corner graphic

Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Samuel 30



1The Amalekites spoil Ziklag.
4David asking counsel, is encouraged by God to pursue them.
11By the means of a revived Egyptian he is brought to the enemies, and recovers all the spoil.
22David's law to divide the spoil equally between them that fight and them that keep the stuff.
26He sends presents to his friends.

Verse 1
And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire;
were come
29:11; 2 Samuel 1:2
on the third
This was the third day after he had left the Philistine army at Aphek, from which place, Calmet supposes, Ziklag was distant more than thirty leagues.
the Amalekites
15:7; 27:8-10; Genesis 24:62; Joshua 11:6

Verse 2
And had taken the women captives, that were therein: they slew not any, either great or small, but carried them away, and went on their way.
slew not
19; 27:11; Job 38:11; Psalms 76:10; Isaiah 27:8,9

Verse 3
So David and his men came to the city, and, behold, it was burned with fire; and their wives, and their sons, and their daughters, were taken captives.
Psalms 34:19; Hebrews 12:6; 1 Peter 1:6,7; Revelation 3:9

Verse 4
Then David and the people that were with him lifted up their voice and wept, until they had no more power to weep.
lifted up
4:13; 11:4; Genesis 37:33-35; Numbers 14:1,39; Judges 2:4; 21:2; Ezra 10:1

Verse 5
And David's two wives were taken captives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite.
two wives
1:2; 25:42,43; 27:3; 2 Samuel 2:2; 3:2,3

Verse 6
And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God.
was greatly
Genesis 32:7; Psalms 25:17; 42:7; 116:3,4,10; 2 Corinthians 1:8,9; 4:8; 7:5
the people
Exodus 17:4; Numbers 14:10; Psalms 62:9; Matthew 21:9; 27:22
Heb. bitter.
1:10; Judges 18:25; 2 Samuel 17:8; 2 Kings 4:27; *margins
Job 13:15; Psalms 18:6; 26:1,2; 27:1-3; 34:1-8; 40:1,2; 42:5,11; Psalms 56:3,4,11; 62:1,5,8; 118:8-13; Proverbs 18:10; Isaiah 25:4; 37:14-20; Jeremiah 16:19; Habakkuk 3:17,18; Romans 4:18; 8:31; 2 Corinthians 1:6,9,10; Hebrews 13:6

Verse 7
And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither the ephod to David.
22:20,21; 23:2-9; 1 Kings 2:26; Mark 2:26

Verse 8
And David enquired at the LORD, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all.
23:2,4,10-12; Judges 20:18,23,28; 2 Samuel 5:19,23; Proverbs 3:5,6
he answered him
14:37; 28:6,15,16; Numbers 27:21; Psalms 50:15; 91:15

Verse 10
But David pursued, he and four hundred men: for two hundred abode behind, which were so faint that they could not go over the brook Besor.
for two hundred
so faint
14:20,31; Judges 8:4,5
the brook Besor
This brook or torrent, it is evident from the circumstances of the history, must be in the south-west part of Judea, and must empty itself into the Mediterranean Sea. In the more particular situation of it writers are not agreed. Some suppose it to be between Gaza and Rhinocorura; but Jerome places it between Rhinocorura and Egypt. It is supposed by some to be the same as the river of the wilderness, (Am 6:14,) and the river of Egypt, Jos 15:4.

Verse 11
And they found an Egyptian in the field, and brought him to David, and gave him bread, and he did eat; and they made him drink water;
gave him
Deuteronomy 15:7-11; 23:7; Proverbs 25:21; Matthew 25:35; Luke 10:36,37; Romans 12:20,21

Verse 12
And they gave him a piece of a cake of figs, and two clusters of raisins: and when he had eaten, his spirit came again to him: for he had eaten no bread, nor drunk any water, three days and three nights.
his spirit
14:27; Judges 15:19; Isaiah 40:29-31
three days
13; Esther 4:16; Jonah 1:17; Matthew 27:63

Verse 13
And David said unto him, To whom belongest thou? and whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant to an Amalekite; and my master left me, because three days agone I fell sick.
my master
Though they had booty enough, and this poor sick slave might have been carried on an ass or a camel, yet they inhumanely left him to perish; but, in the righteous providence of God, this cruelty was the occasion of their destruction; whilst David's kindness to a perishing stranger and slave was the means of his success, and proved the truest policy.
Job 31:13-15; Proverbs 12:10; James 2:13

Verse 14
We made an invasion upon the south of the Cherethites, and upon the coast which belongeth to Judah, and upon the south of Caleb; and we burned Ziklag with fire.
the Cherethites
Calmet and others suppose that these people, who inhabited the same district as the Philistines, were the aborigines of the island of Crete, from which they derived their name.
16; 2 Samuel 8:18; 1 Kings 1:38,44; 1 Chronicles 18:17; Ezekiel 25:16; Zephaniah 2:5
A district in the south of Judea, in which were the cities of Kirjath-Arba or Hebron, and Kirjath-sepher, belonging to the family of Caleb.
Joshua 14:13; 15:13
we burned

Verse 15
And David said to him, Canst thou bring me down to this company? And he said, Swear unto me by God, that thou wilt neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands of my master, and I will bring thee down to this company.
29:6; Joshua 2:12; 9:15,19,20; Ezekiel 17:13,16,19
nor deliver
Deuteronomy 23:15,16

Verse 16
And when he had brought him down, behold, they were spread abroad upon all the earth, eating and drinking, and dancing, because of all the great spoil that they had taken out of the land of the Philistines, and out of the land of Judah.
when he
Judges 1:24,25
25:36-38; Exodus 32:6,17-19,27,28; Judges 16:23-30; 2 Samuel 13:28; Isaiah 22:13; Daniel 5:1-4; Luke 12:19,20; 17:27-29; 21:34,35; 1 Thessalonians 5:3; Revelation 11:10-13
because of all
Job 20:5

Verse 17
And David smote them from the twilight even unto the evening of the next day: and there escaped not a man of them, save four hundred young men, which rode upon camels, and fled.
the next day
Heb. their morrow. and there.
11:11; Judges 4:16; 1 Kings 20:29,30; Psalms 18:42

Verse 19
And there was nothing lacking to them, neither small nor great, neither sons nor daughters, neither spoil, nor any thing that they had taken to them: David recovered all.
8; Genesis 14:14-16; Numbers 31:49; Job 1:10; Psalms 34:9,10; 91:9,10; Matthew 6:33

Verse 20
And David took all the flocks and the herds, which they drave before those other cattle, and said, This is David's spoil.
This is David's spoil
26; Numbers 31:9-12; 2 Chronicles 20:25; Isaiah 53:12; Romans 8:37

Verse 21
And David came to the two hundred men, which were so faint that they could not follow David, whom they had made also to abide at the brook Besor: and they went forth to meet David, and to meet the people that were with him: and when David came near to the people, he saluted them.
two hundred men
came near
Hebrews 13:1; 1 Peter 3:8
saluted them
Heb. asked them how they did.
Judges 8:15

Verse 22
Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us, we will not give them ought of the spoil that we have recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they may lead them away, and depart.
22:2; 25:17,25; Deuteronomy 13:13; Judges 19:22; 1 Kings 21:10,13
Heb. the men. Because.
Matthew 7:12

Verse 23
Then said David, Ye shall not do so, my brethren, with that which the LORD hath given us, who hath preserved us, and delivered the company that came against us into our hand.
my brethren
Genesis 19:7; Judges 19:23; Acts 7:2; 22:1
which the Lord
8; 2:7; Numbers 31:49-54; Deuteronomy 8:10,18; 1 Chronicles 29:12-14; Habakkuk 1:16
who hath
Psalms 44:2-7; 121:7,8

Verse 24
For who will hearken unto you in this matter? but as his part is that goeth down to the battle, so shall his part be that tarrieth by the stuff: they shall part alike.
but as his part
This equitable edict was somewhat different from that which had so long obtained in Israel, and by which the spoil of the Midianites was divided: that related to the whole people: this only to the soldiers, some of whom went to battle, while others guarded the baggage.
Numbers 31:27; Joshua 22:8; Psalms 68:12

Verse 25
And it was so from that day forward, that he made it a statute and an ordinance for Israel unto this day.
Heb. and forward.

Verse 26
And when David came to Ziklag, he sent of the spoil unto the elders of Judah, even to his friends, saying, Behold a present for you of the spoil of the enemies of the LORD;
to his friends
1 Chronicles 12:1-15; Psalms 35:27; 68:18; Proverbs 18:16-24; Isaiah 32:8
Heb. blessing.
25:27; Genesis 33:11; 2 Kings 5:15; 2 Corinthians 9:5

Verse 27
To them which were in Bethel, and to them which were in south Ramoth, and to them which were in Jattir,
Probably not the celebrated city of this name, but Bethul a city of Simeon, (Jos 19:4,) supposed to be the same as Bethelia, mentioned by Sozomen as belonging to Gaza, well peopled, and having several temples remarkable for their structure and antiquity; and which Jerome says, in his life of Hilarion, was five short days' journey from Pelusium.
Genesis 28:19; Joshua 16:2; Judges 1:22,23; 1 Kings 12:29
south Ramoth
A city of Simeon; so called to distinguish it from Ramoth Gilead beyond Jordan.
Joshua 19:8
Joshua 15:48; 21:14

Verse 28
And to them which were in Aroer, and to them which were in Siphmoth, and to them which were in Eshtemoa,
Joshua 13:16
Supposed to be the same with Shepham (Nu 34:10,) on the eastern borders of Canaan.
Joshua 15:50
Joshua 21:14

Verse 29
And to them which were in Rachal, and to them which were in the cities of the Jerahmeelites, and to them which were in the cities of the Kenites,
Supposed by Calmet to be the same as Hachilah.
The descendants of Jerahmeel son of Hezron, (1 Ch 2:9, 25-27,) who inhabited a district in the south of Judah.
These people inhabited a small tract west of the Dead Sea.
Judges 1:16

Verse 30
And to them which were in Hormah, and to them which were in Chorashan, and to them which were in Athach,
Joshua 19:4; Judges 1:17
Probably the same as Ashan in Simeon, Jos 15:42; 19:7, which Eusebius says was sixteen miles west from Jerusalem.

Verse 31
And to them which were in Hebron, and to all the places where David himself and his men were wont to haunt.
Joshua 14:13,14; 2 Samuel 2:1; 4:1; 15:10


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 30:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology