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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Luke 22



Other Authors
Verse 1

The Passover (πασχαpascha) Both names (unleavened bread and passover) are used here as in Mark 14:1. Strictly speaking the passover was Nisan 14 and the unleavened bread 15-21. This is the only place in the N.T. where the expression “the feast of unleavened bread” (common in lxx, Exodus 23:15, etc.) occurs, for Mark 14:1 has just “the unleavened bread.” Matthew 26:17 uses unleavened bread and passover interchangeably.

Drew nigh (ηγγιζενēggizen). Imperfect active. Mark 14:1; Matthew 26:2 mention “after two days” definitely.

Verse 2

Sought (εζητουνezētoun). Imperfect active of ζητεωzēteō were seeking, conative imperfect.

How they might put him to death (το πως ανελωσιν αυτονto pōs anelōsin auton). Second aorist active deliberative subjunctive (retained in indirect question) of αναιρεωanaireō to take up, to make away with, to slay. Common in Old Greek. Luke uses it so here and in Luke 23:32 and eighteen times in the Acts, a favourite word with him. Note the accusative neuter singular article τοto with the whole clause, “as to the how, etc.”

For they feared (εποβουντο γαρephobounto gar). Imperfect middle describing the delay of the “how.” The triumphal entry and the temple speeches of Jesus had revealed his tremendous power with the people, especially the crowds from Galilee at the feast. They were afraid to go on with their plan to kill him at the feast.

Verse 3

Satan entered into Judas (εισηλτεν εις Ιουδανeisēlthen eis Ioudan). Ingressive aorist active indicative. Satan was now renewing his attack on Jesus suspended temporarily (Luke 4:13) “until a good chance.” He had come back by the use of Simon Peter (Mark 8:33; Matthew 16:23). The conflict went on and Jesus won ultimate victory (Luke 10:18). Now Satan uses Judas and has success with him for Judas allowed him to come again and again (John 13:27). Judas evidently opened the door to his heart and let Satan in. Then Satan took charge and he became a devil as Jesus said (John 6:70). This surrender to Satan in no way relieves Judas of his moral responsibility.

Verse 4

Went away (απελτωνapelthōn). Second aorist active participle of απερχομαιaperchomai He went off under the impulse of Satan and after the indignation over the rebuke of Jesus at the feast in Simon‘s house (John 12:4-6).

Captains (στρατηγοιςstratēgois). Leaders of the temple guards (Acts 4:1), the full title, “captains of the temple,” occurs in Luke 22:52.

How he might deliver him unto them (το πως αυτοις παραδωι αυτονto pōs autois paradōi auton). The same construction as in Luke 22:2, the article τοto with the indirect question and deliberative subjunctive second aorist active (παραδωιparadōi).

Verse 5

Were glad (εχαρησανecharēsan). Second aorist passive indicative of χαιρωchairō as in Mark 14:11. Ingressive aorist, a natural exultation that one of the Twelve had offered to do this thing.

Covenanted (συνετεντοsunethento). Second aorist indicative middle of συντιτημιsuntithēmi An old verb to put together and in the middle with one another. In the N.T. outside of John 9:22 only in Luke (here and Acts 23:20; Acts 24:9). Luke only mentions “money” (αργυριονargurion), but not “thirty pieces” (Matthew 26:15).

Verse 6

Consented (εχωμολογησενexōmologēsen). Old verb, but the ancients usually used the simple form for promise or consent rather than the compound. This is the only instance of this sense in the N.T. It is from ομολογοςhomologos (ομοςhomos same, and λεγωlegō to say), to say the same thing with another and so agree.

Opportunity (ευκαριανeukarian). From ευκαιροςeukairos (ευ καιροςeu ατερ οχλουkairos), a good chance. Old word, but in the N.T. only here and parallel passage Matthew 26:16.

In the absence of the multitude (Ατερater ochlou). χωριςAter is an old preposition, common in the poets, but rare in prose. Also in Luke 22:35. It means “without,” “apart from,” like chōris The point of Judas was just this. He would get Jesus into the hands of the Sanhedrin during the feast in spite of the crowd. It was necessary to avoid tumult (Matthew 26:5) because of the popularity of Jesus.

Verse 7

The day of unleavened bread came (ηλτεν η ημερα των αζυμωνēlthen hē hēmera tōn azumōn). The day itself came, not simply was drawing nigh (Luke 22:1).

Must be sacrificed (εδει τυεσταιedei thuesthai). This was Nisan 14 which began at sunset. Luke is a Gentile and this fact must be borne in mind. The lamb must be slain by the head of the family (Exodus 12:6). The controversy about the day when Christ ate the last passover meal has already been discussed (Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12). The Synoptics clearly present this as a fact. Jesus was then crucified on Friday at the passover or Thursday (our time) at the regular hour 6 p.m. (beginning of Friday). The five passages in John (John 13:1.; John 13:27; John 18:28; John 19:14; John 19:31) rightly interpreted teach the same thing as shown in my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ (pp.279-284).

Verse 8

Peter and John (Πετρον και ΙωανηνPetron kai Iōanēn). Mark 14:13 has only “two” while Matthew 26:17 makes the disciples take the initiative. The word passover in this context is used either of the meal, the feast day, the whole period (including the unleavened bread). “Eat the passover” can refer to the meal as here or to the whole period of celebration (John 18:28).

Verse 9

Where wilt thou that we make ready? (Που τελεις ετοιμασωμενPou theleis hetoimasōmeṉ). Deliberative first aorist active subjunctive without ιναhina after τελειςtheleis perhaps originally two separate questions.

Verse 10

When you are entered (εισελτοντων υμωνeiselthontōn humōn). Genitive absolute.

Meet you (συναντησει υμινsunantēsei humin). An old verb συνανταωsunantaō (from συνsun with, and ανταωantaō to face, αντιanti) with associative instrumental (υμινhumin). See Mark 14:13 about the “man bearing a pitcher of water.”

Verse 11

Goodman of the house (οικοδεσποτηιoikodespotēi). Master of the house as in Mark 14:14; Matthew 10:25. A late word for the earlier δεσποτης οικουdespotēs oikou shall eat (παγωphagō). Second aorist futuristic (or deliberative) subjunctive as in Mark 14:14.

Verse 12

And he (κακεινοςk'akeinos). ΚαιKai and εκεινοςekeinos (χρασιςcrasis) where Mark 14:15 has και αυτοςkai autos Literally, “And that one.” See note on Mark for rest of the verse.

Verse 13

He had said (ειρηκειeirēkei). Past perfect active indicative of ειπονeipon where Mark 14:16 has ειπενeipen (second aorist).

Verse 14

Sat down (ανεπεσενanepesen). Reclined, fell back (or up). Second aorist active of αναπιπτωanapiptō f0).

Verse 15

With desire I have desired (επιτυμιαι επετυμησαepithumiāi epethumēsa). A Hebraism common in the lxx. Associative instrumental case of substantive and first aorist active indicative of same like a cognate accusative. Peculiar to Luke is all this verse. See this idiom in John 3:29; Acts 4:17.

Before I suffer (προ του με πατεινpro tou me pathein). Preposition προpro with articular infinitive and accusative of general reference, “before the suffering as to me.” ΠατεινPathein is second aorist active infinitive of πασχωpaschō f0).

Verse 16

Until it be fulfilled (εως οτου πληρωτηιheōs hotou plērōthēi). First aorist passive subjunctive of πληροωplēroō with εωςheōs (οτουhotou), the usual construction about the future. It seems like a Messianic banquet that Jesus has in mind (cf. Luke 14:15).

Verse 17

He received a cup (δεχαμενος ποτηριονdexamenos potērion). This cup is a diminutive of ποτηρpotēr It seems that this is still one of the four cups passed during the passover meal, though which one is uncertain. It is apparently just before the formal introduction of the Lord‘s Supper, though he gave thanks here also (ευχαριστησαςeucharistēsas). It is from this verb ευχαριστεωeucharisteō (see also Luke 22:19) that our word Eucharist comes. It is a common verb for giving thanks and was used also for “saying grace” as we call it.

Verse 18

The fruit of the vine (του γενηματος της αμπελουtou genēmatos tēs ampelou). So Mark 14:25; Matthew 26:29 and not οινοςoinos though it was wine undoubtedly. But the language allows anything that is “the fruit of the vine.”

Come (ελτηιelthēi). Second aorist active subjunctive with εωςheōs as in Luke 22:16. Here it is the consummation of the kingdom that Jesus has in mind, for the kingdom had already come.

Verse 19

Which is given for you (το υπερ υμων διδομενονto huper humōn didomenon). Some MSS. omit these verses though probably genuine. The correct text in 1 Corinthians 11:24 has “which is for you,” not “which is broken for you.” It is curious to find the word “broken” here preserved and justified so often, even by Easton in his commentary on Luke, p. 320.

In remembrance of me (εις την εμην αναμνησινeis tēn emēn anamnēsin). Objective use of the possessive pronoun εμηνemēn not the subjective.

This do (τουτο ποιειτεtouto poieite). Present active indicative, repetition, keep on doing this.

Verse 20

After the supper (μετα το δειπνησαιmeta to deipnēsai). Preposition μεταmeta and the accusative articular infinitive. The textual situation here is confusing, chiefly because of the two cups (Luke 22:17, Luke 22:20). Some of the documents omit the latter part of Luke 22:19 and all of Luke 22:20. It is possible, of course, that this part crept into the text of Luke from 1 Corinthians 11:24. But, if this part is omitted, Luke would then have the order reversed, the cup before the bread. So there are difficulties whichever turn one takes here with Luke‘s text whether one cup or two cups.

The New Covenant (ε καινη διατηκηhe kainē diathēkē). See note on Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24 for “covenant.” Westcott and Hort reject “new” there, but accept it here and in 1 Corinthians 11:25. See Luke 5:38 for difference between kainē and nea “The ratification of a covenant was commonly associated with the shedding of blood; and what was written in blood was believed to be indelible” (Plummer).

Poured out (καινηekchunnomenon). Same word in Mark 14:24; Matthew 26:28 translated “shed.” Late form present passive participle of νεαekchunnō of εκχυννομενονekcheō to pour out.

Verse 21

That betrayeth (του παραδιδοντοςtou paradidontos). Present active participle, actually engaged in doing it. The hand of Judas was resting on the table at the moment. It should be noted that Luke narrates the institution of the Lord‘s Supper before the exposure of Judas as the traitor while Mark and Matthew reverse this order.

Verse 22

As it hath been determined (κατα το ωρισμενονkata to hōrismenon). Perfect passive participle of οριζωhorizō to limit or define, mark off the border, our “horizon.” But this fact does not absolve Judas of his guilt as the “woe” here makes plain.

Verse 23

Which of them it was (το τις αρα ειη εχ αυτωνto tis ara eiē ex autōn). Note the article τοto with the indirect question as in Luke 22:2, Luke 22:4. The optative ειηeiē here is changed from the present active indicative εστινestin though it was not always done, for see δοκειdokei in Luke 22:24 where the present indicative is retained. They all had their hands on the table. Whose hand was it?

Verse 24

Contention (πιλονεικιαphiloneikia). An old word from πιλονεικοςphiloneikos fond of strife, eagerness to contend. Only here in the N.T.

Greatest (μειζωνmeizōn). Common use of the comparative as superlative.

Verse 25

Have lordship over (κυριευουσινkurieuousin). From κυριοςkurios Common verb, to lord it over.

Benefactors (ευεργεταιeuergetai). From ευeu and εργονergon Doer of good. Old word. Here only in the N.T. Latin Benefactor is exact equivalent.

Verse 26

Become (γινεστωginesthō). Present middle imperative of γινομαιginomai Act so. True greatness is in service, not in rank.

Verse 27

But I (Εγω δεEgō de). Jesus dares to cite his own conduct, though their leader, to prove his point and to put a stop to their jealous contention for the chief place at this very feast, a wrangling that kept up till Jesus had to arise and give them the object lesson of humility by washing their feet (John 13:1-20).

Verse 28

In my temptations (εν τοις πειρασμοις μουen tois peirasmois mou). Probably “trials” is better here as in James 1:2 though temptations clearly in James 1:13 This is the tragedy of the situation when Jesus is facing the Cross with the traitor at the table and the rest chiefly concerned about their own primacy and dignity.

Verse 29

And I appoint unto you (καγω διατιτημαι υμινk'agō diatithēmai humin). They had on the whole been loyal and so Jesus passes on to them (διατημαιdiathēmai verb from which διατηκηdiathēkē comes).

Verse 30

And ye shall sit (κατησεστεkathēsesthe). But Westcott and Hort read in the text κατηστεkathēsthe (present middle subjunctive with ιναhina). The picture seems to be that given in Matthew 19:28 when Jesus replied to Peter‘s inquiry. It is not clear how literally this imagery is to be taken. But there is the promise of honour for the loyal among these in the end.

Verse 31

Asked to have you (εχηιτησατοexēitēsato). First aorist indirect middle indicative of εχαιτεωexaiteō an old verb to beg something of one and (middle) for oneself. Only here in the N.T. The verb is used either in the good or the bad sense, but it does not mean here “obtained by asking” as margin in Revised Version has it.

That he might sift you (του σινιασαιtou siniasai). Genitive articular infinitive of purpose. First aorist active infinitive of σινιαζωsiniazō to shake a sieve, to sift, from σινιονsinion a winnowing fan. Later word. Here only in the N.T.

Verse 32

That thy faith fail not (ινα μη εκλιπηι ε πιστις μουhina mē eklipēi he pistis mou). Second aorist active subjunctive of purpose with ιναhina after εδεητηνedeēthēn (I prayed) of εκλειπωekleipō old verb. Our word eclipse is this word. Evidently Jesus could not keep Satan from attacking Peter. He had already captured Judas. Did he not repeatedly attack Jesus? But he could and did pray for Peter‘s faith and his praying won in the end, though Peter stumbled and fell.

And do thou (και συkai su). The words single out Peter sharply.

Once thou hast turned again (ποτε επιστρεπσαςpote epistrepsas). First aorist active participle of επιστρεπωepistrephō common verb to turn to, to return. But the use of this word implied that Peter would fall though he would come back and “strengthen thy brethren.”

Verse 33

To prison and to death (εις πυλακην και εις τανατονeis phulakēn kai eis thanaton). Evidently Peter was not flattered by the need of Christ‘s earnest prayers for his welfare and loyalty. Hence this loud boast.

Verse 34

Until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me (εως τρις με απαρνησηι ειδεναιheōs tris me aparnēsēi eidenai). “Thrice” is in all four Gospels here for they all give this warning to Peter (Mark 14:30; Matthew 26:34; Luke 22:34; John 18:38). Peter will even deny knowing Jesus (ειδεναιeidenai).

Verse 35

Without purse (ατερ βαλλαντιουater ballantiou). Money bag or purse. Old word, but in the N.T. only in Luke (Luke 10:4; Luke 12:33; Luke 22:35).

Wallet (πηραςpēras). See note on Matthew 10:10.

Lacked ye anything (mē tinos husterēsate̱). Answer No expected (outhenos below). Ablative case after μη τινος υστερησατεhustereō f0).

Verse 36

Buy a sword (αγορασατω μαχαιρανagorasatō machairan). This is for defence clearly. The reference is to the special mission in Galilee (Luke 9:1-6; Mark 6:6-13; Matthew 9:35-11:1). They are to expect persecution and bitter hostility (John 15:18-21). Jesus does not mean that his disciples are to repel force by force, but that they are to be ready to defend his cause against attack. Changed conditions bring changed needs. This language can be misunderstood as it was then.

Verse 38

Lord, behold, here are two swords (κυριε ιδου μαχαιραι ωδε δυοkurie idou machairai hōde duo). They took his words literally. And before this very night is over Peter will use one of these very swords to try to cut off the head of Malchus only to be sternly rebuked by Jesus (Mark 14:47; Matthew 26:51.; Luke 22:50.; John 18:10.). Then Jesus will say: “For all that take the sword shall perish with the sword” (Matthew 26:52). Clearly Jesus did not mean his language even about the sword to be pressed too literally. So he said: “It is enough” (ικανον εστινHikanon estin). It is with sad irony and sorrow that Jesus thus dismisses the subject. They were in no humour now to understand the various sides of this complicated problem. Every preacher and teacher understands this mood, not of impatience, but of closing the subject for the present.

Verse 39

As his custom was (κατα το ετοςkata to ethos). According to the custom (of him). It was because Judas knew the habit of Jesus of going to Gethsemane at night that he undertook to betray him without waiting for the crowd to go home after the feast.

Verse 40

At the place (επι του τοπουepi tou topou). The place of secret prayer which was dear to Jesus.

Pray that ye enter not into temptation (προσευχεστε μη εισελτειν εις πειρασμονproseuchesthe mē eiselthein eis peirasmon). “Keep on praying not to enter (ingressive aorist infinitive, not even once) into temptation.” It is real “temptation” here, not just “trial.” Jesus knew the power of temptation and the need of prayer. These words throw a light on the meaning of his language in Matthew 6:13. Jesus repeats this warning in Luke 22:46.

Verse 41

About a stone‘s throw (ωσει λιτου βοληνhōsei lithou bolēn). Accusative of extent of space. Luke does not tell of leaving eight disciples by the entrance to Gethsemane nor about taking Peter, James, and John further in with him.

Kneeled down (τεις τα γοναταtheis ta gonata). Second aorist active participle from τιτημιtithēmi Mark 14:35 says “fell on the ground” and Matthew 26:39 “fell on his face.” All could be true at different moments.

Prayed (προσηυχετοprosēucheto). Imperfect middle, was praying, kept on praying.

Verse 42

If thou be willing (ει βουλειei boulei). This condition is in the first petition at the start.

Be done (γινεστωginesthō). Present middle imperative, keep on being done, the Father‘s will.

Verse 43

An angel (αγγελοςaggelos). The angels visited Jesus at the close of the three temptations at the beginning of his ministry (Matthew 4:11). Here the angel comes during the conflict.

Verse 44

In an agony (εν αγωνιαιen agōniāi). It was conflict, contest from αγωνagōn An old word, but only here in the N.T. Satan pressed Jesus harder than ever before.

As it were great drops of blood (ωσει τρομβοι αιματοςhōsei thromboi haimatos). Thick, clotted blood. An old word (τρομβοιthromboi) common in medical works, but here only in the N.T. This passage (Luke 22:43, Luke 22:44) is absent from some ancient documents. Aristotle speaks of a bloody sweat as does Theophrastus.

Verse 45

Sleeping for sorrow (κοιμωμενους απο της λυπηςkoimōmenous apo tēs lupēs). Luke does not tell of the three turnings of Jesus to the trusted three for human sympathy.

Verse 46

Why sleep ye? (Τι κατευδετεTi katheudete̱). This reproach Luke gives, but not the almost bitter details in Mark 14:37-42; Matthew 26:40-46).

Verse 47

Went before them (προηρχετοproērcheto). Imperfect middle. Judas was leading the band for he knew the place well (John 18:2).

Verse 48

With a kiss (πιληματιphilēmati). Instrumental case. Jesus challenges the act of Judas openly and calls it betrayal, but it did not stop him.

Verse 49

What would follow (το εσομενονto esomenon). Article and the future middle participle of ειμιeimi to be.

Shall we smite with a sword? (ει παταχομεν εν μαχαιρηιei pataxomen en machairēi̱). Note ειei in a direct question like the Hebrew. Luke alone gives this question. Instrumental use of ενen They had the two swords already mentioned (Luke 22:38).

Verse 50

His right ear (το ους αυτου το δεχιονto ous autou to dexion). Mark 14:47; Matthew 26:51 do not mention “right,” but Luke the Physician does. John 18:10 follows Luke in this item and also adds the names of Peter and of Malchus since probably both were dead by that time and Peter would not be involved in trouble.

Verse 51

Suffer us thus far (εατε εως τουτουeāte heōs toutou). Present active imperative of εαωeaō to allow. But the meaning is not clear. If addressed to Peter and the other disciples it means that they are to suffer this much of violence against Jesus. This is probably the idea. If it is addressed to the crowd, it means that they are to excuse Peter for his rash act.

He touched his ear and healed him (απσαμενος του οτιου ιασατο αυτονhapsamenos tou otiou iasato auton). Whether Jesus picked up the piece of the ear and put it back is not said. He could have healed the wound without that. This miracle of surgery is given alone by Luke.

Verse 52

As against a robber? (ως επι ληιστηνhōs epi lēistēṉ). They were treating Jesus as if he were a bandit like Barabbas.

Verse 53

But this is your hour (αλλ αυτη εστιν υμων η ωραall' hautē estin humōn hē hōra). So Jesus surrenders. The moral value of his atoning sacrifice on the Cross consists in the voluntariness of his death. He makes it clear that they have taken undue advantage of him in this hour of secret prayer and had failed to seize him in public in the temple. But “the power of darkness” (η εχουσια του σκοτουςhē exousia tou skotous), had its turn. A better day will come. The might, authority of darkness.

Verse 54

Into the high priest‘s house (εις την οικιαν του αρχιερεωςeis tēn oikian tou archiereōs). Luke alone mentions “the house.” Though it is implied in Mark 14:53; Matthew 26:57.

Followed (ηκολουτειēkolouthei). Imperfect, was following, as Matthew 26:58; John 18:15. Curiously Mark 14:54 has the aorist.

Verse 55

When they had kindled a fire (περιαπσαντων πυρperiapsantōn pur). Genitive absolute, first aorist active participle of περιαπτωperiaptō an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Kindle around, make a good fire that blazes all over. It was April and cool at night. The servants made the fire.

And had sat down together (και συνκατισαντωνkai sunkathisantōn). Genitive absolute again. Note συνsun - (together), all had taken seats around the fire.

Peter sat in the midst of them (εκατητο ο Πετρος μεσος αυτωνekathēto ho Petros mesos autōn). Imperfect tense, he was sitting, and note μεσοςmesos nominative predicate adjective with the genitive, like John 1:26, good Greek idiom.

Verse 56

In the light (προς το πωςpros to phōs). Facing (προςpros) the light, for the fire gave light as well as heat. Mark 14:65 has “warming himself in the light,” John (John 18:18, John 18:25) “warming himself.”

Looking steadfastly (ατενισασαatenisasa). Favourite word in Luke (Luke 4:20, etc.) for gazing steadily at one.

This man also (και ουτοςkai houtos). As if pointing to Peter and talking about him. The other Gospels (Mark 14:67; Matthew 26:69; John 18:25) make a direct address to Peter. Both could be true, as she turned to Peter.

Verse 57

I know him not (ουκ οιδα αυτονouk oida auton). Just as Jesus had predicted that he would do (Luke 22:34).

Verse 58

After a little while another (μετα βραχυ ετεροςmeta brachu heteros). Matthew 26:71 makes it after Peter had gone out into the porch and mentions a maid as speaking as does Mark 14:69, while here the “other” (ετεροςheteros) is a man (masculine gender). It is almost impossible to co-ordinate the three denials in the four accounts unless we conceive of several joining in when one led off. This time Peter‘s denial is very blunt, “I am not.”

Verse 59

After the space of about one hour (διαστασης ωσει ωρας μιαςdiastasēs hōsei hōras mias). Genitive absolute with second aorist active participle feminine singular of διιστημιdiistēmi This classical verb in the N.T. is used only by Luke (Luke 22:59; Luke 24:51; Acts 27:28). It means standing in two or apart, about an hour intervening.

Confidently affirmed (διισχυριζετοdiischurizeto). Imperfect middle, he kept affirming strongly. An old verb (δια ισχυριζομαιdia και γαρ Γαλιλαιος εστινischurizomai), to make oneself strong, to make emphatic declaration. In the N.T. only here and Acts 12:15.

For he is a Galilean (kai gar Galilaios estin). Matthew 26:73 makes it plain that it was his speech that gave him away, which see note.

Verse 60

I know not what thou sayest (ουκ οιδα ο λεγειςouk oida ho legeis). Each denial tangles Peter more and more.

While he yet spake (ετι λαλουντος αυτουeti lalountos autou). Genitive absolute. Peter could hear the crowing all right.

Verse 61

The Lord turned (στραπεις ο κυριοςstrapheis ho kurios). Second aorist passive participle of στρεπωstrephō coming verb. Graphic picture drawn by Luke alone.

Looked upon Peter (ενεβλεπσεν τωι Πετρωιeneblepsen tōi Petrōi). Ingressive aorist active indicative of ενβλεπωenblepō an old and vivid verb, to glance at.

Remembered (υπεμνηστηhupemnēsthē). First aorist passive indicative of υπομιμνησκωhupomimnēskō common verb to remind one of something (υποhupo giving a suggestion or hint). The cock crowing and the look brought swiftly back to Peter‘s mind the prophecy of Jesus and his sad denials. The mystery is how he had forgotten that warning.

Verse 62

And he went out and wept bitterly (και εχελτων εχω εκλαυσεν πικρωςkai exelthōn exō eklausen pikrōs). A few old Latin documents omit this verse which is genuine in Matthew 26:75. It may be an insertion here from there, but the evidence for the rejection is too slight. It is the ingressive aorist (εκλαυσενeklausen), he burst into tears. “Bitter” is a common expression for tears in all languages and in all hearts.

Verse 63

That held (οι συνεχοντεςhoi sunechontes). See note on Luke 8:45; and the note on Luke 19:43 for this verb συνεχωsunechō Here alone in the N.T. for holding a prisoner (holding together). The servants or soldiers, not the Sanhedrin.

Mocked (ενεπαιζονenepaizon). Imperfect active, were mocking, inchoative, began to mock, to play like boys.

And beat him (δεροντεςderontes). Present active participle of δερωderō to flay, tan, or hide. Literally, “beating.”

Verse 64

Blindfolded (περικαλυπσαντεςperikalupsantes). First aorist active participle of περικαλυπτωperikaluptō old verb, to put a veil around. In the N.T. only here and Mark 14:65. See note on Mark and Matthew 26:67. for further discussion.

Verse 65

Many other things (ετερα πολλαhetera polla). These are just samples.

Verse 66

As soon as it was day (ως εγενετο ημεραhōs egeneto hēmera). Mark 15:1 (Matthew 27:1) has “morning.”

The assembly of the people (το πρεσβυτεριον του λαουto presbuterion tou laou). The technical word for “the eldership” (from πρεσβυτεροςpresbuteros an old man or elder) or group of the elders composing the Sanhedrin. The word occurs in the lxx for the Sanhedrin. In the N.T. occurs only here and Acts 22:5 of the Sanhedrin. In 1 Timothy 4:14 Paul uses it of the elders in a church (or churches). The Sanhedrin was composed of the elders and scribes and chief priests (Mark 15:1) and all three groups are at this meeting. Luke‘s language (both chief priests and scribes, τε καιte πρεσβυτεριονkai) seems to apply the word εις το συνεδριον αυτωνpresbuterion to the whole Sanhedrin. Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees (scribes) were nearly equally represented.

Into their council (eis to sunedrion autōn). The place of the gathering is not given, but Jesus was led into the council chamber.

Verse 67

If thou art the Christ (Ει συ ει ο ΧριστοςEi su ei ho Christos). The Messiah, they mean. The condition is the first class, assuming it to be true.

If I tell you (Εαν υμιν ειπωEan humin eipō). Condition of the third class, undetermined, but with likelihood of being determined. This is the second appearance of Jesus before the Sanhedrin merely mentioned by Mark 15:1; Matthew 27:1 who give in detail the first appearance and trial. Luke merely gives this so-called ratification meeting after daybreak to give the appearance of legality to their vote of condemnation already taken (Mark 14:64; Matthew 26:66).

Ye will not believe (ου μη πιστευσητεou mē pisteusēte). Double negative with the aorist subjunctive, strongest possible negative. So as to Luke 22:68.

Verse 69

The Son of man (ο υιος του αντρωπουho huios tou anthrōpou). Jesus really answers their demand about “the Messiah” by asserting that he is “the Son of man” and they so understand him. He makes claims of equality with God also which they take up.

Verse 70

Art thou the Son of God? (Συ ουν ει ο υιος του τεουSu oun ei ho huios tou theou̱). Note how these three epithets are used as practical equivalents. They ask about “the Messiah.” Jesus affirms that he is the Son of Man and will sit at the right hand of the power of God. They take this to be a claim to be the Son of God (both humanity and deity). Jesus accepts the challenge and admits that he claims to be all three (Messiah, the Son of man, the Son of God).

Ye say (υμεις λεγετεHumeis legete). Just a Greek idiom for “Yes” (compare “I am” in Mark 14:62 with “Thou has said” in Matthew 26:64).

Verse 71

For we ourselves have heard (αυτοι γαρ ηκουσαμενautoi gar ēkousamen). They were right if Jesus is not what he claimed to be. They were eternally wrong for he is the Christ, the Son of man, the Son of God. They made their choice and must face Christ as Judge.


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 22:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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