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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Genesis 43



1Jacob is hardly persuaded to send Benjamin.
15Joseph entertains his brethren.
19They discover their fears to the steward.
26Joseph makes them a feast.

Verse 1
And the famine was sore in the land.
18:13; 41:54-57; 42:5; Ecclesiastes 9:1,2; Lamentations 5:10; Acts 7:11-13

Verse 2
And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said unto them, Go again, buy us a little food.
4,20; 42:1,2; Proverbs 15:16; 16:18; 31:16; 1 Timothy 5:8; 6:6-8

Verse 3
And Judah spake unto him, saying, The man did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you.
42:15-20,33,34; 44:23
did solemnly protest
Heb. protesting, protested.
Acts 7:34
see my face
5; 2 Samuel 3:13; 14:24,28,32; Acts 20:25,38

Verse 5
But if thou wilt not send him, we will not go down: for the man said unto us, Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you.
will not
42:38; 44:26; Exodus 20:12

Verse 7
And they said, The man asked us straitly of our state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? have ye another brother? and we told him according to the tenor of these words: could we certainly know that he would say, Bring your brother down?
asked us straitly
Heb. asking asked us.
3; *marg:
Heb. mouth. could we certainly know. knowing could we know.
3; *marg:

Verse 8
And Judah said unto Israel his father, Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, and also our little ones.
lad with me
42:38; 44:26; Exodus 20:12
that we
42:2; Deuteronomy 33:6; 2 Kings 7:4,13; Psalms 118:17
also our
45:19; 50:8,21; Numbers 14:31; Ezra 8:21

Verse 9
I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame for ever:
will be
42:37; 44:32,33; 1 Kings 1:21; Job 17:3; Psalms 119:122; Philemon 1:18,19; Hebrews 7:22
of my hand
9:5; 31:39; Ezekiel 3:18,20; 33:6,8; Luke 11:50

Verse 10
For except we had lingered, surely now we had returned this second time.
this second time
or, twice by this.

Verse 11
And their father Israel said unto them, If it must be so now, do this; take of the best fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds:
If it must be
14; Esther 4:16; Acts 21:14
carry down
32:13-21; 33:10; 37:25; Deuteronomy 33:14; 1 Samuel 9:7; 25:27; 1 Kings 4:21; 10:25; 1 Kings 15:19; 2 Kings 8:8; 16:8; 20:12; Psalms 68:29; 72:10; 76:11; Proverbs 17:18; Proverbs 18:16; 19:6; 21:14; Ezekiel 27:17
a little balm
37:25; Jeremiah 8:22; Ezekiel 27:15
For an explanation of the words tzori, nechoth, and lot, here rendered respectively balm, spices, and myrrh, see on ch. 37:25. Devash, honey, is supposed by some not to have been that produced by bees, but a syrup produced from ripe dates. The Jewish doctors observe, that the word in 2 Ch 31:5 signifies dates; and the Arabians, at this day, call the choicest dates preserved with butter, dabous, and the honey obtained from them, dibs, or dabs. Benanim, nuts signifies pistachio nuts, the finest thing found in Syria; but, according to the others, a small nut, the produce of a species of the turpentine tree. Shekaidim is certainly almonds.
Leviticus 20:24
1 Kings 10:15; Song of Solomon 4:10,14-16; 5:1; 8:14

Verse 12
And take double money in your hand; and the money that was brought again in the mouth of your sacks, carry it again in your hand; peradventure it was an oversight:
Romans 12:17; 13:8; 2 Corinthians 8:21; Philippians 4:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 5:21; Hebrews 13:8

Verse 13
Take also your brother, and arise, go again unto the man:

Verse 14
And God Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may send away your other brother, and Benjamin. If I be bereaved of my children, I am bereaved.
And God
17:1; 22:14; 32:11-28; 39:21; Ezra 7:27; Nehemiah 1:11; Esther 4:16; Psalms 37:5-7; Psalms 85:7; 100:5; 119:41; Proverbs 1:1; 16:7; 21:1; Isaiah 49:13; Luke 1:50; Acts 7:10; 21:14; 1 Timothy 1:2,16; Titus 1:4; 2 John 1:3
If I be, etc
or, and I, as I have been, etc.
Esther 4:16
See on ver

Verse 16
And when Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the ruler of his house, Bring these men home, and slay, and make ready; for these men shall dine with me at noon.
the ruler
19; 15:2; 24:2-10; 39:4,5; 44:1
Heb. kill a killing.
21:8; 26:30; 31:54; 1 Samuel 25:11; taivach,}:; 1 Samuel 25:11; Proverbs 9:2
dine with
Heb. eat.

Verse 18
And the men were afraid, because they were brought into Joseph's house; and they said, Because of the money that was returned in our sacks at the first time are we brought in; that he may seek occasion against us, and fall upon us, and take us for bondmen, and our asses.
the men
42:21,28,35; Judges 13:22; Job 15:21; Psalms 53:5; 73:16; Isaiah 7:2; Matthew 14:26,27; Mark 6:16
seek occasion against us
Heb. Roll himself upon us.
Deuteronomy 22:14,17; Judges 14:4; Job 30:14; Romans 7:8

Verse 20
And said, O sir, we came indeed down at the first time to buy food:
we came indeed down
Heb. coming down we came down.
3,7; 42:3,10,27,35

Verse 21
And it came to pass, when we came to the inn, that we opened our sacks, and, behold, every man's money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight: and we have brought it again in our hand.
we came
we have
12; Romans 12:17; 13:8; Hebrews 13:5,18; 1 Peter 2:12; 3:16

Verse 23
And he said, Peace be to you, fear not: your God, and the God of your father, hath given you treasure in your sacks: I had your money. And he brought Simeon out unto them.
Judges 6:23; 19:20; 1 Samuel 25:6; 1 Chronicles 12:18; Ezra 4:17; Luke 10:5; 24:36; John 14:27; 20:19,21,26
I had your money
Heb. Your money came to me. Caspechem ba ailai, "your money comes to me:" as I am the steward, the cash for the corn belongs to me. Ye have no occasion to be apprehensive of any evil; the whole transaction is between myself and you; receive therefore the money as a present from "the God of your father," no matter whose hands he employs to convey it.
14; 42:24,36

Verse 24
And the man brought the men into Joseph's house, and gave them water, and they washed their feet; and he gave their asses provender.
18:4; 19:2; 24:32; Luke 7:44; John 13:4-17

Verse 25
And they made ready the present against Joseph came at noon: for they heard that they should eat bread there.

Verse 26
And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in their hand into the house, and bowed themselves to him to the earth.
28; 27:29; 37:7-10,19,20; 42:6; Psalms 72:9; Romans 14:11; Philippians 2:10,11

Verse 27
And he asked them of their welfare, and said, Is your father well, the old man of whom ye spake? Is he yet alive?
Heb. peace.
37:14; 41:16; Exodus 18:7; Judges 18:15; 1 Samuel 17:22; 25:5; 1 Chronicles 18:10
Is your father well
Heb. Is there peace to your father? the old.

Verse 28
And they answered, Thy servant our father is in good health, he is yet alive. And they bowed down their heads, and made obeisance.
26; 37:7,9,10
made obeisance
Exodus 18:7; 2 Samuel 1:2; 14:4; 1 Kings 1:16; 2 Chronicles 24:17

Verse 29
And he lifted up his eyes, and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said, Is this your younger brother, of whom ye spake unto me? And he said, God be gracious unto thee, my son.
mother's son
30:22-24; 35:17,18
of whom
45:8; Joshua 7:19; 2 Chronicles 29:11; Psalms 133:1,2; Matthew 9:2,22; Mark 10:24; 1 Timothy 1:2; Hebrews 13:1
my son
Numbers 6:25; Psalms 111:4; 112:4; Isaiah 30:19; 33:2; Malachi 1:9

Verse 30
And Joseph made haste; for his bowels did yearn upon his brother: and he sought where to weep; and he entered into his chamber, and wept there.
his bowels
1 Kings 3:26; Jeremiah 31:20; Hosea 11:8; Philippians 1:8; 2:1; Colossians 3:12; 1 John 3:17
wept there
42:24; John 11:33-38; Acts 20:19,31,37; 2 Timothy 1:4

Verse 31
And he washed his face, and went out, and refrained himself, and said, Set on bread.
45:1; Isaiah 42:14; Jeremiah 31:16; 1 Peter 3:10

Verse 32
And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, which did eat with him, by themselves: because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians.
eat bread
16; 31:54
for that is an abomination
The Chaldee Paraphrast renders this clause, "Because the Hebrews eat the cattle which the Egyptians worship." But, as we learn from ver. 16, compared with this verse, that the provision for the entertainment of the Egyptians themselves was animal food, this reason cannot be just. The true reason seems to be that assigned by the LXX., [Bedlyma gar estin tois Aigyptiois pas poimén probaton:] "For every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians."
46:34; Exodus 8:26

Verse 33
And they sat before him, the firstborn according to his birthright, and the youngest according to his youth: and the men marvelled one at another.

Verse 34
And he took and sent messes unto them from before him: but Benjamin's mess was five times so much as any of theirs. And they drank, and were merry with him.
2 Samuel 11:8
was five times
Sir John Chardin observes, that "in Persia, Arabia, and the Indies, there are some houses where they place several plates in large salvers, and set one of these before each person, or before two or three, according to the magnificence of each house. The great men of the state are always served by themselves, in the feasts that are made for them; and with great profusion, their part of each kind of provision being always double, treble, or a larger proportion of each kind of meat."
45:22; 1 Samuel 1:5; 9:22-24
were merry
Heb. drank largely.
Proverbs 31:6; Ecclesiastes 9:7; 10:19; Song of Solomon 5:1; Habakkuk 1:6; Matthew 11:19; John 2:10


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Genesis 43:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

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