corner graphic

Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Chronicles 19

 

 

Introduction
1David's messengers, sent to comfort Hanun, the son of Nahash, are villainously treated.
6The Ammonites, strengthened by the Syrians, are overcome by Joab and Abishai.
16Shophach, making a new supply of the Syrians, is slain by David.

Verse 1
Now it came to pass after this, that Nahash the king of the children of Ammon died, and his son reigned in his stead.
Nahash
1 Samuel 11:1,2; 12:12; 2 Samuel 10:1-3

Verse 2
And David said, I will shew kindness unto Hanun the son of Nahash, because his father shewed kindness to me. And David sent messengers to comfort him concerning his father. So the servants of David came into the land of the children of Ammon to Hanun, to comfort him.
I will shew
1 Samuel 30:26; 2 Samuel 9:1,7; 2 Kings 4:13; Esther 6:3; Ecclesiastes 9:15
the children
Genesis 19:37,38; Deuteronomy 23:3-6; Nehemiah 4:3,7; 13:1

Verse 3
But the princes of the children of Ammon said to Hanun, Thinkest thou that David doth honour thy father, that he hath sent comforters unto thee? are not his servants come unto thee for to search, and to overthrow, and to spy out the land?
but the princes
1 Samuel 29:4,9; 1 Kings 12:8-11
Thinkest thou that David
Heb. In thine eyes doth David.
1 Corinthians 13:5-7
to search
Genesis 42:9-18; Joshua 2:1-3; Judges 1:23,24; 18:2,8-10

Verse 4
Wherefore Hanun took David's servants, and shaved them, and cut off their garments in the midst hard by their buttocks, and sent them away.
took David's
Psalms 35:12; 109:4,5
shaved them
Leviticus 19:27; Isaiah 15:2; Jeremiah 41:5; 48:37
and cut
Isaiah 20:4; 47:2,3
sent them
2 Samuel 10:4,5; 2 Chronicles 36:16; Mark 12:4; Luke 20:10,11

Verse 5
Then there went certain, and told David how the men were served. And he sent to meet them: for the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, Tarry at Jericho until your beards be grown, and then return.
and told David
Matthew 18:31
at Jericho
Joshua 6:24-26; 1 Kings 16:34
your beards
Judges 16:22

Verse 6
And when the children of Ammon saw that they had made themselves odious to David, Hanun and the children of Ammon sent a thousand talents of silver to hire them chariots and horsemen out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syriamaachah, and out of Zobah.
had made
Luke 10:16; 1 Thessalonians 4:8
odious
Heb. to stink.
Genesis 34:30; Exodus 5:21; 1 Samuel 13:4; 27:12; Psalms 14:3; *margins
a thousand
2 Chronicles 16:2,3; 25:6; 27:5; Psalms 46:9
Syria-maachah
2 Samuel 10:6
Zobah
2 Chronicles 18:3,5,9; 1 Samuel 14:47; 2 Samuel 8:3; 1 Kings 11:23,24

Verse 7
So they hired thirty and two thousand chariots, and the king of Maachah and his people; who came and pitched before Medeba. And the children of Ammon gathered themselves together from their cities, and came to battle.
hired
18:4; Exodus 14:9; Judges 4:3; 1 Samuel 13:5; 2 Chronicles 14:9; Psalms 20:7-9
thirty
Thirty-two thousand soldiers, exclusive of the thousand send by the Maachah, are mentioned in the parallel passage (2 Sa 10:6;) but of chariots or cavalry there is no mention; and the number of chariots stated here is prodigious, and beyond all credibility. But as the word raichev denotes not only a chariot, but a rider, (see Isa 21:7,) it ought most probably to be rendered here, in a collective sense, cavalry; and then the number of troops will exactly agree with the passage in Samuel. It is probable that they were a kind of auxiliary troops who were usually mounted on horses, or in chariots, but who occasionally served as foot-soldiers.
the king of Maachah
This variation exists only in the translation, the original being the same in both places, melech mäachah, "the king of Maachah."
2 Samuel 10:6
king Maachah
Medeba.
Numbers 21:30; Joshua 13:9; Isaiah 15:2

Verse 8
And when David heard of it, he sent Joab, and all the host of the mighty men.
Joab
11:6,10-47; 2 Samuel 23:8-39

Verse 9
And the children of Ammon came out, and put the battle in array before the gate of the city: and the kings that were come were by themselves in the field.
put the battle
1 Samuel 17:2; 2 Samuel 18:4; 2 Chronicles 13:3; 14:10; Isaiah 28:6; Jeremiah 50:42; Joel 2:5
the kings
2 Samuel 10:8; 1 Kings 20:1,24

Verse 10
Now when Joab saw that the battle was set against him before and behind, he chose out of all the choice of Israel, and put them in array against the Syrians.
when Joab
2 Samuel 10:9-14
battle
Heb. face of the battle. set against.
Joshua 8:22; Judges 20:42,43
choice
or, young men.

Verse 11
And the rest of the people he delivered unto the hand of Abishai his brother, and they set themselves in array against the children of Ammon.
Abishai
Heb. Abshai.
11:20; 18:12; y#yb))] Abishai, and ['Abiyshay (y#yb))] Abshai, is simply caused by the elision of [Yôwd] {yood,} which is by no means uncommon. ">The variation of ['Abiyshay (y#yb))] Abishai, and ['Abiyshay (y#yb))] Abshai, is simply caused by the elision of [Yôwd] {yood,} which is by no means uncommon.
and they set

Verse 12
And he said, If the Syrians be too strong for me, then thou shalt help me: but if the children of Ammon be too strong for thee, then I will help thee.
If the Syrians
Nehemiah 4:20; Ecclesiastes 4:9-12; Galatians 6:2; Philippians 1:27,28

Verse 13
Be of good courage, and let us behave ourselves valiantly for our people, and for the cities of our God: and let the LORD do that which is good in his sight.
of good
Deuteronomy 31:6,7; Joshua 1:7; 10:25; 1 Samuel 4:9; 14:6-12; 17:32; 2 Samuel 10:12; Ezra 10:4; Nehemiah 4:14; Psalms 27:14; 1 Corinthians 16:13
let us behave, etc
In Samuel, "let us play the men;" but the original is the same in both places, nithchazzak.
let the Lord
Judges 10:15; 1 Samuel 3:18; 2 Samuel 15:26; 16:10,11; Job 1:22

Verse 14
So Joab and the people that were with him drew nigh before the Syrians unto the battle; and they fled before him.
they fled
1 Kings 20:13,19-21,28-30; 2 Chronicles 13:5-16; Jeremiah 46:15,16

Verse 15
And when the children of Ammon saw that the Syrians were fled, they likewise fled before Abishai his brother, and entered into the city. Then Joab came to Jerusalem.
they likewise
Leviticus 26:7; Romans 8:31

Verse 16
And when the Syrians saw that they were put to the worse before Israel, they sent messengers, and drew forth the Syrians that were beyond the river: and Shophach the captain of the host of Hadarezer went before them.
A. M. 2968. B.C. 1036. An. Ex. Is. 455. and drew
Psalms 2:1; Isaiah 8:9; Micah 4:11,12; Zechariah 14:1-3
river
that is, Euphrates. Shophach. This variation arises from the permutation of [Bêyth] baith, and [Pê] pay; being written in the parallel passage [Showbak (jbw#)] Shobach, and here [Showphak (jpw#)] Shophach.
2 Samuel 10:16
Shobach

Verse 17
And it was told David; and he gathered all Israel, and passed over Jordan, and came upon them, and set the battle in array against them. So when David had put the battle in array against the Syrians, they fought with him.
upon them
Instead of alaihem, "upon them," it is in 2 Sa 10:17 chelamah, "to Helam:" the one seems evidently to be a mistake for the other.
and set
9; Isaiah 22:6,7

Verse 18
But the Syrians fled before Israel; and David slew of the Syrians seven thousand men which fought in chariots, and forty thousand footmen, and killed Shophach the captain of the host.
fled before Israel
13,14; Psalms 18:32; 33:16; 46:11
seven thousand
In the parallel passage, "the men of seven hundred chariots;" which difference probably arose from mistaking [Nûwn] noon final, which stands for 700, for [Zayin] zayin, with a dot above, which denotes 7,000, or vice versa: the great similarity of these letters might easily cause the one to be mistaken for the other.
footmen
If these troops were as we have suppose, a kind of dismounted cavalry, the terms footmen and horsemen might be indifferently applied to them.
2 Samuel 10:18
horsemen

Verse 19
And when the servants of Hadarezer saw that they were put to the worse before Israel, they made peace with David, and became his servants: neither would the Syrians help the children of Ammon any more.
the servants
Genesis 14:4,5; Joshua 9:9-11; 2 Samuel 10:19; 1 Kings 20:1,12; Psalms 18:39,44; Isaiah 10:8
would
14:17; Psalms 48:3-6

 


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 19:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-chronicles-19.html.

Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology