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Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

2 Kings 18



1Hezekiah's good reign.
4He destroys idolatry, and prospers.
9The inhabitants of Samaria are carried captive for their sins.
13Sennacherib invading Judah, is pacified by a tribute.
17Rab-shakeh, by blasphemous persuasions, solicits the people to revolt.

Verse 1
Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Hezekiah the son of Ahaz king of Judah began to reign.
A. M. 3278. B.C. 726. in the third
9; 15:30; 17:1
16:20; 1 Chronicles 3:13; 2 Chronicles 28:27; 29:1; Matthew 1:9,10

Verse 2
Twenty and five years old was he when he began to reign; and he reigned twenty and nine years in Jerusalem. His mother's name also was Abi, the daughter of Zachariah.
Twenty and five years old
As Ahaz was 20 years old when he began to reign, and died when he had reigned 16 years, his whole age only amounted to 36 years; and as Hezekiah was, at least, entering on his 25th year when he began to reign, then Ahaz must have been under 12 years of age when his son was born! This is not at all impossible: and there are well-attested facts of men having children at as early a period, especially in eastern countries.
A. M. 3278-3306. B.C. 726-698. Abi
2 Chronicles 29:1

Verse 3
And he did that which was right in the sight of the LORD, according to all that David his father did.
right in the sight
20:3; Exodus 15:26; Deuteronomy 6:18; 2 Chronicles 31:20,21; Job 33:27; Psalms 119:128; Romans 7:12; Ephesians 6:1
22:2; 1 Kings 3:14; 11:4,38; 15:5,11; 2 Chronicles 29:2

Verse 4
He removed the high places, and brake the images, and cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brasen serpent that Moses had made: for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it: and he called it Nehushtan.
12:3; 14:4; 15:4,35; Leviticus 26:30; 1 Kings 3:2,3; 15:14; 22:43; Psalms 78:58; Ezekiel 20:28,29
23:4; Deuteronomy 7:5; 12:2,3; Judges 6:25,28; 1 Kings 15:12,13; 2 Chronicles 19:3; 31:1; 2 Chronicles 33:3
Heb. statues. the brasen serpent.
Numbers 21:8,9; John 3:14,15
unto those days
That is, a piece of brass.

Verse 5
He trusted in the LORD God of Israel; so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor any that were before him.
19:10; 2 Chronicles 32:7,8; Job 13:15; Psalms 13:5; 27:1,2; 46:1,2; 84:12; Psalms 146:5,6; Jeremiah 17:7,8; Matthew 27:43; Ephesians 1:12
after him
19:15-19; 23:25; 2 Chronicles 14:11; 16:7-9; 20:20,35

Verse 6
For he clave to the LORD, and departed not from following him, but kept his commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses.
he clave
None of the kings of Judah, from the time of the division of the kingdom, equalled Hezekiah in the stedfastness and simplicity of his dependence upon the Lord; in which he aspired to an equality with his progenitor David, who had reigned over the whole land. Even Asa, through weakness of faith, sought the assistance of a heathen prince; and Jehoshaphat formed an alliance with idolatrous Ahab; but Hezekiah clave to the Lord, in entire confidence and unreserved obedience, to the end of his life.
Deuteronomy 10:20; Joshua 23:8; Acts 11:23
from following him
Heb. from after him. kept.
17:13,16,19; Jeremiah 11:4; John 14:15,21; 15:10,14; 1 John 5:3

Verse 7
And the LORD was with him; and he prospered whithersoever he went forth: and he rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not.
And the Lord
Genesis 21:22; 39:2,3; 1 Samuel 18:14; 2 Chronicles 15:2; Psalms 46:11; 60:12; Matthew 1:23; Matthew 28:20; Acts 7:9,10
he prospered
Genesis 39:2; 1 Samuel 18:5,14; *marg:; 2 Samuel 8:6,14; 2 Chronicles 31:21; 32:30; Psalms 1:3; 60:12; Romans 8:31
20; 16:7

Verse 8
He smote the Philistines, even unto Gaza, and the borders thereof, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city.
the Philistines
1 Chronicles 4:41; 2 Chronicles 28:18; Isaiah 14:29
Heb. Azzah. from the tower.
17:9; 2 Chronicles 26:10; Isaiah 5:2

Verse 9
And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it.
A. M. 3281. B.C. 723. the fourth year
1; 17:4-6
17:3-23; Hosea 10:14

Verse 10
And at the end of three years they took it: even in the sixth year of Hezekiah, that is the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was taken.
A. M. 3283. B.C. 721. they took it
Hosea 13:16; Amos 3:11-15; 4:1-3; 6:7; 9:1-4; Micah 1:6-9; 6:16; 7:13

Verse 11
And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria, and put them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes:
the king
17:6; 19:11; 1 Chronicles 5:26; Isaiah 7:8; 8:4; 9:9-21; 10:5,11; 37:12; Hosea 8:8,9; Hosea 9:3; Amos 5:1-3,6,25-27; Acts 7:43
It is thought, with much probability, that Halah, or Chalach, is Ptolemy's Calachene, the northern part of Assyria; that Habor, or Chabor, is the mountain or mountainous country, between Media and Assyria, called by Ptolemy, [Chaboras] Chaboras; and that Gozan is Gauzanitis of Ptolemy, situated between that mountain and the Caspian sea, and between the two channels of the river Cyrus.

Verse 12
Because they obeyed not the voice of the LORD their God, but transgressed his covenant, and all that Moses the servant of the LORD commanded, and would not hear them, nor do them.
they obeyed not
17:7-23; Deuteronomy 8:20; 11:28; 29:24-28; 31:17; Nehemiah 9:17,26,27; Psalms 107:17; Isaiah 1:19; Jeremiah 3:8; 7:23; Daniel 9:6-11; Micah 3:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:8; 1 Peter 2:8; 4:17
Numbers 12:7; Deuteronomy 34:5; Joshua 1:1; 2 Timothy 2:24; Hebrews 3:5,6

Verse 13
Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them.
A. M. 3291. B.C. 713. the fourteenth
2 Chronicles 32:1-23; Isaiah 36:1-22
Heb. Sanherib. come up.
Isaiah 7:17-25; 8:7,8; 10:5; Hosea 12:1,2

Verse 14
And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish, saying, I have offended; return from me: that which thou puttest on me will I bear. And the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold.
I have offended
7; 1 Kings 20:4; Proverbs 29:25; Luke 14:32

Verse 15
And Hezekiah gave him all the silver that was found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasures of the king's house.
12:18; 16:8; 1 Kings 15:15,18,19; 2 Chronicles 16:2

Verse 16
At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the LORD, and from the pillars which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria.
1 Kings 6:31-35; 2 Chronicles 29:3
Heb. them.

Verse 17
And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the highway of the fuller's field.
A. M. 3294. B.C. 710. the king
2 Chronicles 32:9; Isaiah 20:1; 36:2
Calmet remarks, that these are not the names of persons, but of offices: Tartan signifies "he who presides over gifts or tribute;" Rabsaris, "the chief of the eunuchs;" and Rabshakeh, "the chief cup-bearer."
Heb. heavy. the conduit of the upper pool. If the Fuller's field were near En-Rogel, or the Fuller's fountain, east of Jerusalem, as is generally supposed, then the conduit of the upper pool may been an aqueduct that brought the water from the upper or eastern reservoir of that fountain, which had been seized in order to distress the city.
20:20; Isaiah 7:3; 22:9-11; 36:2

Verse 18
And when they had called to the king, there came out to them Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, which was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph the recorder.
19:2; Isaiah 22:20-24; 36:3,22; 37:2
Isaiah 22:15-19
the scribe
or, secretary.
2 Samuel 8:17; *marg:
the recorder
2 Samuel 8:16; 20:24; 1 Kings 4:3; 2 Chronicles 34:8

Verse 19
And Rabshakeh said unto them, Speak ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria, What confidence is this wherein thou trustest?
He was the chief speaker, being a very eloquent man, and, according to the Hebrews, whom Procopius follows, an apostate Jew; which is not improbable, as he spoke Hebrew so fluently; and when he blasphemed the Divine Majesty, the king and nobles rent their clothes, which was usual unless the blasphemer were an Israelite.
Thus saith
2 Chronicles 32:10; Isaiah 10:8-14; 36:4; 37:13; Daniel 4:30
What confidence
22,29,30; 19:10; 2 Chronicles 32:7,8,10,11,14-16; Psalms 4:2; Isaiah 36:4,7; 37:10

Verse 20
Thou sayest, (but they are but vain words,) I have counsel and strength for the war. Now on whom dost thou trust, that thou rebellest against me?
or, talkest. vain words. Heb. word of the lips. I have counsel and strength for the war. or, but counsel and strength are for the war.
Proverbs 21:30,31

Verse 21
Now, behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, even upon Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it: so is Pharaoh king of Egypt unto all that trust on him.
Heb. trustest thee. the staff.
Isaiah 36:6; Ezekiel 29:6,7
upon Egypt
Isaiah 30:2,7; 31:1-3
so is Pharaoh
17:4; Jeremiah 46:17

Verse 22
But if ye say unto me, We trust in the LORD our God: is not that he, whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away, and hath said to Judah and Jerusalem, Ye shall worship before this altar in Jerusalem?
We trust
5; Daniel 3:15; Matthew 27:43
whose high places
4; 2 Chronicles 31:1; 32:12; Isaiah 36:7; 1 Corinthians 2:15

Verse 23
Now therefore, I pray thee, give pledges to my lord the king of Assyria, and I will deliver thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.
Heb. hostages.
I will deliver
1 Samuel 17:42,44; 1 Kings 20:10,18; Nehemiah 4:2-5; Psalms 123:3,4; Isaiah 10:13,14; Isaiah 36:8,9

Verse 24
How then wilt thou turn away the face of one captain of the least of my master's servants, and put thy trust on Egypt for chariots and for horsemen?
How then
Isaiah 10:8; Daniel 2:37,38; 4:22,37
thy trust
21; Deuteronomy 17:16; Isaiah 31:1,3; 36:6,9; Jeremiah 37:7; 42:14-18; Ezekiel 17:15,17
Psalms 20:7,8

Verse 25
Am I now come up without the LORD against this place to destroy it? The LORD said to me, Go up against this land, and destroy it.
Am I now
19:6,22-37; 1 Kings 13:18; 2 Chronicles 35:21; Isaiah 10:5,6; Amos 3:6; John 19:10,11

Verse 26
Then said Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebna, and Joah, unto Rabshakeh, Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand it: and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are on the wall.
Perceiving that the object of this blasphemous caitiff was to stir up the people to sedition, they mildly and reasonably required him to make his proposals in the Syrian language.
in the Syrian language
Ezra 4:7; Isaiah 36:11,12; Daniel 2:4

Verse 27
But Rabshakeh said unto them, Hath my master sent me to thy master, and to thee, to speak these words? hath he not sent me to the men which sit on the wall, that they may eat their own dung, and drink their own piss with you?
6:25; Deuteronomy 28:53-57; Psalms 73:8; Lamentations 4:5; Ezekiel 4:13,15
their own piss
Heb. the water of their feet.

Verse 28
Then Rabshakeh stood and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and spake, saying, Hear the word of the great king, the king of Assyria:
2 Chronicles 32:18; Isaiah 36:13-18
the king of Assyria
19; Ezra 7:12; Psalms 47:2; Isaiah 10:8-13; Ezekiel 29:3; 31:3-10; Revelation 19:6

Verse 29
Thus saith the king, Let not Hezekiah deceive you: for he shall not be able to deliver you out of his hand:
Psalms 73:8,9
Let not
2 Chronicles 32:11,15; Daniel 3:15-17; 6:16; John 19:10,11; 2 Thessalonians 2:4,8

Verse 30
Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying, The LORD will surely deliver us, and this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.
make you
19:10,22; Psalms 4:2; 11:1; 22:7,8; 71:9,11; 125:1,2; Matthew 27:43; Luke 23:35
this city

Verse 31
Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith the king of Assyria, Make an agreement with me by a present, and come out to me, and then eat ye every man of his own vine, and every one of his fig tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his cistern:
Make an agreement with me
or, Seek my favour. Heb. Make with me a blessing.
Genesis 32:20; 33:11; Proverbs 18:16
eat ye
1 Kings 4:20,25; Zechariah 3:10
or, pit.

Verse 32
Until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of oil olive and of honey, that ye may live, and not die: and hearken not unto Hezekiah, when he persuadeth you, saying, The LORD will deliver us.
I come
11; 17:6,23; 24:14-16; 25:11
like your own
Exodus 3:8; Numbers 13:26,27; 14:8; Deuteronomy 8:7-9; 11:12; 32:13,14
or, deceiveth.

Verse 33
Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered at all his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria?
Hath any
19:12,13,17,18; 2 Chronicles 32:14-17,19; Isaiah 10:10; 36:18-20

Verse 34
Where are the gods of Hamath, and of Arpad? where are the gods of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivah? have they delivered Samaria out of mine hand?
the gods
19:13; Numbers 13:21; 2 Samuel 8:9; Jeremiah 49:23
Hamath, there is little doubt, was the Epiphania of the Greeks, as Josephus, Theodoret, and Jerome, expressly assert. It was a celebrated city of Syria, situated on the Orontes, and the present Hamah doubtless occupies its site; as Abulfeda, who was prince or emir of Hamah about A.D. 1345, expressly states, in his Description of Syria, that Hamah is an ancient city mentioned in the writings of the Israelites. It is still a considerable town, situated on both sides of the Orontes, about three days' journey and a half from Tripoli; and must contain, Burckhardt says, at least 30,000 inhabitants.
Arpad is probably the town of Arphas, mentioned by Josephus as limiting the province of Gamalitis, Gaulanitis, Batanea, and Trachonitis, to the N. E.; and the Raphan, or Raphanea, which Stephanus places near Epiphania.
the gods
Isaiah 36:18,19; 37:11,12,18,19
have they delivered
17:6,23,24,30,31; 19:12,13

Verse 35
Who are they among all the gods of the countries, that have delivered their country out of mine hand, that the LORD should deliver Jerusalem out of mine hand?
Who are
19:17; Daniel 3:15
that the Lord
Exodus 5:2; 2 Chronicles 32:15; Job 15:25,26; Isaiah 10:15; 37:23-29

Verse 36
But the people held their peace, and answered him not a word: for the king's commandment was, saying, Answer him not.
held their peace
Psalms 38:13,14; 39:1; Proverbs 9:7; 26:4; Amos 5:13; Matthew 7:6

Verse 37
Then came Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, which was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent, and told him the words of Rabshakeh.
with their clothes rent
5:7; 22:11,19; Genesis 37:29,34; Job 1:20; Isaiah 33:7; 36:21,22; Jeremiah 36:24; Matthew 26:65


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 18:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

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