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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Samuel 1



1Elkanah, a Levite, having two wives, worships yearly at Shiloh.
4He cherishes Hannah, though barren, and provoked by Peninnah.
9Hannah in grief prays for a child.
12Eli first rebuking her, afterwards blesses her.
19Hannah, having born Samuel, stays at home till he is weaned.
24She presents him, according to her vow, to the Lord.

Verse 1
Now there was a certain man of Ramathaimzophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite:
This ancient town, now called Ramla, is, according to Phocas, about thirty-six miles west of Jerusalem, and, according to modern travellers, about nine miles from Joppa and a league from Lydda, between which it is situated. It is built on a rising ground, on a rich plain, and contains about two thousand families.
19; Matthew 27:57
Judges 17:1; 19:1
1 Chronicles 6:25-27,34
17:12; Judges 12:5; Ruth 1:2; 1 Kings 11:26

Verse 2
And he had two wives; the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.
Genesis 4:19,23; 29:23-29; Judges 8:30; Matthew 19:8
Genesis 16:1,2; 25:21; 29:31; Judges 13:2; Luke 1:7

Verse 3
And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, were there.
Heb. from year to year.
Exodus 23:14,17; 34:23; Deuteronomy 16:16; Luke 2:41
to worship
Deuteronomy 12:5-7,11-14
9; Joshua 18:1; Judges 18:31; Psalms 78:60; Jeremiah 7:12-14
And the
9; 2:12-17,34; 3:13; 4:4,11,17,18

Verse 4
And when the time was that Elkanah offered, he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters, portions:
Leviticus 3:4; 7:15; Deuteronomy 12:5-7,17; 16:11

Verse 5
But unto Hannah he gave a worthy portion; for he loved Hannah: but the LORD had shut up her womb.
a worthy portion
or, a double portion. The Hebrew phrase, manah achath appayim, is correctly rendered by Gesenius, ein Stud fur zwei personen, doppelle Portion, "a portion for two persons, a double portion;" for aph in Hebrew, and [prosopon] in Greek, which literally mean a face, are used for a person.
Genesis 43:34; 45:22
he loved
Genesis 29:30,31; Deuteronomy 21:15
shut up
Genesis 20:18; 30:2

Verse 6
And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.
Leviticus 18:18; Job 6:14
provoked her
Heb. angered her.

Verse 7
And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the LORD, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat.
when she
or, from the time that she. Heb. from her going up.

Verse 8
Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? am not I better to thee than ten sons?
why weepest
2 Samuel 12:16,17; 2 Kings 8:12; Job 6:14; John 20:13,15; 1 Thessalonians 5:14
am not
Ruth 4:15; Psalms 43:4; Isaiah 54:1,6

Verse 9
So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of the LORD.
3:3,15; 2 Samuel 7:2; Psalms 5:7; 27:4; 29:9

Verse 10
And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore.
in bitterness of soul
Heb. bitter of soul.
Ruth 1:20; 2 Samuel 17:8; Job 7:11; 9:18; 10:1; Isaiah 38:15; 54:6; Lamentations 3:15
Psalms 50:15; 91:15; Luke 22:44; Hebrews 5:7
wept sore
Genesis 50:10; Judges 21:2; 2 Samuel 13:36; 2 Kings 20:3; Jeremiah 13:17; 22:10

Verse 11
And she vowed a vow, and said, O LORD of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto the LORD all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head.
Genesis 28:20; Numbers 21:2; 30:3-8; Judges 11:30; Ecclesiastes 5:4
Genesis 29:32; Exodus 4:31; 2 Samuel 16:12; Psalms 25:18
19; Genesis 8:1; 30:22; Psalms 132:1,2
a man child
Heb. seed of men. I will give. Samuel, as a descendent of Levi, was the Lord's property, from twenty-five years of age till fifty; but the vow here implies that he should be consecrated to the Lord from his infancy to his death, and that he should not only act as a Levite, but as a Nazarite.
Numbers 6:5; Judges 13:5

Verse 12
And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the LORD, that Eli marked her mouth.
continued praying
Heb. multiplied to pray.
Luke 11:8-10; 18:1; Ephesians 6:18; Colossians 4:2; 1 Thessalonians 5:17; James 5:16

Verse 13
Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken.
Genesis 24:42-45; Nehemiah 2:4; Psalms 25:1; Romans 8:26
she had
Zechariah 9:15; Acts 2:13; 1 Corinthians 13:7

Verse 14
And Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee.
How long
Joshua 22:12-20; Job 8:2; Psalms 62:3; Proverbs 6:9; Matthew 7:1-3
put away
Job 11:14; 22:23; Proverbs 4:24; Ephesians 4:25,31

Verse 15
And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the LORD.
No, my Lord
Proverbs 15:1; 25:15
of a sorrowful spirit
Heb. hard of spirit. poured.
Psalms 42:4; 62:8; 142:2,3; 143:6; Lamentations 2:19

Verse 16
Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto.
a daughter
2:12; 10:27; 25:25; Deuteronomy 13:13
out of
Job 6:2,3; 10:1,2; Matthew 12:34,35
or, meditation.

Verse 17
Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him.
25:35; 29:7; Judges 18:6; 2 Kings 5:19; Mark 5:34; Luke 7:50; 8:48
the God
1 Chronicles 4:10; Psalms 20:3-5

Verse 18
And she said, Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad.
Let thine
Genesis 32:5; 33:8,15; Ruth 2:13
went her
Ecclesiastes 9:7; John 16:24; Romans 15:13; Philippians 4:6,7

Verse 19
And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD remembered her.
they rose
9:26; Psalms 5:3; 55:17; 119:147; Mark 1:35
Genesis 4:1
and the Lord
11; Genesis 8:1; 21:1; 30:22; Psalms 25:7; 136:23; Luke 23:42

Verse 20
Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son, and called his name Samuel, saying, Because I have asked him of the LORD.
when the time was come about
Heb. in revolution of days. Samuel. that is, Asked of God. Because.
Genesis 4:25; 5:29; 16:11; 29:32-35; 30:6-21; 41:51,52; Exodus 2:10,22; Matthew 1:21

Verse 21
And the man Elkanah, and all his house, went up to offer unto the LORD the yearly sacrifice, and his vow.
3; Genesis 18:19; Joshua 24:15; Psalms 101:2

Verse 22
But Hannah went not up; for she said unto her husband, I will not go up until the child be weaned, and then I will bring him, that he may appear before the LORD, and there abide for ever.
Deuteronomy 16:16; Luke 2:22,41,42
and there
11,28; 2:11,18; 3:1; Psalms 23:6; 27:4
for ever
Exodus 21:6; Leviticus 25:23; Joshua 4:7; Psalms 110:4; Isaiah 9:7

Verse 23
And Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; tarry until thou have weaned him; only the LORD establish his word. So the woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him.
Do what
Numbers 30:7-11
the Lord
2 Samuel 7:25; Isaiah 44:26
son suck
Genesis 21:7,8; Psalms 22:9; Matthew 24:19; Luke 11:27

Verse 24
And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks, and one ephah of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto the house of the LORD in Shiloh: and the child was young.
A. M. 2839. B.C. 1165. An. Ex. Is. 326. she took
Numbers 15:9,10; Deuteronomy 12:5,6,11; 16:16
three bullocks
The LXX., Syriac, and Arabic, read "a bullock of three years old;" which is probably correct, as we read (ver. 25) that they slew eth happar, "the bullock."
4:3,4; Joshua 18:1

Verse 25
And they slew a bullock, and brought the child to Eli.
Luke 2:22; 18:15,16

Verse 26
And she said, Oh my lord, as thy soul liveth, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the LORD.
as thy soul
17:55; 20:3; Genesis 42:15; 2 Samuel 11:11; 14:19; 2 Kings 2:2,4,6; 4:30

Verse 27
For this child I prayed; and the LORD hath given me my petition which I asked of him:
For this
11-13; Matthew 7:7
and the Lord
Psalms 66:19; 116:1-5; 118:5; 1 John 5:15

Verse 28
Therefore also I have lent him to the LORD; as long as he liveth he shall be lent to the LORD. And he worshipped the LORD there.
lent him
or, returned him, whom I have obtained by petition, to the Lord. The word hishilteehoo, "I have lent him," is the Hiphil conjugation of shuäl, "he asked," (ver. 27,) and refers to the name of Samuel.
he shall be
or, he whom I have obtained by petition shall be returned. he worshipped.
Genesis 24:26,48,52; 2 Timothy 3:15


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 1:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

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