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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Numbers 10

 

 

Introduction
1The use of the silver trumpets.
11The Israelites remove from Sinai to Paran.
14The order of their march.
29Hobab is entreated by Moses not to leave them.
33The blessing of Moses at the removing and resting of the ark.

Verse 2
Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps.
two trumpets
The necessity of such instruments will at once appear, when the amazing extent of this army is considered. There were various kinds of trumpets among the ancients, of different forms and materials, as Eustathius shews on Homer, where he mentions six; the second of which was [stroggule] turned up round, like a ram's horn; which he says the Egyptians used (from being invented by Osiris) when they assembled the people to their sacrifices. But in opposition to that form, Moses commands these to be made long, in the shape of those used at present. So Josephus informs us, who says they were near a cubit long; the tube of the thickness of a common pipe or flute; the mouth no wider than just to admit blowing into them; and their ends wide like those of a modern trumpet.
2 Kings 12:13; 2 Chronicles 5:12
of a whole piece
Exodus 25:18,31; Ephesians 4:5
the calling
7; Psalms 81:3; 89:15; Isaiah 1:13; Hosea 8:1; Joel 1:14

Verse 3
And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
Jeremiah 4:5; Joel 2:15,16

Verse 4
And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee.
1:4-16; 7:2; Exodus 18:21; Deuteronomy 1:15

Verse 5
When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward.
blow
6,7; Isaiah 58:1; Joel 2:1
camps
2:3-9

Verse 6
When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys.
ye blow
A single alarm was a signal for the eastward division to march; two such alarms the signal for the south; and probably three for the west, and four for the North. There appears therefore, a deficiency in the Hebrew Text, which is thus supplied by the LXX.: [kai salpieite semasian triten, kai exarousin ai parembolai ai paremballousai para thalassan. kai salpieite semasian tetarten, kai exarousin ai parembolai ai paremballousai pros bomran.] "And when ye blow a third alarm, or signal, the camps on the west shall march; and when ye blow a fourth alarm, the camps on the north shall march." This addition, however, is not acknowledged by the Samaritan, nor any other version than the Coptic, nor any MS. yet collated.
the camps
2:10-16

Verse 7
But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm.
ye shall blow
3,4
sound
Joel 2:1

Verse 8
And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations.
31:6; Joshua 6:4-16; 1 Chronicles 15:24; 16:6; 2 Chronicles 13:12-15

Verse 9
And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the LORD your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies.
if ye go
31:6; Joshua 6:5; 2 Chronicles 13:14
oppresseth
Judges 2:18; 3:27; 4:2,3; 6:9,34; 7:16-21; 10:8,12; 1 Samuel 10:18; Psalms 106:42
then ye shall
Isaiah 18:3; 58:1; Jeremiah 4:5,19,21; 6:1,17; Ezekiel 7:14; 33:3-6; Hosea 5:8; Amos 3:6; Zephaniah 1:16; 1 Corinthians 14:8
remembered
Genesis 8:1; Psalms 106:4; 136:23; Luke 1:70-74

Verse 10
Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.
in the day
29:1; Leviticus 23:24; 25:9,10; 1 Chronicles 15:24,28; 16:42; 2 Chronicles 5:12,13; 7:6; 2 Chronicles 29:26,28; Ezra 3:10; Nehemiah 12:35; Psalms 81:3; 89:15; 98:5,6; 150:3; Isaiah 27:13; 55:1-4; Matthew 11:28; 1 Corinthians 15:52; 1 Thessalonians 4:16,18; Revelation 22:17
a memorial
9; Exodus 28:29; 30:16; Joshua 4:7; Acts 10:4; 1 Corinthians 11:24-26

Verse 11
And it came to pass on the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year, that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle of the testimony.
An
Ex. Is 2. Ijar. on. The Israelites had lain encamped in the wilderness of Sinai about eleven months and twenty days (comp. Ex 19:1); and they now received the order of God to decamp, and proceed to the promised land: the Samaritan, therefore, introduces at this place, nearly the words of De 1:6-8: "And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount; turn, and take your journey, etc."
1:1; 9:1,5,11; Exodus 40:2
the cloud
9:17-23

Verse 12
And the children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran.
took
33:16; Exodus 13:20; 40:36,37; Deuteronomy 1:19
out of the
1:1; 9:1,5; 33:15; Exodus 19:1,2
the wilderness
12:16; 13:3,26; Genesis 21:21; Deuteronomy 1:1; 33:2; 1 Samuel 25:1; Habakkuk 3:3

Verse 13
And they first took their journey according to the commandment of the LORD by the hand of Moses.
9:23

Verse 14
In the first place went the standard of the camp of the children of Judah according to their armies: and over his host was Nahshon the son of Amminadab.
the first place
The following is the order in which this vast company marched:
2:3-9; 26:19-27; Genesis 49:8
Nahshon
1:7; 7:12

Verse 15
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Issachar was Nethaneel the son of Zuar.
1:8; 7:18

Verse 16
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Zebulun was Eliab the son of Helon.
1:9; 7:24

Verse 17
And the tabernacle was taken down; and the sons of Gershon and the sons of Merari set forward, bearing the tabernacle.
the tabernacle
1:51; Hebrews 9:11; 12:28; 2 Peter 1:14
the sons
3:25,26,36,37; 4:24-33; 7:6-8

Verse 18
And the standard of the camp of Reuben set forward according to their armies: and over his host was Elizur the son of Shedeur.
the camp
2:10-16; 26:5-18
Elizur
1:5; 7:35

Verse 19
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Simeon was Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.
Simeon
1:6; 7:36

Verse 20
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Gad was Eliasaph the son of Deuel.
Eliasaph
1:14; 2:14
son of Reuel
7:42

Verse 21
And the Kohathites set forward, bearing the sanctuary: and the other did set up the tabernacle against they came.
the Kohathites
2:17; 3:27-32; 4:4-16; 7:9; 1 Chronicles 15:2,12-15
the other did
that is, the Gershonites and the Merarites.
17; 1:51

Verse 22
And the standard of the camp of the children of Ephraim set forward according to their armies: and over his host was Elishama the son of Ammihud.
the camp
2:18-24; 26:23-41; Genesis 48:19; Psalms 80:1,2
Elishama
1:10; 7:48

Verse 23
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Manasseh was Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur.
Gamaliel
1:10; 7:54

Verse 24
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Benjamin was Abidan the son of Gideoni.
Abidan
1:11; 7:60

Verse 25
And the standard of the camp of the children of Dan set forward, which was the rereward of all the camps throughout their hosts: and over his host was Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai.
the camp
2:25,28-31; 26:42-51; Genesis 49:16,17
the rereward
Deuteronomy 25:17,18; Joshua 6:9; Isaiah 52:12; 58:8
Ahiezer
1:12; 7:66

Verse 26
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Asher was Pagiel the son of Ocran.
Pagiel
1:13; 7:72

Verse 27
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Naphtali was Ahira the son of Enan.
Ahira
1:15; 7:78

Verse 28
Thus were the journeyings of the children of Israel according to their armies, when they set forward.
Thus were
Heb. These. according.
35,36; 2:34; 24:4,5; Song of Solomon 6:10; 1 Corinthians 14:33,40; Colossians 2:5

Verse 29
And Moses said unto Hobab, the son of Raguel the Midianite, Moses' father in law, We are journeying unto the place of which the LORD said, I will give it you: come thou with us, and we will do thee good: for the LORD hath spoken good concerning Israel.
Exodus 2:18
Reuel
Exodus 3:1; 18:1,27
the Lord
Genesis 12:7; 13:15; 15:18; Acts 7:5
come
Judges 1:16; 4:11; 1 Samuel 15:6; Psalms 34:8; Isaiah 2:3; Jeremiah 50:5; Zechariah 8:21-23; Revelation 22:17
for the Lord
23:19; Genesis 32:12; Exodus 3:8; 6:7,8; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18

Verse 30
And he said unto him, I will not go; but I will depart to mine own land, and to my kindred.
Genesis 12:1; 31:30; Ruth 1:15-17; Psalms 45:10; Luke 14:26; 2 Corinthians 5:16; Hebrews 11:8,13

Verse 31
And he said, Leave us not, I pray thee; forasmuch as thou knowest how we are to encamp in the wilderness, and thou mayest be to us instead of eyes.
forasmuch
As the Israelites were under the immediate direction of God himself, and were guided by the pillar of cloud and fire, it might be supposed that they had no need of Hobab. But it should be remembered, that the cloud directed only their general journeys, not their particular excursions. Parties took several journeys while the grand army lay still. (ch. 13; 20; 31; 32.)
instead of eyes
Job 29:15; Psalms 32:8; 1 Corinthians 12:14-21; Galatians 6:2

Verse 32
And it shall be, if thou go with us, yea, it shall be, that what goodness the LORD shall do unto us, the same will we do unto thee.
Judges 1:16; 4:11; 1 John 1:3

Verse 33
And they departed from the mount of the LORD three days' journey: and the ark of the covenant of the LORD went before them in the three days' journey, to search out a resting place for them.
the mount
Exodus 3:1; 19:3; 24:17,18
the ark
Deuteronomy 9:9; 31:26; Joshua 4:7; Judges 20:27; 1 Samuel 4:3; Jeremiah 3:16; Hebrews 13:20
went before
Exodus 33:14,15; Deuteronomy 1:33; Joshua 3:2-6,11-17; Jeremiah 31:8,9; Ezekiel 20:6
a resting place
Psalms 95:11; Isaiah 28:12; 66:1; Jeremiah 6:16; Matthew 11:28-30; Hebrews 4:3-11

Verse 34
And the cloud of the LORD was upon them by day, when they went out of the camp.
Exodus 13:21,22; Nehemiah 9:12,19; Psalms 105:39

Verse 35
And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said, Rise up, LORD, and let thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate thee flee before thee.
Rise up, Lord
Psalms 68:1,2; 132:8; Isaiah 51:9

Verse 36
And when it rested, he said, Return, O LORD, unto the many thousands of Israel.
Return, O Lord
Psalms 90:13-17
many thousands of Israel
Heb. ten thousand thousands.
Genesis 24:60; Deuteronomy 1:10

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Numbers 10:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/numbers-10.html.

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