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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Samuel 22

 

 

Introduction
1Companies resort unto David at Adullam.
3At Mizpeh he commends his parents unto the king of Moab.
5Admonished by Gad, he comes to Hareth.
6Saul going to pursue him, complains of his servants' unfaithfulness.
9Doeg accuses Ahimelech.
11Saul commands to kill the priests.
17The footmen refusing, Doeg executes it.
20Abiathar escaping, brings David the news.

Verse 1
David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him.
David
21:10-15; Psalms 34:1; 57:1; *titles
the cave
Joshua 12:15; 15:35; 2 Samuel 23:13,14; 1 Chronicles 11:15; Psalms 142:1; *title; Micah 1:3,15; Hebrews 11:38
Adullam
Adullam was a city of Judah; and, according to Eusebius, ten miles (Jerome says eleven) eastward from Eleutheropolis.

Verse 2
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.
distress
Judges 11:3; Matthew 11:12,28
was in debt
Heb. had a creditor.
Matthew 18:25-34
discontented
Heb. bitter of soul.
1:10; 30:6; Judges 18:25; 2 Samuel 17:8; Proverbs 31:6; *margins
a captain
9:16; 25:15,16; 30:22-24; 2 Samuel 5:2; 2 Kings 20:5; 1 Chronicles 11:15-19; Psalms 72:12-14; Matthew 9:12,13; Hebrews 2:10

Verse 3
And David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab: and he said unto the king of Moab, Let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth, and be with you, till I know what God will do for me.
Mizpeh
Judges 11:29
the king
14:47; Ruth 1:1-4; 4:10,17
Let my father
Genesis 47:11; Exodus 20:12; Matthew 15:4-6; 1 Timothy 5:4
till I know
3:18; 2 Samuel 15:25,26; Philippians 2:23,24

Verse 4
And he brought them before the king of Moab: and they dwelt with him all the while that David was in the hold.
in the hold
2 Samuel 23:13,14; 1 Chronicles 12:16
Gad
2 Samuel 24:11; 1 Chronicles 21:9; 29:29; 2 Chronicles 29:25
depart
23:1-6; Nehemiah 6:11; Psalms 11:1; Isaiah 8:12-14
David departed
Matthew 10:23

Verse 6
When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with him, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a tree in Ramah, having his spear in his hand, and all his servants were standing about him;)
tree
or, grove in a high place. spear.
18:10; 19:9; 20:33

Verse 7
Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him, Hear now, ye Benjamites; will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards, and make you all captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds;
the son of Jesse
9,13; 18:14; 20:27,30; 25:10; 2 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16; Isaiah 11:1,10
give
8:14,15
captains
8:11,12

Verse 8
That all of you have conspired against me, and there is none that sheweth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse, and there is none of you that is sorry for me, or sheweth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
sheweth me
Heb. uncovereth mine ear.
20:2; Job 33:16; *marg:
that my son
18:3; 20:8,13-17,30-34,42; 23:16-18

Verse 9
Then answered Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul, and said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub.
Doeg
He is also said to be "the chiefest of the herdsmen that belonged to Saul;" and the Septuagint intimates that he was over the mules of Saul. He may have been what we call the king's equerry or groom.
21:7; Psalms 52:1; *title; Psalms 52:1-5; Proverbs 19:5; 29:12; Ezekiel 22:9; Matthew 26:59-61
Ahimelech
21:1-15
Ahitub

Verse 10
And he enquired of the LORD for him, and gave him victuals, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.
he enquired
13,15; 23:2,4,12; 30:8; Numbers 27:21
him victuals
21:6-9

Verse 11
Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father's house, the priests that were in Nob: and they came all of them to the king.
sent to call
Romans 3:15

Verse 12
And Saul said, Hear now, thou son of Ahitub. And he answered, Here I am, my lord.
thou son
7,13
Here I am
Heb. Behold me.
2 Samuel 9:6; Isaiah 65:1

Verse 13
And Saul said unto him, Why have ye conspired against me, thou and the son of Jesse, in that thou hast given him bread, and a sword, and hast enquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
Why have
8; Psalms 119:69; Amos 7:10; Luke 23:2-5

Verse 14
Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said, And who is so faithful among all thy servants as David, which is the king's son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is honourable in thine house?
And who
19:4,5; 20:32; 24:11; 26:23; 2 Samuel 22:23-25; Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9
the king's
13; 17:25; 18:27
goeth
18:13; 21:2

Verse 15
Did I then begin to enquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king impute any thing unto his servant, nor to all the house of my father: for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more.
Did I then
He seems to intimate, that his enquiring now for David was no new thing, having often done so before, without ever being informed it was wrong in itself or displeasing to the king.
the servant
Genesis 20:5,6; 2 Samuel 15:11; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Peter 3:16,17
less or more
Heb. little or great.
25:36

Verse 16
And the king said, Thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father's house.
Thou shalt
14:44; 20:31; 1 Kings 18:4; 19:2; Proverbs 28:15; Daniel 2:5,12; 3:19,20; Acts 12:19
thou, and
Deuteronomy 24:16; Esther 3:6; Matthew 2:16

Verse 17
And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of the LORD; because their hand also is with David, and because they knew when he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the servants of the king would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the LORD.
footmen
or, guard. Heb. runners.
8:11; 2 Samuel 15:1; 1 Kings 1:5
slay the priests
13; 20:33; 25:17; 1 Kings 18:4
would not
14:45; Exodus 1:17; 2 Kings 1:13,14; Acts 4:19

Verse 18
And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod.
Doeg
he fell
2 Chronicles 24:21; Hosea 5:11; 7:3; Micah 6:16; Zephaniah 3:3; Acts 26:10,11
fourscore
The LXX. read, [tria kosious kai pente andras] "three hundred and five men;" and Josephus, "three hundred and eighty-five men." Probably the eighty-five were priests and the three hundred the families of the priests; three hundred and eighty-five being the whole population of Nob.
2:30-33,36; 3:12-14
a linen ephod
2:28; Exodus 28:40

Verse 19
And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings, and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword.
Nob
9,11; 21:1; Nehemiah 11:32; Isaiah 10:32
men
15:3,9; Joshua 6:17,21; Hosea 10:14; James 2:13
with the edge
This is one of the worst acts of Saul's life: his malice was implacable, and his wrath cruel; and there is no motive of justice or policy by which such a barbarous massacre can be justified.

Verse 20
And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped, and fled after David.
one
23:6; 30:7; 2 Samuel 20:25; 1 Kings 2:26,27
escaped
2:33; 4:12; Job 1:15-17,19

Verse 22
And David said unto Abiathar, I knew it that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul: I have occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father's house.
I have occasioned
21:1-9; Psalms 44:22

Verse 23
Abide thou with me, fear not: for he that seeketh my life seeketh thy life: but with me thou shalt be in safeguard.
he that seeketh
1 Kings 2:26; Matthew 24:9; John 15:20; 16:2,3; Hebrews 12:1-3
but with me
John 10:28-30; 17:12; 18:9

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-samuel-22.html.

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