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Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Exodus 28



1Aaron and his sons are set apart for the priest's office.
2Holy garments are appointed.
6The ephod and girdle.
15The breast-plate with twelve precious stones.
30The Urim and Thummim.
31The robe of the ephod, with pomegranates and bells.
36The plate of the mitre.
39The embroidered coat.
40The garments for Aaron's sons.

Verse 1
And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.
Leviticus 8:2; Numbers 16:9-11; 17:2-9; 2 Chronicles 26:18-21; Hebrews 5:1-5
41; 29:1,9,44; 30:30; 31:10; 35:19; Numbers 18:7; Deuteronomy 10:6; 1 Chronicles 6:10; 2 Chronicles 11:14; Luke 1:8
6:23; 24:1,9; Leviticus 10:1,12; Numbers 2:4; 26:61; 1 Chronicles 24:1-4

Verse 2
And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.
holy garments
29:5-9,29,30; 31:10; 39:1,2; 40:13; Leviticus 8:7-9,30; Numbers 20:26-28; Psalms 132:9,16; Isaiah 61:3,10; 64:6; Zechariah 3:3,4; Romans 3:22; 13:14; Galatians 3:27; Hebrews 7:26; Revelation 19:8
40; 19:5,6; Numbers 27:20,21; Job 40:10; Psalms 90:16,17; 96:6; 149:4; Isaiah 4:2; Jeremiah 9:23,24; John 1:14; 1 Corinthians 1:30,31; Hebrews 2:9; 2 Peter 1:17; 1 John 3:2; Revelation 5:10; 19:8

Verse 3
And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
wise hearted
31:3-6; 35:30,35; 36:1,2; Proverbs 2:6; Isaiah 28:24-26
Deuteronomy 34:9; Isaiah 11:2; 1 Corinthians 12:7-11; Ephesians 1:17; James 1:17

Verse 4
And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
a breastplate
Choshen, in Hebrew is used for the square breast-plate of the high priest, in which were set twelve precious stones, each being engraved with the name of one of the sons of Jacob.
15; 39:8-21; Isaiah 59:17; Ephesians 6:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:8; Revelation 9:17
The ephod seems to have been a short cloak, without sleeves.
6-14; 39:2-5,21,22; Leviticus 8:7,8; 1 Samuel 2:18; 22:18; 23:6; 30:7; 2 Samuel 6:14
a robe
The word meil, from âlah, to ascend, go up on, may be considered as an upper garment that goes up or over the rest, a surtout.
31-34; 39:25,26
29,40; Leviticus 8:7
a mitre
39:28; Leviticus 8:9
a girdle
Isaiah 11:5

Verse 5
And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen.
25:3,4; 39:2,3

Verse 6
And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.

Verse 7
It shall have the two shoulderpieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together.

Verse 8
And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
or, embroidered.
27,28; 29:5; 39:20,21; Leviticus 8:7; Isaiah 11:5; 1 Peter 1:13; Revelation 1:13

Verse 9
And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel:
20; 39:13; Genesis 2:12; Job 28:16; Ezekiel 28:13
36; 39:6; 2 Chronicles 2:7; Song of Solomon 8:6; Isaiah 49:16

Verse 10
Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth.
according to their birth
1:1-4; Genesis 43:33

Verse 11
With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold.
engravings of a signet
21,36; Jeremiah 22:24; Zechariah 3:9; Ephesians 1:13; 4:30; 2 Timothy 2:19; Revelation 7:2
ounces of gold
13,14,25; 39:6,13,18

Verse 12
And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a memorial.
the shoulders
7; Psalms 89:19; Isaiah 9:6; 12:2; Zechariah 6:13,14; Hebrews 7:25-28
Aaron shall bear
29; 39:6,7
for a memorial
12:14; 13:9; 39:7; Genesis 9:12-17; Leviticus 24:7; Numbers 16:40; 31:54; Joshua 4:7; Isaiah 62:6; Zechariah 6:14; Luke 1:54,72; Acts 10:4

Verse 14
And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches.
chains of
24; 39:15
of wreathen
22-25; 39:17,18; 1 Kings 7:17; 2 Kings 25:17; 2 Chronicles 4:12,13

Verse 15
And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.
the breastplate
4,30; 39:8; Leviticus 8:8
6; 26:1

Verse 17
And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this shall be the first row.
thou shalt
9,11; 39:10-21; Malachi 3:17
set in it settings of stones
Heb. fill in its fillings of stone. the first row.
Ezekiel 28:13; Revelation 21:19-21
a sardius, or, ruby
The Hebrew odem, from adam, to be red, ruddy, seems to denote the ruby; as adam does in Persian a beautiful gem, of a fine deep red colour, with a mixture of purple.
Job 28:18; Proverbs 3:15; 8:11; 20:15; 31:10; Lamentations 4:7
a topaz
Pitdah, is constantly rendered by the LXX. [topazion] and Vulgate, topazius, with which agrees Josephus. The topaz is a precious stone, of a pale, dead green, with a mixture of yellow, sometimes of a fine yellow; and hence called chrysolyte by the moderns, from its gold colour.
Job 28:19; Revelation 21:20
a carbuncle
Bareketh, from barak, to lighten, glitter, a very elegant gem, of a deep red colour, with a mixture of scarlet.
Isaiah 54:11,12

Verse 18
And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.
Nophech, an emerald, the same with the ancient smaragdus; one of the most beautiful of all the gems, and of a bright green colour, without any mixture.
39:11; Ezekiel 27:16
24:10; Job 28:6,16; Song of Solomon 5:14; Ezekiel 1:26; 10:1; Revelation 4:3
Jeremiah 17:1; Ezekiel 28:13

Verse 19
And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.
a ligure
an agate
Isaiah 54:12

Verse 20
And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their inclosings.
a beryl
Ezekiel 1:16; 10:9; Daniel 10:6; Revelation 21:20
an onyx
See on ver.
a jasper
Revelation 4:3; 21:11,18-20
Heb. fillings.

Verse 21
And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes.
according to the twelve
1 Kings 18:31; Luke 22:30; James 1:1; Revelation 7:4-8; 21:12

Verse 22

Exodus href="/desk/?q=ex+28:14&sr=1">Exodus 28:14

Verse 23
And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.

Verse 25
And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod before it.
wreathen chains
14; 39:15
on the shoulder pieces
of the ephod

Verse 27
And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod.
the curious girdle

Verse 28
And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod.
a lace
31,37; 39:30,31; Numbers 15:38

Verse 29
And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the LORD continually.
in the
12; Jeremiah 30:21; Romans 10:1
Song of Solomon 8:6; Isaiah 49:15,16

Verse 30
And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.
the Urim and Thummim
[^Mymth taw Myrwa ta^] the Urim and Thummim, lights and perfections; rendered by the LXX. [~dhlwsiv kai alhyeia~] manifestation and truth; and, by the Vulgate, doctrina et veritas, doctrine and truth. Among the various and contradictory opinions respecting the form and substance of these mysterious appendages, the most probable seems to be that of Josephus, Philo, Bp. Patrick, Parkhurst, and the Jewish writers generally; who state, that they were no other than the twelve precious stones of the high priest's breastplate. In support of this statement, it is observed, 1. That in the description of the high priest's breastplate, Exod. 39:8, et seq., the Urim and Thummim are not mentioned, but only the rows of stones; and on the contrary, in Lev. 8:8, the Urim and Thummim are expressly mentioned, but not a word is said of the four rows of stones. 2. As Moses has given such a particular description of every thing relative to the high priest's dress, these would certainly have been described had they been different from what was previously mentioned.
Leviticus 8:8; Numbers 27:21; Deuteronomy 33:8; Judges 1:1; 20:18,23,27,28; 1 Samuel 23:9-12; 1 Samuel 28:6; 30:7,8; Ezra 2:63; Nehemiah 7:65
bear the judgment
Zechariah 6:13
upon his heart
2 Corinthians 6:11,12; 7:3; 12:15; Philippians 1:7,8; Hebrews 2:17; 4:15; 9:12,24

Verse 31
And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.
4,28; 39:22; Leviticus 8:7

Verse 32
And there shall be an hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof: it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.
as it were
39:28; 2 Chronicles 26:14; Nehemiah 4:16; Job 41:26
that it be not rent
John 19:23,24; Ephesians 4:3-16

Verse 33
And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about:
or, skirts. pomegranates.
1 Kings 7:18; 2 Kings 25:17
Zechariah 14:20

Verse 34
A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.
Psalms 89:15; Song of Solomon 2:3; 4:3,13; 6:7,11; 8:2; John 15:4-8,16; Colossians 1:5,6,10

Verse 35
And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD, and when he cometh out, that he die not.
goeth in
Leviticus 16:2; Hebrews 9:12

Verse 36
And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.
a plate of pure gold
The word tzitz, which we translate a plate, properly signifies a flower. It is rendered by the LXX. [petalon] a leaf, and is called nezer, a crown in ch. 29:6 and [diadema] a diadem, by the author of the book of Wisdom, ch. 28:24. Josephus says that it was adorned with three rows of the flower which the Greeks call [kyanos.] It was two fingers broad, of a circular form, suited to the shape of the head, and so long that it reached from ear to ear, and was fastened upon a blue lace or ribband, which was tied behind the head; and as the plate reached only half round the head, the remaining part of the ribband was highly ornamented with artificial flowers.
grave upon it
39:30; Leviticus 8:9; 10:3; 19:2; Psalms 93:5; Ezekiel 43:12; Zechariah 14:20; Hebrews 7:26; Hebrews 12:14; 1 Peter 1:15,16; 2:9; Revelation 21:27

Verse 37
And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be.
28,31; Numbers 15:38
the mitre it
4; 29:6; 39:30,31; Leviticus 8:9; Zechariah 3:5

Verse 38
And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.
bear the iniquity
43; Leviticus 10:17; 22:9; Numbers 18:1; Isaiah 53:6,11,12; Ezekiel 4:4-6; John 1:29; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 9:28; 1 Peter 2:24; 3:18
Leviticus 1:4; 22:27; 23:11; Isaiah 56:7; 60:7; Ephesians 1:6; 1 Peter 2:5

Verse 39
And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of needlework.
the girdle
Psalms 45:14

Verse 40
And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty.
4; 39:27,29,41; Leviticus 8:13; Ezekiel 44:17,18
2; 1 Timothy 2:9,10; 6:9-11; Titus 2:7,10; 1 Peter 3:3,4; 5:5

Verse 41
And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
anoint them
29:7; 30:23-30; 40:15; Leviticus 10:7; Isaiah 10:27; 61:1; John 3:34; 2 Corinthians 1:21,22; 1 John 2:20,27
and consecrate them
Heb. fill their hand.
29:9,24,35; Leviticus 8:1-36; Numbers 3:3; Ezekiel 43:26; Hebrews 5:4; 7:28

Verse 42
And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach:
20:26; 39:28; Leviticus 6:10; 16:4; Ezekiel 44:18; Revelation 3:18
their nakedness
Heb. flesh of their nakedness. reach. Heb. be.

Verse 43
And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.
unto the altar
bear not iniquity
Leviticus 5:1,17; 20:19,20; 22:9; Numbers 9:13; 18:22; Matthew 22:12,13
a statute
27:21; Leviticus 17:7


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 28:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

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