corner graphic

Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Samuel 4

 

 

Introduction
1The Israelites are overcome by the Philistines at Ebenezer.
3They fetch the ark unto the terror of the Philistines.
10They are smitten again, the ark taken, and Hophni and Phinehas are slain.
12Eli at the news, falling backward, breaks his neck.
19Phinehas's wife, discouraged in her travail with I-chabod, dies.

Verse 1
And the word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and pitched beside Ebenezer: and the Philistines pitched in Aphek.
A. M. 2863. B.C. 1141. An. Ex. Is. 350. came. or, came to pass. Heb. was
3:11
Eben-ezer
That is, the place afterwards so called: See the Parallel Texts.
5:1; 7:12
Aphek
This Aphek was situated in the tribe of Judah, and is probably the same as Aphekah.
Joshua 15:53; It must be carefully distinguished from that near Jezreel, and another in Asher.; 29:1; Joshua 19:30; 1 Kings 20:30

Verse 2
And the Philistines put themselves in array against Israel: and when they joined battle, Israel was smitten before the Philistines: and they slew of the army in the field about four thousand men.
put
17:8,21
they joined battle
Heb. the battle was spread. Israel.
Joshua 7:5-8,12; Psalms 44:9,10
and they
Psalms 79:7,8; 106:40,41; Lamentations 3:40
the army
Heb. the array.

Verse 3
And when the people were come into the camp, the elders of Israel said, Wherefore hath the LORD smitten us to day before the Philistines? Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of the LORD out of Shiloh unto us, that, when it cometh among us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies.
Wherefore
Deuteronomy 29:24; Psalms 74:1,11; Isaiah 50:1; 58:3
Let us
14:18; Numbers 31:6; Joshua 6:4,5; 2 Samuel 15:25; Isaiah 1:11-15; Jeremiah 7:4,8-15; Matthew 3:9,10
fetch
Heb. take unto us. the ark.
Numbers 10:33; Deuteronomy 31:26; Joshua 4:7; 1 Chronicles 17:1; Jeremiah 3:16; Hebrews 9:4
it may save
Jeremiah 7:8-11; Amos 5:21,22; Matthew 23:25-28; Romans 2:28,29; 1 Corinthians 10:1-5; 2 Timothy 3:5; 1 Peter 3:21; Jude 1:5

Verse 4
So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth between the cherubims: and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.
which dwelleth
2 Samuel 6:2; 2 Kings 19:15; Psalms 80:1; 99:1
the cherubims
Exodus 25:18-22; Numbers 7:89
Hophni
2:12-17,22; Psalms 50:16,17; Malachi 1:9; Acts 19:15,16
with the ark
Numbers 4:5,15

Verse 5
And when the ark of the covenant of the LORD came into the camp, all Israel shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again.
all Israel
They vainly supposed that the ark would save them, when the God of it had departed from them because of their wickedness.
Judges 15:14; Job 20:5; Jeremiah 7:4; Amos 6:3; Micah 2:11

Verse 6
And when the Philistines heard the noise of the shout, they said, What meaneth the noise of this great shout in the camp of the Hebrews? And they understood that the ark of the LORD was come into the camp.
What meaneth
Exodus 32:17,18

Verse 7
And the Philistines were afraid, for they said, God is come into the camp. And they said, Woe unto us! for there hath not been such a thing heretofore.
were afraid
Exodus 14:25; 15:14-16; Deuteronomy 32:30
heretofore
Heb. yesterday or the third day.

Verse 8
Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? these are the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness.
smote
Exodus 7:5; 9:14; Psalms 78:43-51

Verse 9
Be strong, and quit yourselves like men, O ye Philistines, that ye be not servants unto the Hebrews, as they have been to you: quit yourselves like men, and fight.
Be strong
2 Samuel 10:12; 1 Corinthians 16:13; Ephesians 6:10,11
as they have
Deuteronomy 28:47,48; Judges 10:7; 13:1; Isaiah 14:2; 33:1
quit yourselves like men
Heb. be men.

Verse 10
And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.
Israel
2; Leviticus 26:17; Deuteronomy 28:25; Psalms 78:9,60-64
every man
2 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16; 22:36; 2 Kings 14:12
a very great
2 Samuel 18:7; 2 Chronicles 13:17; 28:5,6; Isaiah 10:3-6

Verse 11
And the ark of God was taken; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain.
the ark
2:32; Psalms 78:61
the two sons
2:34; Psalms 78:64; Isaiah 3:11
were slain
Heb. died.

Verse 12
And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and came to Shiloh the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head.
with his clothes rent
These, as we have already remarked, were the general signs of sorrow and distress.
2 Samuel 1:2
with earth
Joshua 7:6; 2 Samuel 13:19; 15:32; Nehemiah 9:1; Job 2:12

Verse 13
And when he came, lo, Eli sat upon a seat by the wayside watching: for his heart trembled for the ark of God. And when the man came into the city, and told it, all the city cried out.
sat upon
1:9
his heart
Joshua 7:9; Nehemiah 1:3,4; Psalms 26:8; 79:1-8; 137:4-6

Verse 14
And when Eli heard the noise of the crying, he said, What meaneth the noise of this tumult? And the man came in hastily, and told Eli.
What meaneth

Verse 15
Now Eli was ninety and eight years old; and his eyes were dim, that he could not see.
ninety
3:2; Psalms 90:10
and his eyes
Genesis 27:1
were dim
Heb. stood.

Verse 16
And the man said unto Eli, I am he that came out of the army, and I fled to day out of the army. And he said, What is there done, my son?
What is there done
Heb. What is the thing.
2 Samuel 1:4
my son
3:6; Joshua 7:19

Verse 17
And the messenger answered and said, Israel is fled before the Philistines, and there hath been also a great slaughter among the people, and thy two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead, and the ark of God is taken.
Israel
10,11; 3:11

Verse 18
And it came to pass, when he made mention of the ark of God, that he fell from off the seat backward by the side of the gate, and his neck brake, and he died: for he was an old man, and heavy. And he had judged Israel forty years.
when he made
21,22; Psalms 26:8; 42:3,10; 69:9; Lamentations 2:15-19
his neck
2:31,32; 3:12,13; Leviticus 10:3; 1 Corinthians 11:30-32; 1 Peter 4:17,18
And he had
"He seems to have been a judge to do justice only, and that in south-west Israel."

Verse 20
And about the time of her death the women that stood by her said unto her, Fear not; for thou hast born a son. But she answered not, neither did she regard it.
Fear not
Genesis 35:17,18; John 16:21
neither did she regard it
Heb. and set not her heart.
Psalms 77:2

Verse 21
And she named the child Ichabod, saying, The glory is departed from Israel: because the ark of God was taken, and because of her father in law and her husband.
I-chabod
that is, Where is the glory?. or, There is no glory. The glory.
Psalms 26:8; 78:61,64; 106:20; Jeremiah 2:11; Hosea 9:12

Verse 22
And she said, The glory is departed from Israel: for the ark of God is taken.
The glory
Psalms 137:5,6; John 2:17

 


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 4:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-samuel-4.html.

Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology