leaves it uncertain whether he was writing words or drawing pictures or making signs. If we only knew what he wrote! Certainly Jesus knew how to write. And yet more books have been written about this one who wrote nothing that is preserved than any other person or subject in human history. There is a tradition that Jesus wrote down the names and sins of these accusers. That is not likely. They were written on their hearts. Jesus alone on this occasion showed embarrassment over this woman‘s sin.

Verse 7

When they continued asking (ως επεμενον ερωτωντεςhōs epemenon erōtōntes). Imperfect active indicative of επιμενωepimenō (waiting in addition or still, επιepi old verb) with supplementary active participle of ερωταωerōtaō to question. See same construction in Acts 12:16 The verb επιμενωepimenō does not occur in John. They saw that Jesus seemed embarrassed, but did not know that it was as much because of “the brazen hardness of the prosecutors” as because of the shame of the deed.

He lifted himself up (ανεκυπσενanekupsen). First aorist active indicative of ανακυπτωanakuptō the opposite of κατακυπτωkatakuptō to bend down (John 8:8) or of κατω κυπτωkatō kuptō (John 8:6).

He that is without sin
(ο αναμαρτητοςho anamartētos). Verbal adjective (ανan privative and αμαρτητοςhamartētos from αμαρτανωhamartanō), old word, either one who has not sinned as here and Deuteronomy 29:19 or one who cannot sin, not in the N.T.

Among you
(υμωνhumōn). Objective genitive.

First cast
(πρωτος βαλετωprōtos baletō). The nominative πρωτοςprōtos means first before others, be the first to cast, not cast before he does something else. See John 20:4. The verb is second aorist imperative of βαλλωballō old verb to fling or cast. Jesus thus picks out the executioner in the case.

Verse 8

Again he stooped down (παλιν κατακυπσαςpalin katakupsas). First aorist active participle of κατακυπτωkatakuptō old and rare verb (in Epictetus II, 16. 22) instead of κατω κυπσαςkatō kupsas in John 8:6.

With his finger (τωι δακτυλωιtōi daktulōi). Not genuine, only in D and Western class.

Wrote on the ground
(εγραπεν εις την γηνegraphen eis tēn gēn). Imperfect active of the simplex γραπωgraphō not καταγραπωkatagraphō The second picture of Jesus writing on the ground.

Verse 9

Went out (εχηρχοντοexērchonto). Inchoative imperfect. Graphic picture.

One by one (εις κατ ειςheis kath' heis). Not a Johannine phrase, but in Mark 14:19 where also the second nominative is retained as if κατkath' (καταkata) is regarded as a mere adverb and not as a preposition.

Beginning from the eldest
(αρχαμενοι απο των πρεσβυτερωνarxamenoi apo tōn presbuterōn). “From the elder (comparative form, common in Koiné as superlative) men,” as was natural for they had more sins of this sort which they recalled. “They are summoned to judge themselves rather than the woman” (Dods).

Was left alone
(κατελειπτη μονοςkateleiphthē monos). First aorist effective passive indicative of καταλειπωkataleipō to leave behind, with predicate nominative μονοςmonos “Jesus was left behind alone.”

And the woman, where she was, in the midst
(και η γυνη εν μεσωι ουσαkai hē gunē en mesōi ousa). The woman was left behind also “being in the midst” as they had placed her (John 8:3) before they were conscience stricken and left.

Verse 10

Lifted up himself (ανακυπσαςanakupsas). First aorist active participle of ανακυπτωanakuptō as in John 8:7.

Where are they? (Που εισινPou eisin). Jesus had kept on writing on the ground as the accusers had slipped away one by one.

Did no man condemn thee?
(ουδεις σε κατεκρινενoudeis se katekrinen). First aorist active indicative of κατακρινωkatakrinō old and common verb to give judgment against (down on) one, but not in John. No one dared to cast a stone at the woman on Christ‘s terms.

Verse 11

No man, Lord (Ουδεισ ΚυριεOudeis class="greek-hebrew">Ουδε εγω σε κατακρινω — Kurie). “No one, Sir.” She makes no excuse for her sin. Does she recognize Jesus as “Lord”?

Neither do I condemn thee (απο του νυν μηκετι αμαρτανεOude egō se katakrinō). Jesus does not condone her sin. See John 8:15 for “I do not judge (condemn) any one.” But he does give the poor woman another chance.

Henceforth sin no more
(apo tou nun mēketi hamartane). See also John 5:14 where this same language is used to the impotent man. It literally means (prohibition with present active imperative): “Henceforth no longer go on sinning.” One can only hope that the woman was really changed in heart and life. Jesus clearly felt that even a wicked woman can be saved.

Verse 12

Again therefore (παλιν ουνpalin oun). This language fits in better with John 7:52 than with John 8:11. Just suppose Jesus is in the temple on the following day.

Unto them (αυτοιςautois). The Pharisees and crowds in the temple after the feast was past.

I am the light of the world
(εγω ειμι το πως του κοσμουegō eimi to phōs tou kosmou). Jesus had called his followers “the light of the world” (Matthew 5:14), but that was light reflected from him. Already Jesus (the Logos) had been called the true light of men (John 1:9; John 3:19). The Psalmist calls God his Light (Psalm 27:1). So Isaiah 60:19. At the feast of tabernacles in the Court of the Women where Jesus was on this day (John 8:20) there were brilliant candelabra and there was the memory of the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. But with all this background this supreme and exclusive claim of Jesus (repeated in John 9:5) to being the light of the whole world (of Gentiles as well as of Jews) startled the Pharisees and challenged their opposition.

Shall have the light of life
(εχει το πως της ζωηςhexei to phōs tēs zōēs). The light which springs from and issues in life (Westcott). Cf. John 6:33, John 6:51 about Jesus being the Bread of Life. In this sublime claim we come to a decisive place. It will not do to praise Jesus and deny his deity. Only as the Son of God can we justify and accept this language which otherwise is mere conceit and froth.

Verse 13

Of thyself (περι σεαυτουperi seautou). This technical objection was according to the rules of evidence among the rabbis. “No man can give witness for himself” (Mishnah, Ketub. 11. 9). Hence, they say, “not true” (ουκ αλητεςouk alēthes), not pertinent. “They were still in the region of pedantic rules and external tests.” In John 5:31 Jesus acknowledged this technical need of further witness outside of his own claims (John 5:19-30) and proceeded to give it (John 5:32-47) in the testimony of the Baptist, of the Father, of his works, of the Scriptures, and of Moses in particular.

Verse 14

Even if (κανkan). That is και εανkai ean a condition of the third class with the present active subjunctive μαρτυρωmarturō Jesus means that his own witness concerning himself is true (αλητεςalēthes) even if it contravenes their technical rules of evidence. He can and does tell the truth all by himself concerning himself.

For I know whence I came and whither I go (οτι οιδα ποτεν ηλτον και που υπαγωhoti oida pothen ēlthon kai pou hupagō). In this terse sentence with two indirect questions Jesus alludes to his pre-existence with the Father before his Incarnation as in John 17:5 and to the return to the Father after the death and resurrection as in John 13:3; John 14:2. He again puts both ideas together in one crisp clause in John 16:28 for the apostles who profess to understand him then. But here these Pharisees are blind to the words of Jesus. “But ye know not whence I come nor whither I go” (υμεις δε ουκ οιδατε ποτεν ερχομαι η που υπαγωhumeis de ouk oidate pothen erchomai ē pou hupagō). He had spoken of his heavenly destiny (John 7:33). Jesus alone knew his personal consciousness of his coming from, fellowship with, and return to the Father. Stier (Words of the Lord Jesus) argues that one might as well say to the sun, if claiming to be the sun, that it was night, because it bore witness of itself. The answer is the shining of the sun.

Verse 15

After the flesh (κατα την σαρκαkata tēn sarka). According to the standards of the flesh (2 Corinthians 5:16). The Baptist had said: “There stands one among you whom ye know not” (John 1:26). The Light of the World had come, but they loved darkness rather than light (John 3:19), because the god of this age had blinded their thoughts so that they could not see the illumination of the gospel of the glory of Christ who is the image of God (2 Corinthians 4:4).

Verse 16

Yea and if I judge (και εαν κρινω δε εγωkai ean krinō de egō). “And even if I pass judgment.” Condition of third class again.

True (ale4thine4). See John 1:9 for αλητινοςalēthinos genuine, soundly based (cf. δικαιαdikaia in John 5:30), “satisfying our perfect conception” (Westcott), not merely true (αλητεςalēthes) in the particular facts (John 8:14).

For I am not alone
(οτι μονος ουκ ειμιhoti monos ouk eimi). Jesus now takes up the technical criticism in John 8:13 after justifying his right to speak concerning himself.

But I and the Father that sent me
(αλλ εγω και ο πεμπσας με πατηρall egō kai ho pempsas me patēr). See John 16:32 for a like statement about the Father being with Christ. It is not certain that πατηρpatēr is genuine here (omitted by Aleph D, but in B L W), but the Father is clearly meant as in John 7:18, John 7:33. Jesus gives the Father as the second witness.

Verse 17

Yea and in your law (και εν τωι νομωι δε τωι υμετερωιkai en tōi nomōi de tōi humeterōi). Same use of καιδεkai -de as in John 8:16. They claimed possession of the law (John 7:49) and so Jesus takes this turn in answer to the charge of single witness in John 8:13. He will use similar language (your law) in John 10:34 in an argumentum ad hominem as here in controversy with the Jews. In John 15:24 to the apostles Jesus even says “in their law” in speaking of the hostile Jews plotting his death. He does not mean in either case to separate himself wholly from the Jews and the law, though in Matthew 5 he does show the superiority of his teaching to that of the law. For the Mosaic regulation about two witnesses see Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15. This combined witness of two is not true just because they agree, unless true in fact separately. But if they disagree, the testimony falls to the ground. In this case the Father confirms the witness of the Son as Jesus had already shown (John 5:37).

Verse 18

The Father (ο πατηρho patēr). Clearly genuine here. So these are the two witnesses that Jesus presents to the Pharisees in defense of his claim to be the Light of the World (John 8:12).

Verse 19

Where is thy Father? (που εστιν ο πατηρ σουpou estin ho patēr sou). “The testimony of an unseen and unheard witness would not satisfy them” (Vincent). Bernard understands the Pharisees to see that Jesus claims God the Father as his second witness and so ask “where,” not “who” he is. Augustine has it: Patrem Christi carnaliter acceperunt, Christ‘s human father, as if the Pharisees were “misled perhaps by the Lord‘s use of αντρωπονanthrōpon (John 8:17)” (Dods). Cyril even took it to be a coarse allusion to the birth of Jesus as a bastard according to the Talmud. Perhaps the Pharisees used the question with double entendre, even with all three ideas dancing in their hostile minds.

Ye would know my Father also (και τον πατερα μου αν ηιδειτεkai ton patera mou an ēideite). Conclusion of second-class condition determined as unfulfilled with ανan and second perfect active of οιδαoida used as imperfect in both condition and conclusion. See this same point made to Philip in John 14:9. In John 14:7 Jesus will use γινωσκωginōskō in the condition and οιδαoida in the conclusion. The ignorance of the Pharisees about Jesus proves it and is due to their ignorance of the Father. See this point more fully stated in John 5:36-38 when Jesus had his previous controversy in Jerusalem. In John 7:28 Jesus said that they knew his home in Nazareth, but he denied then that they knew the Father who sent him. Jesus will again on this occasion (John 8:55) deny their knowledge of the Father. Later he will deny their knowledge of the Father and of the Son (John 16:3). The Pharisees are silenced for the moment.

Verse 20

In the treasury (εν τωι γαζοπυλακιωιen tōi gazophulakiōi). See note on Mark 12:41 and note on Luke 21:1 for this word for the treasure-chambers of the temple. “It abutted on the Court of the Women, and against its walls were placed chests, trumpet-like in form, as receptacles for the offerings of the worshippers” (Bernard). The Persian word gaza (treasure) occurs only once in the N.T. (Acts 8:27) and the compound (πυλακηphulakē guard) only here in John. Jesus hardly taught within a treasure-chamber. It probably means “at the treasury in the temple.” This court was probably the most public part of the temple (Vincent).

And (καιkai) = “and yet” as in John 1:10, etc.

Because his hour was not yet come
(οτι ουπω εληλυτει η ωρα αυτουhoti oupō elēluthei hē hōra autou).

(οτιhoti) given why no one seized (επιασενepiasen cf. John 7:30) him. ΕληλυτειElēluthei is past perfect active of ερχομαιerchomai “had not yet come.” This very use of ωραhōra appears in John 2:4 and the very clause in John 7:30 which see.

Verse 21

Again (παλινpalin). Probably παλινpalin (again) in John 8:12 refers to a day after the feast is over since the last day is mentioned in John 7:37. So then here again we probably move on to another day still beyond that in John 8:12.

And ye shall seek me (και ζητησετε μεkai zētēsete me). As in John 7:34, “the search of despair” (Bernard), seeking for the Messiah when it is too late, the tragedy of Judaism today (John 1:11).

And ye shall die in your sin
(και εν τηι αμαρτιαι υμων αποτανειστεkai en tēi hamartiāi humōn apothaneisthe). Future middle indicative of αποτνησκωapothnēskō which is the emphatic word here (cf. Ezekiel 3:18; Ezekiel 18:18; Proverbs 24:9). Note singular αμαρτιαιhamartiāi (sin) here, but plural αμαρτιαιςhamartiais (sins) when the phrase is repeated in John 8:24 (sin in its essence, sin in its acts).

Ye cannot come
(υμεις ου δυναστε ελτεινhumeis ou dunasthe elthein). Precise language of John 7:34 to the Jews and to the apostles in John 13:33.

Verse 22

Will he kill himself? (μητι αποκτενει εαυτονmēti apoktenei heauton). Negative answer formally expected, but there is a manifest sneer in the query. “The mockery in these words is alike subtle and bitter” (Vincent). It was a different group of Jews in John 7:31 who cynically suggested that he was going to work among the Greeks in the Dispersion. Here they infer that Jesus refers to the next world. They suggest the depths of Gehenna for him as the abode of suicides (Josephus, War III. viii. 5). Of course the rabbis could not join Jesus there! Edersheim argues against this view.

Verse 23

Ye are from beneath (υμεις εκ των κατωhumeis ek tōn katō). This language, peculiar to John, could take up the idea in Josephus that these rabbis came from Gehenna whence they will go as children of the devil (John 8:44), but the use of εκ του κοσμου τουτουek tou kosmou toutou (“of this world” in origin) as parallel to what we have here seems to prove that the contrast between κατωkatō and ανωanō here is between the earthly (sensual) and the heavenly as in James 3:15-17. See also Colossians 3:1. This is the only use of κατωkatō in John (except John 8:6). These proud rabbis had their origin in this world of darkness (John 1:9) with all its limitations.

I am from above (εγω εκ των ανω ειμιegō ek tōn anō eimi). The contrast is complete in origin and character, already stated in John 3:31, and calculated to intensify their anger.

Verse 24

For except ye believe (εαν γαρ μη πιστευσητεean gar mē pisteusēte). Negative condition of third class with εαν μηean mē and ingressive aorist active subjunctive of πιστευωpisteuō “For unless ye come to believe.”

That I am he (οτι εγω ειμιhoti egō eimi). Indirect discourse, but with no word in the predicate after the copula ειμιeimi Jesus can mean either “that I am from above” (John 8:23), “that I am the one sent from the Father or the Messiah” (John 7:18, John 7:28), “that I am the Light of the World” (John 8:12), “that I am the Deliverer from the bondage of sin” (John 8:28, John 8:31., and John 8:36), “that I am” without supplying a predicate in the absolute sense as the Jews (Deuteronomy 32:39) used the language of Jehovah (cf. Isaiah 43:10 where the very words occur ινα πιστευσητεοτι εγω ειμιhina pisteusēte -εγω ειμιhoti egō eimi). The phrase egō eimi occurs three times here (John 8:24, John 8:28, John 8:58) and also in John 13:19. Jesus seems to claim absolute divine being as in John 8:58.

Verse 25

Who art thou? (Συ τις ειSu tis ei). Proleptic use of συsu before τιςtis “Thou, who art thou?” Cf. John 1:19. He had virtually claimed to be the Messiah and on a par with God as in John 5:15. They wish to pin him down and to charge him with blasphemy.

Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning (την αρχην οτι και λαλω υμινtēn archēn hoti kai lalō humin). A difficult sentence. It is not clear whether it is an affirmation or a question. The Latin and Syriac versions treat it as affirmative. Westcott and Hort follow Meyer and take it as interrogative. The Greek fathers take it as an exclamation. It seems clear that the adverbial accusative την αρχηνtēn archēn cannot mean “from the beginning” like απ αρχηςap' archēs (John 15:27) or εχ αρχηςex archēs (John 16:4). The lxx has την αρχηνtēn archēn for “at the beginning” or “at the first” (Gen 43:20). There are examples in Greek, chiefly negative, where την αρχηνtēn archēn means “at all,” “essentially,” “primarily.” Vincent and Bernard so take it here, “Primarily what I am telling you.” Jesus avoids the term Messiah with its political connotations. He stands by his high claims already made.

Verse 26

I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you (πολλα εχω περι υμων λαλειν και κρινεινpolla echō peri humōn lalein kai krinein). Instead of further talk about his own claims (already plain enough) Jesus turns to speak and to judge concerning them and their attitude towards him (cf. John 8:16). Whatever they think of Jesus the Father who sent him is true (αλητηςalēthēs). They cannot evade responsibility for the message heard. So Jesus goes on speaking it from the Father.

Verse 27

They perceived not (ουκ εγνωσανouk egnōsan). Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκωginōskō “Preoccupied as they were with thoughts of an earthly deliverer” (Westcott) and prejudiced against recognizing Jesus as the one sent from God.

That he spake to them of the Father (οτι τον πατερα αυτοις ελεγενhoti ton patera autois elegen). Indirect assertion, but with the present indicative (λεγειlegei) changed to the imperfect (ελεγενelegen) as was sometimes done (John 2:25) after a secondary tense.

Verse 28

When ye have lifted up the Son of man (οταν υπσωσητε τον υιον του αντρωπουhotan hupsōsēte ton huion tou anthrōpou). Indefinite temporal clause with οτανhotan (οτε ανhote +υπσοω an) and the first aorist active subjunctive of υπσοςhupsoō to lift up (Koiné verb from γνωσεστεhupsos height), used several times in John of the Cross of Christ (John 3:14; John 8:28; John 12:32, John 12:34). It is unnecessary to render the aorist subjunctive as if a future perfect, simply “whenever ye lift up” (actually lift up, ingressive aorist). In Acts 2:33 the verb is used of the Ascension.

Shall ye know (γινωσκωgnōsesthe). Future (ingressive aoristic) middle of εγω ειμιginōskō Cognoscetis ex re quod nunc ex verbo non creditis (Bengel). But the knowledge from the facts like the fall of Jerusalem will come too late and will not bring a change of heart. The Holy Spirit will convict them concerning judgment (John 16:8). For

I am
(Κατως εδιδασκεν με ο πατηρegō eimi) see note on John 8:24.

As the Father taught me
(Kathōs edidasken me ho patēr). This claim Jesus repeats (see John 8:26) and clearly makes on his arrival at the feast (John 7:16.). This fact marks Jesus off from the rabbis.

Verse 29

Is with me (μετ εμου εστινmet' emou estin). The Incarnation brought separation from the Father in one sense, but in essence there is complete harmony and fellowship as he had already said (John 8:16) and will expand in John 17:21-26.

He hath not left me alone (ουκ απηκεν με μονονouk aphēken me monon). First aorist active indicative of απιημιaphiēmi “He did not leave me alone.” However much the crowds and the disciples misunderstood or left Jesus, the Father always comforted and understood him (Mark 6:46; Matthew 14:23; John 6:15).

That are pleasing to him
(τα αρεστα αυτωιta aresta autōi). This old verbal adjective, from αρεσκωareskō to please, in N.T. only here, Acts 6:4; Acts 12:3; 1 John 3:22. The joy of Jesus was in doing the will of the Father who sent him (John 4:34).

Verse 30

Many believed on him (πολλοι επιστευσαν εις αυτονpolloi episteusan eis auton). Ingressive aorist active indicative, came to believe, nominally at any rate, as in John 2:23. But the tension was keen and Jesus proceeded to test the faith of these new believers from among the Pharisees.

Verse 31

Which had believed him (τους πεπιστευκοτας αυτωιtous pepisteukotas autōi). Articular perfect active participle of πιστευωpisteuō with dative αυτωιautōi (trusted him) rather than εις αυτονeis auton (on him) in John 8:30. They believed him (cf. John 6:30) as to his claims to being the Messiah with their own interpretation (John 6:15), but they did not commit themselves to him and may represent only one element of those in John 8:30, but see John 2:23 for πιστευω ειςpisteuō eis there.

If ye abide in my word (εαν υμεις μεινητε εν τωι λογωι τωι εμωιean humeis meinēte en tōi logōi tōi emōi). Third-class condition with εανean and first aorist (constative) active subjunctive.

Are ye truly my disciples
(αλητως ματηται μου εστεalēthōs mathētai mou este). Your future loyalty to my teaching will prove the reality of your present profession. So the conclusion of this future condition is put in the present tense. As then, so now. We accept church members on profession of trust in Christ. Continuance in the word (teaching) proves the sincerity or insincerity of the profession. It is the acid test of life.

Verse 32

And ye shall know the truth (και γνωσεστε την αλητειανkai gnōsesthe tēn alētheian). Truth is one of the marks of Christ (John 1:14) and Jesus will claim to Thomas to be the personification of truth (John 14:6). But it will be for them knowledge to be learned by doing God‘s will (John 7:17). The word is from αλητηςalēthēs (αa privative and λητωlēthō to conceal, unsealed, open). See also John 8:40, John 8:44, John 8:45.

And the truth shall make you free (και η αλητεια ελευτερωσει υμαςkai hē alētheia eleutherōsei humas). Future active indicative of ελευτεροωeleutheroō old verb from ελευτεροςeleutheros (from ερχομαιerchomai to go where one wishes and so free). One of Paul‘s great words for freedom from the bondage of the law (Romans 6:18; Galatians 5:1). The freedom of which Jesus here speaks is freedom from the slavery of sin as Paul in Romans 8:2. See John 8:36. This freedom is won alone by Christ (John 8:36) and we are sanctified in truth (John 17:19). In John 1:17 truth is mentioned with grace as one of the marks of the gospel through Christ. Freedom (intellectual, moral, spiritual) is only attainable when we are set free from darkness, sin, ignorance, superstition and let the Light of the World shine on us and in us.

Verse 33

We be Abraham‘s seed (Σπερμα Αβρααμ εσμενSperma Abraam esmen). “We are Abraham‘s seed,” the proudest boast of the Jews, of Sarah the freewoman and not of Hagar the bondwoman (Galatians 4:22.). Yes, but the Jews came to rely solely on mere physical descent (Matthew 3:9) and so God made Gentiles the spiritual children of Abraham by faith (Matthew 3:7; Romans 9:6.).

And have never yet been in bondage to any man (και ουδενι δεδουλευκαμεν πωποτεkai oudeni dedouleukamen pōpote). Perfect active indicative of δουλευωdouleuō to be slaves. This was a palpable untruth uttered in the heat of controversy. At that very moment the Jews wore the Roman yoke as they had worn that of Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Alexander, the Ptolemies, the Syrian (Seleucid) kings. They had liberty for a while under the Maccabees. “These poor believers soon come to the end of their faith” (Stier). But even so they had completely missed the point in the words of Jesus about freedom by truth.

Verse 34

Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin (πας ο ποιων την αμαρτιαν δουλος εστιν της αμαρτιασpas ho poiōn tēn hamartian doulos estin ̣tēs hamartiaš). The Western class omits της αμαρτιαςtēs hamartias (sin), but that is the idea anyhow. Note the use of ποιωνpoiōn (present active participle, continuous habit or practice), not ποιησαςpoiēsas (aorist active participle for single act), precisely as in 1 John 3:4-8. Note also John 3:21 for ο ποιων την αλητειανho poiōn tēn alētheian (the one who practises the truth). Sin, like the worst narcotic, is habit forming. Hence the problem today for criminologists for paroled or pardoned criminals nearly always go back to crime, sink again into sin, the slaves of sin. Xenophon has this notion of the slavery of sin (Memor. IV. 5. 3). So Paul clearly in Romans 6:17, Romans 6:20 “slaves of sin” (δουλοι της αμαρτιαςdouloi tēs hamartias).

Verse 35

The bondservant (ο δουλοςho doulos) … the son (ο υιοςho huios). There is a change in the metaphor by this contrast between the positions of the son and the slave in the house. The slave has no footing or tenure and may be cast out at any moment while the son is the heir and has a permanent place. Cf. Ishmael and Isaac (Genesis 21:10) and Paul‘s use of it in Galatians 4:30. We do not know that there is any reference here to Hagar and Ishmael. See also Hebrews 3:5 (Numbers 12:7) for a like contrast between Moses as servant (τεραπωνtherapōn) in God‘s house and Christ as Son (υιοςhuios) over God‘s house.

Verse 36

If therefore the son shall make you free (εαν ουν ο υιος υμας ελευτερωσηιean oun ho huios humas eleutherōsēi). Condition of third class with εανean and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive. “If therefore the Son set you free,” as he has the power to do.

Ye shall be free indeed (οντως ελευτεροι εσεστεontōs eleutheroi esesthe). Old and common adverb from participle οντωνontōn actually, really (cf. Luke 24:34). But this spiritual freedom was beyond the concept or wish of these Jews.

Verse 37

Yet ye seek to kill me (αλλα ζητειτε με αποκτειναιalla zēteite me apokteinai). As at the recent feast (John 7:20, John 7:25, John 7:30, John 7:32; John 8:20). Some of these very professed believers were even now glowering with murderous vengeance.

Hath not free course in you (ου χωρει εν υμινou chōrei en humin). Intransitive use of χωρεωchōreō old verb from χωροςchōros (space, place), to have space or room for. They would not abide in Christ‘s word (John 8:31). They had no longer room for his word when once they understood the spiritual aspect of his message. Jerusalem was now just like Galilee once before (John 6:60-66).

Verse 38

With my Father (παρα τωι πατριpara tōi patri). Locative case of πατηρpatēr and article used as possessive (common idiom), “by the side of my Father,” picture of intimate fellowship like προς τον τεονpros ton theon (face to face with God) in John 1:1.

From your father (παρα του πατροςpara tou patros). Ablative case with παραpara (from the side of) and same possessive use of τουtou in each instance, though “the” will really answer both times. But ο πατηρho patēr does not mean the same person. Christ‘s Father by contrast is not their father.

Verse 39

Our father is Abraham (ο πατηρ ημων Αβρααμ εστινho patēr hēmōn Abraam estin). They saw the implication and tried to counter it by repeating their claim in John 8:33 which was true so far as physical descent went as Jesus had admitted (John 8:37).

If ye were (ει εστεei este). Strictly, “if ye are” as ye claim, a condition of the first class assumed to be true.

Ye would do
(εποιειτε ανepoieite an). Read by C L N and a corrector of Aleph while W omits ανan This makes a mixed condition (protasis of the first class, apodosis of the second. See Robertson, Grammar, p. 1022). But B reads ποιειτεpoieite like the Sin. Syriac which has to be treated as imperative (so Westcott and Hort).

Verse 40

But now (νυν δεnun de). Clear statement that they are not doing “the works of Abraham” in seeking to kill him. See this use of νυν δεnun de after a condition of second class without ανan in John 16:22, John 16:24.

This did not Abraham (τουτο Αβρααμ ουκ εποιησενtouto Abraam ouk epoiēsen). Blunt and pointed of their unlikeness to Abraham.

A man that hath told you the truth
(αντρωπον ος τεν αλητειαν υμιν λελαληκαanthrōpon hos ten alētheian humin lelalēka). ΑντρωπονAnthrōpon (here = person, one) is accusative case in apposition with me (μεme) just before. The perfect active indicative λελαληκαlelalēka from λαλεωlaleō is in the first person singular because the relative οςhos has the person of μεme an idiom not retained in the English that hath (that have or who have) though it is retained in the English of 1 Corinthians 15:9 “that am” for ος ειμιhos eimi

Which I heard from God
(ην ηκουσα παρα του τεουhēn ēkousa para tou theou). Here we have “I” in the English. “God” here is equal to “My Father” in John 8:38. The only crime of Jesus is telling the truth directly from God.

Verse 41

Ye do the works of your father (υμεις ποιειτε τα εργα του πατρος υμωνhumeis poieite ta erga tou patros humōn). Who is not Abraham and not God as Jesus plainly indicates.

We were not born of fornication (ημεις εκ πορνειας εγεννητημενhēmeis ek porneias egennēthēmen). First aorist passive indicative of γενναωgennaō This they said as a proud boast. Jesus had admitted that they were physical (Deuteronomy 23:2) descendants of Abraham (John 8:37), but now denies that they are spiritual children of Abraham (like Paul in Romans 9:7). ΠορνειαPorneia is from πορνοςpornos (harlot) and that from περνημιpernēmi to sell, a woman who sells her body for sexual uses. It is vaguely possible that in this stern denial the Pharisees may have an indirect fling at Jesus as the bastard son of Mary (so Talmud).

We have one Father, even God
(ενα πατερα εχομεν τον τεονhena patera echomen ton theon). No “even” in the Greek, “One Father we have, God.” This in direct reply to the implication of Jesus (John 8:38) that God was not their spiritual Father.

Verse 42

Ye would love me (ηγαπατε αν εμεēgapate an eme). Conclusion of second-class condition with distinct implication that their failure to love Jesus is proof that God is not their Father (protasis).

For I came forth from God (εγω γαρ εκ του τεου εχηλτονegō gar ek tou theou exēlthon). Second aorist active indicative of εχερχομαιexerchomai definite historical event (the Incarnation). See John 4:30 for εχηλτον εκexēlthon ek In John 13:3; John 16:30 Jesus is said to have come from (αποapo) God. The distinction is not to be pressed. Note the definite consciousness of pre-existence with God as in John 17:5.

And am come
(και ηκωkai hēkō). Present active indicative with perfect sense in the verb stem (state of completion) before rise of the tense and here retained. “I am here,” Jesus means.

Of myself
(απ εμαυτουap' emautou). His coming was not self-initiated nor independent of the Father. “But he (εκεινοςekeinos emphatic demonstrative pronoun) sent me” and here I am.

Verse 43

My speech (την λαλιαν την εμηνtēn lalian tēn emēn) and my word (τον λογον τον εμονton logon ton emon). Perhaps λαλιαlalia old word from λαλοςlalos (talk), means here more manner of speech than just story (John 4:42), while λογοςlogos refers rather to the subject matter. They will not listen (ου δυναστε ακουεινou dunasthe akouein) to the substance of Christ‘s teaching and hence they are impatient with the way that he talks. How often that is true.

Verse 44

Ye are of your father the devil (υμεις εκ του πατρος του διαβολουhumeis ek tou patros tou diabolou). Certainly they can “understand” (γινωσκετεginōskete in John 8:43) this “talk” (λαλιανlalian) though they will be greatly angered. But they had to hear it (ακουεινakouein in John 8:43). It was like a bombshell in spite of the preliminary preparation.

Your will to do (τελετε ποιεινthelete poiein). Present active indicative of τελωthelō and present active infinitive, “Ye wish to go on doing.” This same idea Jesus presents in Matthew 13:38 (the sons of the evil one, the devil) and Matthew 23:15 (twofold more a son of Gehenna than you). See also 1 John 3:8 for “of the devil” (εκ του διαβολουek tou diabolou) for the one who persists in sinning. In Revelation 12:9 the devil is one who leads all the world astray. The Gnostic view that Jesus means “the father of the devil” is grotesque. Jesus does not, of course, here deny that the Jews, like all men, are children of God the Creator, like Paul‘s offspring of God for all men in Acts 17:28. What he denies to these Pharisees is that they are spiritual children of God who do his will. They do the lusts and will of the devil. The Baptist had denied this same spiritual fatherhood to the merely physical descendants of Abraham (Matthew 3:9). He even called them “broods of vipers” as Jesus did later (Matthew 12:34).

A murderer
(αντρωποκτονοςanthrōpoktonos). Old and rare word (Euripides) from αντρωποςanthrōpos man, and κτεινωkteinō to kill. In N.T. only here and 1 John 3:15. The Jews were seeking to kill Jesus and so like their father the devil.

Stood not in the truth
(εν τηι αλητειαι ουκ εστηκενen tēi alētheiāi ouk estēken). Since ουκouk not ουχouch is genuine, the form of the verb is εστεκενesteken the imperfect of the late present stem στηκωstēkō (Mark 11:25) from the perfect active εστηκαhestēka (intransitive) of ιστημιhistēmi to place.

No truth in him
(ουκ εστιν αλητεια εν αυτωιouk estin alētheia en autōi). Inside him or outside (environment). The devil and truth have no contact.

When he speaketh a lie
(οταν λαληι το πσευδοςhotan lalēi to pseudos). Indefinite temporal clause with οτανhotan and the present active subjunctive of λαλεωlaleō But note the article τοto “Whenever he speaks the lie,” as he is sure to do because it is his nature. Hence “he speaks out of his own” (εκ των ιδιων λαλειek tōn idiōn lalei) like a fountain bubbling up (cf. Matthew 12:34).

For he is a liar
(οτι πσευστης εστινhoti pseustēs estin). Old word for the agent in a conscious falsehood (πσευδοςpseudos). See 1 John 1:10; Romans 3:4. Common word in John because of the emphasis on αλητειαalētheia (truth).

And the father thereof
(και ο πατηρ αυτουkai ho patēr autou). Either the father of the lie or of the liar, both of which are true as already shown by Jesus. Autou in the genitive can be either neuter or masculine. Westcott takes it thus, “because he is a liar and his father (the devil) is a liar,” making “one,” not the devil, the subject of “whenever he speaks,” a very doubtful expression.

Verse 45

Because I speak the truth (εγω δε οτι την αλητειαν λεγωegō de hoti tēn alētheian legō). Proleptic emphatic position of εγωegō “Truth is uncongenial to them” (Bernard). See John 3:19 for their picture.

Verse 46

Which of you convicteth me of sin? (Τις εχ υμων ελεγχει με περι αμαριτασTis ex humōn elegchei me peri hamaritas). See on John 3:20; John 16:8 (the work of the Holy Spirit) for ελεγχωelegchō for charge and proof. The use of αμαρτιαhamartia as in John 1:29 means sin in general, not particular sins. The rhetorical question which receives no answer involves sinlessness (Hebrews 4:15) without specifically saying so. Bernard suggests that Jesus paused after this pungent question before going on.

Why do ye not believe me? (Δια τι υμεις ου πιστευετε μοιDia ti humeis ou pisteuete moi). This question drives home the irrationality of their hostility to Jesus. It was based on prejudice and predilection.

Verse 47

He that is of God (ο ων εκ του τεουho ōn ek tou theou). See this use of εκek in John 3:31. “Their not listening proved that they were not of God” (Dods). They were of the earth and the devil, not of God.

Verse 48

Thou art a Samaritan and hast a demon (Σαμαρειτης ει συ και δαιμονιον εχειςSamareitēs ei su kai daimonion echeis). On the spur of the moment in their rage and fury they can think of no meaner things to say. They know, of course, that Jesus was not a Samaritan, but he had acted like a Samaritan in challenging their peculiar spiritual privileges (John 4:9, John 4:39). The charge of having a demon was an old one by the Pharisees (Matthew 12:24) and it is repeated later (John 10:20).

Verse 49

I have not a demon (εγω δαιμονιον ουκ εχωegō daimonion ouk echō). This Jesus says calmly, passing by the reference to the Samaritans as beneath notice.

My Father (τον πατερα μουton patera mou). As in John 2:16. He is not mad in claiming to honour God (cf. John 7:18). They were insulting the Father in insulting him (cf. John 5:23). On ατιμαζωatimazō (αa privative and τιμαωtimaō to dishonour) see Luke 20:11.

Verse 50

But I seek not mine own glory (εγω δε ου ζητω την δοχαν μουegō de ou zētō tēn doxan mou). As they did not seek the glory of God (John 5:44; John 8:4).

And judgeth (και κρινωνkai krinōn). The Father judges between you and me, though the Son is the Judge of mankind (John 5:22). “It is only the δοχαdoxa (glory) that comes from God that is worth having” (Bernard).

Verse 51

If a man keep my word (εαν τις τον εμον λογον τηρησηιean tis ton emon logon tērēsēi). Condition of third class with εανean and constative aorist active subjunctive of τηρεωtēreō Repeated in John 8:52. See John 8:43 about hearing the word of Christ. Common phrase in John (John 8:51, John 8:52, John 8:55; John 14:23, John 14:24; John 15:20; John 17:6; 1 John 2:5). Probably the same idea as keeping the commands of Christ (John 14:21).

He shall never see death (τανατον ου μη τεωρησηι εις τον αιοναthanaton ou mē theōrēsēi eis ton aiona). Spiritual death, of course. Strong double negative ου μηou mē with first aorist active subjunctive of τεωρεωtheōreō The phrase “see death” is a Hebraism (Psalm 89:48) and occurs with ιδεινidein (see) in Luke 2:26; Hebrews 11:5. No essential difference meant between οραωhoraō and τεωρεωtheōreō See John 14:23 for the blessed fellowship the Father and the Son have with the one who keeps Christ‘s word.

Verse 52

Now we know (νυν εγνωκαμενnun egnōkamen). Perfect active indicative of γινωσκωginōskō state of completion, “Now since such talk we have come to certain knowledge that thou hast a demon” (John 8:48).

Is dead (απετανενapethanen). Second aorist active indicative of αποτνησκωapothnēskō “Abraham died.”

And thou sayest
(και συ λεγειςkai su legeis). Adversative use of καιkai “and yet.” Emphatic position of συsu (thou). Same condition quoted as in John 8:51.

He shall never taste of death
(ου με γευσηται τανατου εις τον αιοναou me geusētai thanatou eis ton aiona). Same emphatic negative with subjunctive as in John 8:51, but γευσηταιgeusētai (first aorist middle subjunctive of γευωgeuō with genitive case τανατουthanatou (death). Another Hebraism for dying like τεωρησηιtheōrēsēi (see) in John 8:51. Used in Hebrews 2:9 of the death of Jesus and in Synoptics (Matthew 16:28; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27). It occurs in the Talmud, but not in the O.T. The Pharisees thus did not misquote Jesus, though they misunderstood him.

Verse 53

Art thou greater than our father Abraham? (Μη συ μειζων ει του πατρος ημων ΑβρααμMē su meizōn ei tou patros hēmōn Abraam). Negative answer expected by μηmē with ablative case of comparison in πατροςpatros after μειζωνmeizōn The question was designed to put Jesus in a difficult position, for Abraham and the prophets all “died.” They do not see that Jesus uses death in a different sense.

Whom makest thou thyself? (τινα σεαυτον ποιεισtina seauton poieis). ΣεαυτονSeauton is predicate accusative with ποιειςpoieis They suspect that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy as they charged in John 5:18 in making himself equal with God. Later they will make it specifically (John 10:33; John 19:7). They set a trap for Jesus for this purpose.

Verse 54

If I glorify myself (εαν εγω δοχασω εμαυτονean egō doxasō emauton). Third-class condition with εανean and first aorist active subjunctive (or future active indicative) of δοχαζωdoxazō

It is my Father that glorifieth me (εστιν ο πατηρ μου ο δοχαζων μεestin ho patēr mou ho doxazōn me). The position and accent of εστινestin mean: “Actually my Father is the one,” etc.

Of whom ye say
(ον υμεις λεγετεhon humeis legete). The accusative of the person (ονhon) with λεγετεlegete is regular (cf. John 10:36).

Your God
(τεος υμωνtheos humōn). So Aleph B D and apparently correct, though A C L W Delta Theta have ημωνhēmōn (our God). The οτιhoti can be taken as recitative (direct quotation, ημωνhēmōn our) or declarative (indirect, that, and so υμωνhumōn). The Jews claimed God as their peculiar national God as they had said in John 8:41. So Jesus turns this confession and claim against them.

Verse 55

And ye have not known him (και ουκ εγνωκατε αυτονkai ouk egnōkate auton). Adversative use again of καιkai = “and yet.” Perfect active indicative of γινωσκωginōskō the verb for experiential knowledge. This was true of the κοσμοςkosmos (John 1:10; John 17:25) and of the hostile Jews (John 16:3). Jesus prays that the world may know (John 17:23) and the handful of disciples had come to know (John 17:25).

But I know him (εγω δε οιδα αυτονegō de oida auton). Equipped by eternal fellowship to reveal the Father (1:1-18). This peculiar intimate knowledge Jesus had already claimed (John 7:29). Jesus used οιδαoida (John 8:19; John 15:21) or γινωσκωginōskō (John 17:23, John 17:25) for the knowledge of the Father. No undue distinction can be drawn here.

And if I should say
(καν ειπωkan eipō). Third-class condition (concession), “even if I say,” with και εανkai ean (κανkan) and second aorist active subjunctive. “Suppose I say.”

I shall be like you a liar
(εσομαι ομοιος υμιν πσευστηςesomai homoios humin pseustēs). Apodosis of the condition. ομοιοςHomoios (like) is followed by the associative-instrumental case υμινhumin The word πσευστηςpseustēs (liar), in spite of the statement that they are the children of the devil, the father of lying (John 8:44), comes with a sudden jolt because it is a direct charge. This word liar is not considered polite today in public speech when hurled at definite individuals. There is a rather free use of the word in 1 John 2:4, 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:20; 1 John 5:10. It is not hard to imagine the quick anger of these Pharisees.

Verse 56

Rejoiced (ηγαλλιασατοēgalliasato). First aorist middle indicative of αγαλλιαομαιagalliaomai a word of Hellenistic coinage from αγαλλομαιagallomai to rejoice.

To see (ινα ιδηιhina idēi). Sub-final use of ιναhina and second aorist active subjunctive of οραωhoraō This joy of Abraham is referred to in Hebrews 11:13 (saluting, ασπασαμενοιaspasamenoi the promises from afar). There was a Jewish tradition that Abraham saw the whole history of his descendants in the vision of Genesis 15:6., but that is not necessary here. He did look for and welcome the Messianic time, “my day” (την ημεραν την εμηνtēn hēmeran tēn emēn). “He saw it, and was glad” (ειδεν και εχαρηeiden kai echarē). Second aorist active indicative of οραωhoraō and second aorist passive indicative of χαιρωchairō Ye see it and are angry!

Verse 57

Thou art not yet fifty years old (πεντηκοντα ετι ουπω εχειςpentēkonta eti oupō echeis). Literally, “Thou hast not yet fifty years.” Not meaning that Jesus was near that age at all. It was the crisis of completed manhood (Numbers 4:3) and a round number. Jesus was about thirty to thirty-three.

And hast thou seen Abraham? (Και Αβρααμ εωρακασKai Abraam heōrakas). So A C D and B W Theta have εωρακεςheōrakes both second person singular of the perfect active indicative of οραωhoraō But Aleph, Sin-syr., Coptic versions (accepted by Bernard) have και Αβρααμ εωρακε σεkai Abraam heōrake sė “Has Abraam seen thee?” Either makes sense here.

Verse 58

Before Abraham was (πριν Αβρααμ γενεσταιprin Abraam genesthai). Usual idiom with πρινprin in positive sentence with infinitive (second aorist middle of γινομαιginomai) and the accusative of general reference, “before coming as to Abraham,” “before Abraham came into existence or was born.”

I am (εγω ειμιegō eimi). Undoubtedly here Jesus claims eternal existence with the absolute phrase used of God. The contrast between γενεσταιgenesthai (entrance into existence of Abraham) and ειμιeimi (timeless being) is complete. See the same contrast between ενen in John 1:1 and εγενετοegeneto in John 1:14. See the contrast also in Psalm 90:2 between God (ειei art) and the mountains (γενητηναιgenēthēnai). See the same use of ειμιeimi in John 6:20; John 9:9; John 8:24, John 8:28; John 18:6.

Verse 59

They took up stones therefore (ηραν ουν λιτουςēran oun lithous). First aorist active indicative of αιρωairō inferential use of ουνoun The time for argument had past.

To cast at him (ινα βαλωσιν επ αυτονhina balōsin ep' auton). Final clause with ιναhina and the second aorist active subjunctive of βαλλωballō Vivid picture of a mob ready to kill Jesus, already beginning to do so.

Hid himself
(εκρυβηekrubē). Second aorist passive indicative of κρυπτωkruptō He was hidden. No Docetic vanishing, but quietly and boldly Jesus went out of the temple. His hour had not yet come. Once again three months later the Pharisees will try to kill him, but he will pass out of their hands (John 10:39).


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 8:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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