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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Isaiah 28



1The prophet threatens Ephraim for their pride and drunkenness.
5The residue shall be advanced in the kingdom of Christ.
7He rebukes their error;
9their untowardness to learn;
14and their security.
16Christ the sure foundation is promised.
17Their security shall be tried.
23They are incited to the consideration of God's discreet providence.

Verse 1
Woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim, whose glorious beauty is a fading flower, which are on the head of the fat valleys of them that are overcome with wine!
A. M. 3279. B.C. 725. the crown. This chapter begins a new subject, chiefly relating to the devastations of Israel and Judah by the Assyrian kings. The ancient Samaria being beautifully situated on the top of a round hill, and surrounded immediately with a rich valley, and then a circle of other hills around it, suggested the idea of a chaplet, or wreath of flowers
3; Hosea 5:5; 6:10
7; 5:11,22; Proverbs 23:29; Hosea 4:11; 7:5; Amos 2:8,12; 6:6
4; 7:8,9; 8:4; 2 Kings 14:25-27; 15:29; 18:10-12; 2 Chronicles 28:6; 30:6,7; Amos 6:1
Heb. broken.

Verse 2
Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and strong one, which as a tempest of hail and a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth with the hand.
the Lord
9:9-12; 27:1; Ezekiel 30:10,11
as a tempest
15-19; 8:7,8; 25:4; 29:6; 30:30; Ezekiel 13:11; Nahum 1:8; Matthew 7:25-27; Revelation 18:8

Verse 3
The crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under feet:
The crown
25:10; 26:6; 2 Kings 9:33; Lamentations 1:15; Daniel 8:13; Hebrews 10:29; Revelation 11:2
under feet
Heb. with feet.

Verse 4
And the glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fat valley, shall be a fading flower, and as the hasty fruit before the summer; which when he that looketh upon it seeth, while it is yet in his hand he eateth it up.
shall be
1; Psalms 73:19,20; Hosea 6:4; 9:10,11,16; 13:1,15; James 1:10,11
the hasty
"No sooner," says Dr. Shaw, "doth the boccore (or early fig) draw near to perfection in the middle or latter end of June, than the kermez, or summer fig, begins to be formed, though it rarely ripens before August; about which time the same tree frequently throws out a third crop, or winter fig, as we may call it. This is usually of a much longer shape and darker complexion than the kermez, hanging and ripening upon the tree, even after the leaves are shed; and, provided the winter proves mild and temperate, is gathered as a delicious morsel in the spring."
Micah 7:1; Nahum 3:12; Revelation 6:13
Heb. swalloweth.

Verse 5
In that day shall the LORD of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people,
shall the
41:16; 45:25; 60:1-3,19; 62:3; Jeremiah 9:23,24; Zechariah 6:13-15; Luke 2:32; 1 Corinthians 1:30,31; 2 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Peter 5:4
for a diadem
Job 29:14; Psalms 90:16,17
10:20,21; 11:16; 37:31,32; Romans 11:5,6

Verse 6
And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment, and for strength to them that turn the battle to the gate.
for a spirit
11:2-4; 32:15,16; Genesis 41:38,39; Numbers 11:16,17; 27:16-18; 1 Kings 3:28; Psalms 72:1-4; Proverbs 20:8; John 3:34; 5:30; 1 Corinthians 12:8
and for strength
Deuteronomy 20:4; Joshua 1:9; Psalms 18:32-34; 46:1,11

Verse 7
But they also have erred through wine, and through strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they err in vision, they stumble in judgment.
19:14; 56:10-12; Leviticus 10:9,10; Proverbs 20:1; 31:4,5; Ecclesiastes 10:17; Ezekiel 44:21; Hosea 4:11; Micah 2:11; Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:34; Ephesians 5:28
are swallowed
Psalms 107:27; *marg:
err in
3:12; 9:16; Jeremiah 14:14; 23:13,16; Lamentations 2:4; Ezekiel 13:7; Hosea 4:12

Verse 8
For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness, so that there is no place clean.
Proverbs 26:11; Jeremiah 48:26; Habakkuk 2:15,16

Verse 9
Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine? them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts.
shall he teach
30:10-12; Psalms 50:17; Proverbs 1:29; Jeremiah 5:31; 6:10; John 3:19; 12:38,47,48
Heb. the hearing.
53:1; *marg:
Psalms 131:2; Matthew 11:25; 21:15,16; Mark 10:15; 1 Peter 2:2

Verse 10
For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little:
For precept
13; 5:4; Deuteronomy 6:1-6; 2 Chronicles 36:15,16; Nehemiah 9:29,30; Jeremiah 11:7; 25:3-7; Matthew 21:34-41; Philippians 3:1; 2 Timothy 3:7; Hebrews 5:12
must be
or, hath been.

Verse 11
For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people.
Deuteronomy 28:49; Jeremiah 5:15; 1 Corinthians 14:21
stammering lips
Heb. stammerings of lips. will he speak. or, he hath spoken.

Verse 12
To whom he said, This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest; and this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear.
30:15; 2 Chronicles 14:11; 16:8,9; Jeremiah 6:16; Matthew 11:28,29
Psalms 81:11-13; Jeremiah 44:16; Zechariah 7:11,14; Hebrews 12:25

Verse 13
But the word of the LORD was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they might go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken.
precept upon precept
10; Jeremiah 23:36-38; Hosea 6:5; 8:12
6:9,10; 8:14,15; Psalms 69:22; Matthew 13:14; 21:44; Romans 11:9; 2 Corinthians 2:16; 1 Peter 2:7,8; 2 Peter 3:16

Verse 14
Wherefore hear the word of the LORD, ye scornful men, that rule this people which is in Jerusalem.
22; 1:10; 5:9; 29:20; Proverbs 1:22; 3:34; 29:8; Hosea 7:5; Acts 13:41

Verse 15
Because ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell are we at agreement; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not come unto us: for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves:
We have
To be in covenant with a thing, says Bp. Lowth, is a proverbial expression to denote perfect security from mischief or evil of which it is the cause.
5:18,19; Ecclesiastes 8:8; Job 5:23; 15:25-27; Jeremiah 44:17; Ezekiel 8:12; Hosea 2:18; Zephaniah 1:12
8:7,8; Daniel 11:22
we have made
30:10; Jeremiah 5:31; 14:13; 16:19; 28:15-17; Ezekiel 13:16,22; Amos 2:4; Jonah 2:8; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-11

Verse 16
Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste.
8:14; Genesis 49:10,24; Psalms 118:22; Zechariah 3:9; Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17,18; Acts 4:11,12; Romans 9:33; 10:11; 1 Corinthians 3:11; Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:6-8
he that
30:18; Psalms 112:7,8; Habakkuk 2:3,4; James 5:7,8

Verse 17
Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place.
10:22; 2 Kings 21:13; Psalms 94:15; Amos 7:7-9; Romans 2:2,5; 9:28; Revelation 19:2
and the hail
2,15; 25:4; 32:2,18,19; Exodus 9:18,19; Joshua 10:11; Jeremiah 7:4-8,14,20; Jeremiah 23:19; 30:23,24; Ezekiel 13:10-16; 38:22; Revelation 8:7; 11:19; 16:21
and the waters
30:28; Job 22:16; Daniel 11:22; Matthew 7:27; 2 Peter 3:6,7

Verse 18
And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with hell shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down by it.
your covenant
7:7; 8:10; Jeremiah 44:28; Ezekiel 17:15; Zechariah 1:6
shall be disannulled
For kuppar, Houbigant, Archbp. Secker, and Bp. Lowth, would read tuppar; but the former may well have the sense ascribed to it here, as it signifies in Chaldee and Syriac, abstersit, diluit, abolevit.
2:15; 8:8; Jeremiah 47:2; Daniel 8:9-13; 9:26,27; 11:40; Revelation 12:15; 17:15
trodden down by it
Heb. a treading down to it.
3; Malachi 4:1-3

Verse 19
From the time that it goeth forth it shall take you: for morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by night: and it shall be a vexation only to understand the report.
the time
10:5,6; 2 Kings 17:6; 18:13; Ezekiel 21:19-23
and it
33:7; 36:22; 37:3; 1 Samuel 3:11; 2 Kings 21:12; Jeremiah 19:3; Daniel 7:28; 8:27; Habakkuk 3:16; Luke 21:25,26
to understand the report
or, when he shall make you to understand doctrine.

Verse 20
For the bed is shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it: and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it.
the bed
57:12,13; 59:5,6; 64:6; 66:3-6; Jeremiah 7:8-10; Romans 9:30-32; 1 Corinthians 1:18-31

Verse 21
For the LORD shall rise up as in mount Perazim, he shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act.
in mount Perazim
2 Samuel 5:20; 1 Chronicles 14:11
the valley
Joshua 10:10,12; 2 Samuel 5:25
1 Chronicles 14:16
his strange
19; Deuteronomy 29:21-24; Jeremiah 30:14; Lamentations 2:15; 3:33; Ezekiel 33:21; Luke 19:41-44

Verse 22
Now therefore be ye not mockers, lest your bands be made strong: for I have heard from the Lord GOD of hosts a consumption, even determined upon the whole earth.
be ye
15; 2 Chronicles 30:10; 36:16; Jeremiah 15:17; 20:7; Matthew 27:39,44; Acts 13:40,41; Acts 17:32
2 Chronicles 33:11; Psalms 107:16; Jeremiah 39:7; Lamentations 1:14; Revelation 22:18,19
a consumption
10:22,23; 24:1-23; 32:12-14; Jeremiah 25:11; Daniel 9:26,27; Luke 21:24

Verse 23
Give ye ear, and hear my voice; hearken, and hear my speech.
1:2; Deuteronomy 32:1; Jeremiah 22:29; Revelation 2:7,11,14,29

Verse 24
Doth the plowman plow all day to sow? doth he open and break the clods of his ground?
Jeremiah 4:3; Hosea 10:11,12

Verse 25
When he hath made plain the face thereof, doth he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast in the principal wheat and the appointed barley and the rie in their place?
in the principal, etc
or, the wheat in the principal place, and the barley in the appointed place. rye. or, spelt.
Exodus 9:31,32; Ezekiel 4:9
Heb. border.

Verse 26
For his God doth instruct him to discretion, and doth teach him.
For his God, etc
or, And he bindeth it in such sort as his God doth teach him.
Exodus 28:3; 31:3-6; 36:2; Job 35:11; 39:17; Psalms 144:1; Daniel 1:17; James 1:17

Verse 27
For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod.
41:15; 2 Kings 13:7; Amos 1:3
the fitches
27:7,8; Jeremiah 10:24; 46:28

Verse 28
Bread corn is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen.
21:10; Amos 9:9; Matthew 3:12; 13:37-43; Luke 22:31,32; John 12:24; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 1 Corinthians 9:9,10
the wheel

Verse 29
This also cometh forth from the LORD of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working.
21,22; 9:6; Job 5:9; 37:23; Psalms 40:5; 92:5; Jeremiah 32:19; Daniel 4:2,3; Romans 11:33


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 28:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

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