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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Jude 1



Verse 1

Servant (δουλοςdoulos). Precisely as James (James 1:1), only James added κυριουkuriou (Lord).

Brother of James (αδελπος Ιακωβουadelphos Iakōbou). Thus Jude identifies himself. But not the “Judas of James” (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13).

To them that are called (τοισκλητοιςtois- κλητοιςklētois). But this translation (treating τοιςklētois as a substantive like Romans 1:6; 1 Corinthians 1:24) is by no means certain as two participles come in between κλητοιςtois and Κλητοιςklētois εν τεωι πατρι ηγαπημενοιςKlētois may be in the predicate position (being called), not attributive. But see 1 Peter 1:1.

Beloved in God the Father (αγαπαωen theōi patri ēgapēmenois). Perfect passive participle of ενagapaō but no precise parallel to this use of αγαπαωen with Ιησου Χριστωι τετηρημενοιςagapaō for Jesus Christ (Iēsou Christōi tetērēmenois). Perfect passive participle again with dative, unless it is the instrumental, “kept by Jesus Christ,” a quite possible interpretation.

Verse 2

Be multiplied (πλητυντειηplēthuntheiē). First aorist passive optative of πλητυνωplēthunō as in 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 1:2.

Verse 3

Beloved (αγαπητοιagapētoi). As in 3 John 1:2.

All diligence (πασαν σπουδηνpāsan spoudēn). As in 2 Peter 1:5.

Of our common salvation (περι της κοινης ημων σωτηριαςperi tēs koinēs hēmōn sōtērias). See this use of κοινοςkoinos (common to all) in Titus 1:4 with πιστιςpistis while in 2 Peter 1:1 we have ισοτιμον πιστινisotimon pistin which see.

I was constrained (αναγκην εσχονanagkēn eschon). “I had necessity” like Luke 14:18; Hebrews 7:27.

To contend earnestly (επαγωνιζεσταιepagōnizesthai). Late and rare (in Plutarch, inscriptions) compound, here only in N.T. A little additional (επιepi) striving to the already strong αγωνιζεσταιagōnizesthai (αγωνagōn contest). Cf. 1 Timothy 6:12 αγωνιζου τον καλον αγωναagōnizou ton kalon agōna the faith (τηιπιστειtēi- απαχ παραδοτεισηιpistei). Dative of advantage. Here not in the original sense of trust, but rather of the thing believed as in Judges 1:20; Galatians 1:23; Galatians 3:23; Philemon 1:27.

Once for all delivered (παραδιδωμιhapax paradotheisēi). First aorist passive participle feminine dative singular of paradidōmi for which see 2 Peter 2:21. See also 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 1 Corinthians 11:2; 1 Timothy 6:20.

Verse 4

Are crept in (παρεισεδυησανpareiseduēsan). Second aorist passive indicative of παρεισδυωpareisduō (νω̇nō), late (Hippocrates, Plutarch, etc.) compound of παραpara (beside) and ειςeis (in) and δυωduō to sink or plunge, so to slip in secretly as if by a side door, here only in N.T.

Set forth (προγεγραμμενοιprogegrammenoi). Perfect passive participle of προγραπωprographō to write of beforehand, for which verb see Galatians 3:1; Romans 15:4.

Unto this condemnation (εις τουτο το κριμαeis touto to krima). See 2 Peter 2:3 for κριμαkrima and εκπαλαιekpalai ΠαλαιPalai here apparently alludes to Judges 1:14, Judges 1:15 (Enoch).

Ungodly men (ασεβειςasebeis). Keynote of the Epistle (Mayor), in Judges 1:15 again as in 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 3:7.

Turning (μετατιτεντεςmetatithentes). Present active participle of μετατιτημιmetatithēmi to change, for which verb see Galatians 1:6. For the change of “grace” (χαριταcharita) into “lasciviousness” (εις ασελγειανeis aselgeian) see 1 Peter 2:16; 1 Peter 4:3; 2 Peter 2:19; 2 Peter 3:16.

Our only Master and Lord (τον μονον δεσποτην και κυριον ημωνton monon despotēn kai kurion hēmōn). For the force of the one article for one person see note on 2 Peter 1:1. For δεσποτηνdespotēn of Christ see 2 Peter 2:1.

Denying (αρνουμενοιarnoumenoi). So 2 Peter 2:1. See also Matthew 10:33; 1 Timothy 5:8; Titus 1:16; 1 John 2:22.

Verse 5

To put you in remembrance (υπομνησαιhupomnēsai). See 2 Peter 1:12 υπομιμνησκεινhupomimnēskein (present active infinitive there, first aorist active infinitive here).

Though ye know all things once for all (ειδοτας απαχ πανταeidotas hapax panta). Concessive perfect (sense of present) active participle as in 2 Peter 1:12, but without καιπερkaiper Lord (κυριοςkurios). Some MSS. add ΙησουςIēsous The use of κυριοςkurios here is usually understood to mean the Lord Jesus Christ, as Clement of Alex. (Adumbr. p. 133) explains, Exodus 23:20, by ο μυστικος εκεινος αγγελος Ιησουςho mustikos ekeinos aggelos Iēsous (that mystical angel Jesus). For the mystic reference to Christ see 1 Corinthians 10:4, 1 Corinthians 10:9; Hebrews 11:26. Some MSS. here add τεοςtheos instead of ΙησουςIēsous (το δευτερονto deuteron). Adverbial accusative, “the second time.” After having saved the people out of Egypt.

Destroyed (απωλεσενapōlesen). First aorist active indicative of απολλυμιapollumi old verb, to destroy.

Them that believed not (τους μη πιστευσανταςtous mē pisteusantas). First aorist active articular participle of πιστευωpisteuō The reference is to Numbers 14:27-37, when all the people rescued from Egypt perished except Caleb and Joshua. This first example by Jude is not in 2 Peter, but is discussed in 1 Corinthians 10:5-11; Heb 3:18-4:2.

Verse 6

And angels (αγγελους δεaggelous de). The second example in Jude, the fallen angels, accusative case after τετηρηκενtetērēken (perfect active indicative of τηρεωtēreō for which verb see 2 Peter 2:4, 2 Peter 2:7) at the end of the verse (two emphatic positions, beginning and end of the clause).

Kept not (μη τηρησανταςmē tērēsantas). First aorist active participle with negative μηmē with play on “kept not” and “he hath kept.”

Principality (αρχηνarchēn). Literally, “beginning,” “rule,” (first place of power as in 1 Corinthians 15:24; Romans 8:38). In Acts 10:11 it is used for “corners” (beginnings) of the sheet. In Ephesians 6:12 the word is used for evil angels. See Deuteronomy 32:8. Both Enoch and Philo (and Milton) discuss the fallen angels.

But left (αλλα απολιπονταςalla apolipontas). Second aorist active participle of απολειπωapoleipō old verb, to leave behind (2 Timothy 4:13, 2 Timothy 4:20).

Their own proper habitation (το ιδιον οικητηριονto idion oikētērion). Old word for dwelling-place (from οικητηρoikētēr dweller at home, from οικοςoikos), in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 5:2 (the body as the abode of the spirit).

In everlasting bonds (δεσμοις αιδιοιςdesmois aidiois). Either locative (in) or instrumental (by, with). ΑιδιοςAidios (from αειaei always), old adjective, in N.T. only here and Romans 1:20 (of God‘s power and deity). It is synonymous with αιωνιοςaiōnios (Matthew 25:46). Mayor terms αιδιοςaidios an Aristotelian word, while αιωνιοςaiōnios is Platonic.

Under darkness (υπο ζοπονhupo zophon). See 2 Peter 2:4 for ζοποςzophos In Wisdom 17:2 we find δεσμιοι σκοτουςdesmioi skotous (prisoners of darkness).

Great (μεγαληςmegalēs). Not in 2 Peter 2:9, which see note for discussion.

Verse 7

Even as (ωςhōs). Just “as.” The third instance (Jude passes by the deluge) in Jude, the cities of the plain.

The cities about them (αι περι αυτας πολειςhai peri autas poleis). These were also included, Admah and Zeboiim (Deuteronomy 29:23; Hosea 11:8). Zoar, the other city, was spared.

In like manner (τον ομοιον τροπονton homoion tropon). Adverbial accusative (cf. ωςhōs). Like the fallen angels.

Having given themselves over to fornication (εκπορνευσασαιekporneusasai). First aorist active participle feminine plural of εκπορνευωekporneuō late and rare compound (perfective use of εκek outside the moral law), only here in N.T., but in lxx (Gen 38:24; Exod 34:15f., etc.). Cf. ασελγειανaselgeian in Judges 1:4.

Strange flesh (σαρκος ετεραςsarkos heteras). Horrible licentiousness, not simply with women not their wives or in other nations, but even unnatural uses (Romans 1:27) for which the very word “sodomy” is used (Genesis 19:4-11). The pronoun ετεραςheteras (other, strange) is not in 2 Peter 2:10.

Are set forth (προκεινταιprokeintai). Present middle indicative of προκειμαιprokeimai old verb, to lie before, as in Hebrews 12:1.

As an example (δειγμαdeigma). Predicate nominative of δειγμαdeigma old word (from δεικνυμιdeiknumi to show), here only in N.T., sample, specimen. 2 Peter 2:6 has υποδειγμαhupodeigma (pattern).

Suffering (υπεχουσαιhupechousai). Present active participle of υπεχωhupechō old compound, to hold under, often with δικηνdikēn (right, justice, sentence 2 Thessalonians 1:9) to suffer sentence (punishment), here only in N.T.

Of eternal fire (πυρος αιωνιουpuros aiōniou). Like δεσμοις αιδιοιςdesmois aidiois in Judges 1:7. Cf. the hell of fire (Matthew 5:22) and also Matthew 25:46. Jude has no mention of Lot.

Verse 8

Yet (μεντοιmentoi). See John 4:27. In spite of these warnings.

In like manner (ομοιωςhomoiōs). Like the cities of the plain.

These also (και ουτοιkai houtoi). The false teachers of Judges 1:4.

In their dreamings (ενυπνιαζομενοιenupniazomenoi). Present middle participle of ενυπνιαζωenupniazō to dream (from ενυπνιονenupnion dream, Acts 2:17, from ενen and υπνοςhupnos in sleep), in Aristotle, Hippocrates, Plutarch, papyri, lxx (Joel 2:28), here only in N.T. Cf. Colossians 2:18.

Defile (μιαινουσινmiainousin). Present active indicative of μιναινωminainō old verb, to stain, with sin (Titus 1:15) as here. 2 Peter 2:10 has μιασμουmiasmou at nought (ατετουσινathetousin). Present active indicative of ατετεωatheteō to annul. Both κυριοτηςkuriotēs (dominion) and δοχαιdoxai (dignities) occur in 2 Peter 2:10; see note for discussion.

Verse 9

Michael the archangel (ο Μιχαελ ο αρχαγγελοςho Michael ho archaggelos). Michael is mentioned also in Daniel 10:13, Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1; Revelation 12:7. ΑρχαγγελοςArchaggelos in N.T. occurs only here and 1 Thessalonians 4:16, but in Daniel 10:13, Daniel 10:20; Daniel 12:1.

Contending with the devil (τωι διαβολωι διακρινομενοςtōi diabolōi diakrinomenos). Present middle participle of διακρινωdiakrinō to separate, to strive with as in Acts 11:2. Dative case διαβολωιdiabolōi he disputed (οτε διελεγετοhote dielegeto). Imperfect middle of διαλεγομαιdialegomai as in Mark 9:34.

Concerning the body of Moses (περι του Μωυσεως σωματοςperi tou Mōuseōs sōmatos). Some refer this to Zechariah 3:1, others to a rabbinical comment on Deuteronomy 34:6. There is a similar reference to traditions in Acts 7:22; Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:8. But this explanation hardly meets the facts.

Durst not bring (ουκ ετολμησεν επενεγκεινouk etolmēsen epenegkein). “Did not dare (first aorist active indicative of τολμαωtolmaō), to bring against him” (second aorist active infinitive of επιπερωepipherō).

A railing accusation (κρισιν βλασπημιαςkrisin blasphēmias). “Charge of blasphemy” where 2 Peter 2:11 has “βλασπημον κρισινblasphēmon krisin Peter also has παρα κυριωιpara kuriōi (with the Lord), not in Jude.

The Lord rebuke thee (επιτιμησαι σοι κυριοςepitimēsai soi kurios). First aorist active optative of επιτιμαωepitimaō a wish about the future. These words occur in Zechariah 3:1-10 where the angel of the Lord replies to the charges of Satan. Clement of Alex. (Adumb. in Ep. Judae) says that Jude quoted here the Assumption of Moses, one of the apocryphal books. Origen says the same thing. Mayor thinks that the author of the Assumption of Moses took these words from Zechariah and put them in the mouth of the Archangel Michael. There is a Latin version of the Assumption. Some date it as early as b.c. 2, others after a.d. 44.

Verse 10

Whatsoever things they know not (οσα ουκ οιδασινhosa ouk oidasin). Here 2 Peter 2:12 has εν οις αγνοουσινen hois agnoousin The rest of the sentence is smoother than 2 Peter 2:12.

Naturally (πυσικωςphusikōs). Here only in N.T. 2 Peter 2:12 has γεγεννημενα πυσικαgegennēmena phusika Jude has the article ταta with αλογα ζωαaloga zōa and the present passive πτειρονταιphtheirontai instead of the future passive πταρησονταιphtharēsontai f0).

Verse 11

Woe to them (ουαι αυτοιςouai autois). Interjection with the dative as is common in the Gospels (Matthew 11:21).

Went (επορευτησανeporeuthēsan). First aorist passive (deponent) indicative of πορευομαιporeuomai the way of Cain (τηι οδωι του Καινtēi hodōi tou Kain). Locative case οδωιhodōi Cain is Jude‘s fourth example. Not in 2 Peter, but in Hebrews 11:4; 1 John 3:11. From Genesis 4:7.

Ran riotously (εχεχυτησανexechuthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of εκχεωekcheō to pour out, “they were poured out,” vigorous metaphor for excessive indulgence. But it is used also of God‘s love for us (Romans 5:5).

In the error of Balaam (τηι πλανηι του αλααμtēi planēi tou Balaam). The fifth example in Jude. In 2 Peter also (2 Peter 2:15). Either locative case (in) or instrumental (by). ΠλανηPlanē (in Peter also) is the common word for such wandering (Matthew 24:4., etc.).

Perished (απωλοντοapōlonto). Second aorist middle (intransitive) of απολλυμιapollumi the gainsaying of Korah (τηι αντιλογιαι του Κορεtēi antilogiāi tou Kore). Again either locative or instrumental. The word αντιλογιαantilogia is originally answering back (Hebrews 6:16), but it may be by act also (Romans 10:21) as here. This is the sixth example in Jude, not in 2 Peter.

Verse 12

Hidden rocks (σπιλαδεςspilades). Old word for rocks in the sea (covered by the water), as in Homer, here only in N.T. 2 Peter 2:13 has σπιλοιspiloi (αγαπαιςagapais). Undoubtedly the correct text here, though A C have απαταιςapatais as in 2 Peter 2:14. For disorder at the Lord‘s Supper (and love-feasts?) see 1 Cor 11:17-34. The Gnostics made it worse, so that the love-feasts were discontinued.

When they feast with you (συνευωχουμενοιsuneuōchoumenoi). See 2 Peter 2:13 for this very word and form. Masculine gender with ουτοι οιhoutoi hoi rather than with the feminine σπιλαδεςspilades Cf. Revelation 11:4. Construction according to sense.

Shepherds that feed themselves (εαυτους ποιμαινοντεςheautous poimainontes). “Shepherding themselves.” Cf. Revelation 7:17 for this use of ποιμαινωpoimainō Clouds without water (νεπελαι ανυδροιnephelai anudroi). ΝεπεληNephelē common word for cloud (Matthew 24:30). 2 Peter 2:17 has πηγαι ανυδροιpēgai anudroi (springs without water) and then ομιχλαιhomichlai (mists) and ελαυνομεναιelaunomenai (driven) rather than περιπερομεναιperipheromenai here (borne around, whirled around, present passive participle of περιπερωperipherō to bear around), a powerful picture of disappointed hopes.

Autumn trees (δενδρα πτινοπωριναdendra phthinopōrina). Late adjective (Aristotle, Polybius, Strabo) from πτινωphthinō to waste away, and οπωραopōra autumn, here only in N.T. For ακαρπαakarpa (without fruit) see 2 Peter 1:8.

Twice dead (δις αποτανονταdis apothanonta). Second aorist active participle of αποτνησκωapothnēskō Fruitless and having died. Having died and also “uprooted” (εκριζωτενταekrizōthenta). First aorist passive participle of εκριζοωekrizoō late compound, to root out, to pluck up by the roots, as in Matthew 13:29.

Verse 13

Wild waves (κυματα αγριαkumata agria). Waves (Matthew 8:24, from κυεωkueō to swell) wild (from αγροςagros field, wild honey Matthew 3:4) like untamed animals of the forest or the sea.

Foaming out (επαπριζονταepaphrizonta). Late and rare present active participle of επαπριζωepaphrizō used in Moschus for the foaming waves as here. Cf. Isaiah 57:20.

Shame (αισχυναςaischunas). Plural “shames” (disgraces). Cf. Philemon 3:19.

Wandering stars (αστερες πλανηταιasteres planētai). “Stars wanderers.” ΠλανητηςPlanētēs old word (from πλαναωplanaō), here alone in N.T. Some refer this to comets or shooting stars. See Isaiah 14:12 for an allusion to Babylon as the day-star who fell through pride.

For ever (εις αιωναeis aiōna). The rest of the relative clause exactly as in 2 Peter 2:17.

Verse 14

And to these also (δε και τουτοιςde kai toutois). Dative case, for these false teachers as well as for his contemporaries.

Enoch the seventh from Adam (εβδομος απο Αδαμ ενωχhebdomos apo Adam Henōch). The genealogical order occurs in Gen 5:4-20, with Enoch as seventh. He is so termed in Enoch 60:8; 93:3.

Prophesied (επροπητευσενeprophēteusen). First aorist active indicative of προπητευωprophēteuō If the word is given its ordinary meaning as in 1 Peter 1:10, then Jude terms the Book of Enoch an inspired book. The words quoted are “a combination of passages from Enoch” (Bigg), chiefly from Enoch 1:9.

With ten thousand of his holy ones (εν αγιαις μυριασιν αυτουen hagiais muriasin autou). “With (ενen of accompaniment, Luke 14:31) his holy ten thousands” (μυριαςmurias regular word, feminine gender, for ten thousand, Acts 19:19, there an unlimited number like our myriads, Luke 12:1).

Verse 15

To execute judgment (ποιησαι κρισινpoiēsai krisin). “To do justice.”

To convict (ελεγχαιelegxai). First aorist (effective) active infinitive like ποιησαιpoiēsai before it.

Ungodly (ασεβειςasebeis). See Judges 1:4 and end of this verse.

Of ungodliness (ασεβειαςasebeias). Old word as in Romans 1:18, plural in Judges 1:18 as in Romans 11:26.

Which (ωνhōn). Genitive by attraction from αha (cognate accusative with ησεβησανēsebēsan old verb, to act impiously, here alone in N.T. save some MSS. in 2 Peter 2:6) to agree with the antecedent εργωνergōn (deeds).

Hard things (σκληρωνsklērōn). Harsh, rough things as in John 6:60.

Which (ωνhōn). Genitive by attraction from αha (object of ελαλησανelalēsan first aorist active indicative of λαλεωlaleō) to the case of the antecedent σκληρωνsklērōn Four times in this verse as a sort of refrain ασεβειςasebeis (twice), ασεβειασ ησεβησανasebeiasēsebēsan f0).

Verse 16

Murmurers (γογγυσταιgoggustai). Late onomatopoetic word for agent, from γογγυζωgogguzō (Matthew 20:11; 1 Corinthians 10:10) in the lxx (Exod 16:8; Num 11:1, 14-29).

Complainers (μεμπσιμοιροιmempsimoiroi). Rare word (Isocrates, Aristotle, Plutarch) from μεμπομαιmemphomai to complain and μοιραmoira lot or fate. Here alone in N.T.

Lusts (επιτυμιαςepithumias). As in 2 Peter 3:3.

Swelling (υπερογκαhuperogka). So in 2 Peter 2:18 (big words).

Showing respect of persons (ταυμαζοντες προσωπαthaumazontes prosōpa). Present active participle of ταυμαζωthaumazō to admire, to wonder at. Nowhere else in N.T. with προσωπαprosōpa but a Hebraism (in Leviticus 19:15; Job 13:10) like λαμβανειν προσωπονlambanein prosōpon (Luke 20:21) and βλεπειν προσωπονblepein prosōpon (Matthew 22:16) and προσοπωλεμπτεωprosopōlempteō (James 2:9). Cf. James 2:1.

For the sake of advantage (ωπελειας χαρινōpheleias charin). To themselves. See also Judges 1:11. The covetousness of these Gnostic leaders is plainly shown in 2 Peter 2:3, 2 Peter 2:14. For χαρινcharin as preposition with genitive see Ephesians 3:1, Ephesians 3:14.

Verse 17

Remember ye (υμεις μνηστητεhumeis mnēsthēte). First aorist passive (deponent) imperative of μιμνησκωmimnēskō with genitive ρηματωνrēmatōn (words). In 2 Peter 3:2 we have the indirect form (infinitive μνηστηναιmnēsthēnai). The rest as in 2 Peter, but in simpler and more exact structure and with the absence of των αγιων προπητωνtōn hagiōn prophētōn (the holy prophets).

Verse 18

How that (οτιhoti). Declarative οτιhoti as in Judges 1:5. See note on 2 Peter 3:3 for differences, no εν εμπαιγμονηιen empaigmonēi here and no των ασεβειωνtōn asebeiōn there.

Verse 19

They who make separations (οι αποδιοριζοντεςhoi apodiorizontes). Present active articular participle of the double compound αποδιοριζωapodiorizō (from απο δια οριζω οροςapoΔιοριζωdiaαποριζωhorizōαιρεσειςhoros boundary, to make a horizon), rare word, in Aristotle for making logical distinctions, here only in N.T. πσυχικοιDiorizō occurs in Leviticus 20:24 and πσυχηaphorizō in Matthew 25:32, etc. See πνευματικοςhaireseis in 2 Peter 2:1.

Sensual (πνευμα μη εχοντεςpsuchikoi). Old adjective from μηpsuchē as in 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 15:44; James 3:15. Opposed to εχωpneumatikos Not used by Peter.

Having not the Spirit (πνευμαpneuma mē echontes). Usual negative mē with the participle (present active of echō). Probably pneuma here means the Holy Spirit, as is plain in Judges 1:20. Cf. Romans 8:9.

Verse 20

Building up (εποικοδομουντεςepoikodomountes). Present active participle of εποικοδομεωepoikodomeō old compound with metaphor of a house (οικοςoikos), common in Paul (1 Corinthians 3:9-17; Colossians 2:7; Ephesians 2:20).

On your most holy faith (τηι αγιωτατηι υμων πιστειtēi hagiōtatēi humōn pistei). For the spiritual temple see also 1 Peter 2:3-5. See πιστιςpistis (faith) in this sense (cf. Hebrews 11:1) in 2 Peter 1:5 with the list of graces added. A true superlative here αγιωτατηιhagiōtatēi not elative.

Praying in the Holy Spirit (εν πνευματι αγιωι προσευχομενοιen pneumati hagiōi proseuchomenoi). This is the way to build themselves up on their faith.

Verse 21

Keep yourselves (εαυτους τηρησατεheautous tērēsate). First aorist active imperative (of urgency) of τηρεωtēreō In Judges 1:1 they are said to be kept, but note the warning in Judges 1:5 from the angels who did not keep their dominion. See also James 1:27. In Philemon 2:12 both sides (human responsibility and divine sovereignty are presented side by side).

Looking for (προσδεχομενοιprosdechomenoi). Present middle participle of προσδεχομαιprosdechomai the very form in Titus 2:13. The same idea in προσδοκωντεςprosdokōntes in 2 Peter 3:14.

Verse 22

And on some (και ους μενkai hous men). Demonstrative plural of ος μενος δεhos men- ους δεhos de (ουςhous de below), not the relative μεν δεhous but by contrast (ελεατεmenελεαωde). So Matthew 13:8.

Have mercy (ελεεωeleāte). Present active imperative of ελεγχετεeleaō (rare form in Romans 9:16 also for the usual ελεατεeleeō Matthew 9:27). But A C read διακρινομενουςelegchete refute, in place of διακρινωeleate The text of this verse is in much confusion.

Who are in doubt (ους μενdiakrinomenous). Present middle participle of ελεατεdiakrinō in the accusative case agreeing with ελεγχετεhous men though K L P have the nominative. If the accusative and eleate is read, see James 1:6 for the idea (doubters). If elegchete is read, see Judges 1:9 for the idea (disputers).

Verse 23

And some save (ους δε σωζετεhous de sōzete). B omits ους δεhous de them out of the fire (εκ πυρος αρπαζοντεςek puros harpazontes). Present active participle of αρπαζωharpazō old verb, to seize. Quotation from Amos 4:11 and Zechariah 3:3. Cf. Psalm 106:18. Firemen today literally do this rescue work. Do Christians?

And on some have mercy with fear (ους δε ελεατε εν ποβωιhous de eleāte en phobōi). In fear “of the contagion of sin while we are rescuing them” (Vincent). For this idea see 1 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Philemon 2:12.

Spotted (εσπιλωμενονespilōmenon). Perfect passive participle of σπιλοωspiloō late and common verb (from σπιλοςspilos spot, 2 Peter 2:13), in N.T. only here and James 3:6.

Verse 24

From stumbling (απταιστουςaptaistous). Verbal from πταιωptaiō to stumble (James 3:2; 2 Peter 1:10), sure-footed as of a horse that does not stumble (Xenophon), and so of a good man (Epictetus, Marcus Antoninus).

Before the presence of his glory (κατενωπιον της δοχης αυτουkatenōpion tēs doxēs autou). Late compound preposition (κατα εν ωπςkataπαραστησαιenστησαιōps), right down before the eye of his glory as in Ephesians 1:4. Cf. Matthew 25:31-33; Colossians 1:22, where Paul has αμωμουςparastēsai like αμωμητοςstēsai here (first aorist active infinitive) and also εν αγαλλιασειamōmous as here, but amōmētos in 2 Peter 3:14.

In exceeding joy (en agalliasei). See Luke 1:14.

Verse 25

To the only God our Saviour (μονωι τεωι σωτηρι ημωνmonōi theōi sōtēri hēmōn). Dative in the noble doxology. See Romans 16:27, μονωι σοπωι τεωιmonōi sophōi theōi (to the alone wise God), where also we have δια Ιησου Χριστουdia Iēsou Christou but without του κυριου ημωνtou kuriou hēmōn (our Lord) as here. ΣωτηρSōtēr is used of God eight times in the N.T., six of them in the Pastoral Epistles. ΔοχαDoxa (glory) to God or Christ in all the doxologies except 1 Timothy 6:16. ΜεγαλοσυνηMegalosunē (Majesty) is a late lxx word, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1.

Before all time (προ παντος του αιωνοςpro pantos tou aiōnos). Eternity behind us. See same idea in 1 Corinthians 2:7 προ των αιωνωνpro tōn aiōnōn (νυνnun). The present.

For ever more (εις παντας τους αιωναςeis pantas tous aiōnas). “Unto all the ages.” All the future. As complete a statement of eternity as can be made in human language.


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Jude 1:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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