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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

2 Timothy 2



Other Authors
Verse 1

Therefore ( οὖν )

In view of what has been said in the previous chapter.

Be strong ( ἐνδυναμοῦ )

In Paul, Romans 4:20; Ephesians 6:10; Philemon 4:13. Lit. be strengthened inwardly.

In the grace ( ἐν τῇ χάριτι )

Grace is the inward source of strength. Comp. the association of grace and strength in 2 Corinthians 12:9.

Verse 2

Among many witnesses ( διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων )

Διὰ throughthe medium of, and therefore in the presence of.

Commit ( παράθου )

As a trust or deposit ( παραθήκη ). See on 2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:14. In Paul only 1 Corinthians 10:27.

Faithful ( πιστοῖς )

Not believing, but trusty, as appears from the context. See on 1 John 1:9; see on Revelation 1:5; see on Revelation 3:14.

Able ( ἱκανοὶ )

In Pastorals only here. Very common in Luke and Acts: a few times in Paul. See on many, Romans 15:23.

Verse 3

Endure hardness ( συνκακοπάθησον )

Comp. 2 Timothy 1:8. A.V. verse fails to give the force of συν withRend. suffer hardship with me.

Soldier ( στρατιώτης )

Only here in Pastorals. oP. Frequent in Acts.

Verse 4

That warreth ( στρατευόμενος )

Better, when engaged in warfare. Rev. no soldier on service. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 9:7; 2 Corinthians 10:3. In Pastorals only here and 1 Timothy 1:18.

Entangleth himself ( ἐμπλέκεται )

Only here and 2 Peter 2:20(see note). This has been made an argument for clerical celibacy.

In the affairs of this life ( ταῖς τοῦ βίου πραγματίαις )

Better, affairs of life. Not as A.V. verse implies, in contrast with the affairs of the next life, but simply the ordinary occupations of life. In N.T., βίος means either means of subsistence, as Mark 12:44; Luke 8:43; 1 John 3:17; or course of life, as Luke 8:14. Βίος PoHim who hath chosen him to be a soldier ( τῷ στρατολογήσαντι )

N.T.oolxx. Better, enrolled him as a soldier.

Verse 5

Strive for masteries ( ἀθλῇ )

N.T.oolxx. Paul uses ἀγωνίζεσθαι (see 1 Corinthians 9:25), which appears also in 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7. For masteries is superfluous. Rev. contend in the games; but the meaning of the verb is not limited to that. It may mean to contend in battle; and the preceding reference to the soldier would seem to suggest that meaning here. The allusion to crowning is not decisive in favor of the Rev. rendering. Among the Romans crowns were the highest distinction for service in war. The corona triumphalis of laurel was presented to a triumphant general; and the corona obsidionalis was awarded to a general by the army which he had saved from a siege or from a shameful capitulation. It was woven of grass which grew on the spot, and was also called corona graminea. The corona myrtea or ovatio, the crown of bay, was worn by the general who celebrated the lesser triumph or ovatio. The golden corona muralis, with embattled ornaments, was given for the storming of a wall; and the corona castrensis or vallaris, also of gold, and ornamented in imitation of palisades, was awarded to the soldier who first climbed the rampart of the enemy's camp.

Is he not crowned ( οὐ στεφανοῦται )

The verb only here and Hebrews 2:7, Hebrews 2:9. For στέφανος crownsee on Revelation 2:9; see on Revelation 4:4; see on 1 Peter 5:4. Paul has στέφανον λαβεῖν , 1 Corinthians 9:25.

Lawfully ( νομίμως )

PastoSee 1 Timothy 1:8. According to the law of military service which requires him to abandon all other pursuits. So the law of the ministerial office requires that the minister shall not entangle himself with secular pursuits. If he fulfills this requirement, he is not to trouble himself about his worldly maintenance, for it is right that he should draw his support from his ministerial labor: nay, he has the first right to its material fruits.

Verse 6

The husbandman that laboreth ( τὸν κοπιῶντα γεωργὸν )

The verb implies hard, wearisome toil. See on 1 Thessalonians 1:3; see on 1 Thessalonians 5:12. Γεωργός husbandman, only here in Pastorals. oP. See on John 15:1.

Must be first partaker ( δεῖ πρῶτον - μεταλαμβάνειν )

Better, Must be the first to partake. His is the first right to the fruits of his labor in the gospel. The writer seems to have in his eye 1 Corinthians 9:7, where there is a similar association of military service and farming to illustrate the principle that they who proclaim the gospel should live of the gospel. Μεταλαμβάνειν to partake, oP, and only here in Pastorals. Paul uses μετέχειν . See 1 Corinthians 9:10, 1 Corinthians 9:12; 1 Corinthians 10:17, 1 Corinthians 10:21, 1 Corinthians 10:30.

Verse 7

Consider ( νόει )

Better, understand.

And the Lord give thee understanding ( δώσει γάρ ὁ κύριος σύνεσιν )

More correctly, for the Lord shall give. For σύνεσιν understandingsee on Mark 12:33; see on Luke 2:47; see on Colossians 1:9.

Verse 8

Remember that Jesus Christ - was raised, etc.

Incorrect. Rend. remember Jesus Christ raised from the dead. Μνημόνευε rememberonly here in Pastorals: often in Paul. Ἑγείρειν to raise, very often in N.T., but only here in Pastorals. The perfect passive participle ( ἐγηγερμένον ) only here. The perfect marks the permanent condition - raised and still living.

Of the seed of David

Not referring to Christ's human descent as a humiliation in contrast with his victory over death ( ἐγηγερμένον ), but only marking his human, visible nature along with his glorified nature, and indicating that in both aspects he is exalted and glorified. See the parallel in Romans 1:3, Romans 1:4, which the writer probably had in mind, and was perhaps trying to imitate. It is supposed by some that the words Jesus Christ - seed of David were a part of a confessional formula.

According to my gospel

Comp. Romans 2:16; Romans 16:25, and see 1 Corinthians 15:1; 2 Corinthians 11:7; Galatians 1:11; Galatians 2:2; 1 Timothy 1:11.

Verse 9

Wherein I suffer trouble ( ἐν ᾧ κακοπαθῶ )

Wherein refers to the gospel. Κακοπαθεῖν only here, 2 Timothy 4:5, and James 5:13. lxx, Jonah 4:10.

As an evildoer ( ὡς κακοῦργος )

Only here and in Luke. Better, malefactor. The meaning is technical. Comp. Luke 23:32, Luke 23:33, Luke 23:39.

Unto bonds ( μέχρι δεσμῶν )

Comp. Philemon 2:8, μέχρι θανάτου untodeath: Hebrews 12:4, μέχρις αἵματος untoblood. Const. with I suffer trouble.

But the word of God is not bound ( ἀλλὰ ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ οὐ δέδεται )

Nevertheless, although I am in bonds, the gospel which I preach will prevail in spite of all human efforts to hinder it. Word of God often in Paul. In Pastorals, 1 Timothy 4:5; Titus 2:5. Bound, in Paul metaphorically, as here, Romans 7:2; 1 Corinthians 7:27, 1 Corinthians 7:39.

Verse 10

Therefore ( διὰ τοῦτο )

Because I know that God is carrying on his work.

That they may also ( ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ )

More correctly, they also may, etc. Also, as well as myself.

Obtain the salvation ( σωτηρίας τύχωσιν )

The phrase N.T.oPaul has περιποίησις σωτηρίας obtainingof salvation, 1 Thessalonians 5:9.

Which is in Christ Jesus

The phrase salvation which is in Christ Jesus, N.T.oFor other collocations with in Christ Jesus in Pastorals, see 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 3:13; 2 Timothy 1:1, 2 Timothy 1:9, 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:3, 2 Timothy 2:15.

With eternal glory ( μετὰ δόξης αἰωνίου )

The phrase eternal glory only here and 1 Peter 5:10. Paul has αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης eternalweight of glory, 2 Corinthians 4:17. Glory here is the eternal reward of Christians in heaven.

Verse 11

It is a faithful saying

Better, faithful is the saying. See on 1 Timothy 1:15. It refers to what precedes - the eternal glory of those who are raised with Christ (2 Timothy 2:8) which stimulates to endurance of sufferings for the gospel.

For ( γὰρ )

Faithful is the saying that the elect shall obtain salvation with eternal glory, for if we be dead, etc. The following words to the end of 2 Timothy 2:12may be a fragment of a hymn or confession, founded on Romans 6:8; Romans 8:17.

If we be dead with him ( εἰ συναπεθάνομεν )

A.V. misses the force of the aorist. Better, if we died, etc. Comp. Romans 6:8; Colossians 2:20. For the verb, comp. Mark 14:31; 2 Corinthians 7:3.

Verse 12

If we suffer we shall also reign with him ( εἰ ὑπομένομεν, καὶ συνβασιλεύσομεν )

For suffer, rend. endure. Συνβασιλεύειν toreign with, only here and 1 Corinthians 4:8. Comp. Luke 19:17, Luke 19:19; Luke 22:29, Luke 22:30; Romans 5:17; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 22:5.

If we deny him he also will deny us ( εἰ ἀρνησόμεθα. κἀκεῖνος ἀρνήσεται ἡμᾶς )

The verb PoHim must be supplied. The meaning of the last clause is, will not acknowledge us as his own. Comp. Luke 9:26; Matthew 10:33.

Verse 13

If we believe not ( εἰ ἀπιστοῦμεν )

Better, are faithless or untrue to him. Comp. Romans 3:3. In Pastorals only here.

Faithful ( πιστὸς )

True to his own nature, righteous character, and requirements, according to which he cannot accept as faithful one who has proved untrue to him. To do this would be to deny himself.

Verse 14

Put them in remembrance ( ὑπομίμνησκε )

oP. See on ὑπόμνησιν reminding 2 Timothy 1:5.

Charging ( διαμαρτυρόμενος )

In Paul only 1 Thessalonians 4:6. Very frequent in Acts. See on Acts 2:40; see on Acts 20:23. The sense is rather conjuring them by their loyalty to God. Paul uses the simple μαρτύρεσθαι in a similar sense. See Galatians 5:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:12(note); Ephesians 4:17.

Before God ( ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ )

See on 1 Timothy 5:4.

Strive about words ( λογομαχεῖν )

N.T.oolxx, oClass. Comp. λογομαχίας disputesof words, 1 Timothy 6:4, and see 1 Corinthians 4:20.

To no profit ( ἐπ ' οὐδὲν χρήσιμον )

Lit. to nothing useful. Ἑπ ' οὐδὲν , oP. He uses εἰς κενόν tono purpose. See 2 Corinthians 6:1; Galatians 2:2; Philemon 2:16; 1 Thessalonians 3:5. Χρήσιμος usefulN.T.oTo the subverting ( ἐπὶ καταστροφῇ )

Ἑπὶ does not mean here to or for (purpose or object). but indicates the ground on which the unprofitableness of the wordy strife rests. Unprofitable because it works subversion of the hearers. Καταστροφή subversiontransliterated into catastrophe, only here and 2 Peter 2:6. In lxx of the destruction or overthrow of men or cities. Καταστρέφειν tooverturn, Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:15; Acts 15:16, cit. Paul uses καθαίρεσις pullingdown, 2 Corinthians 10:4, 2 Corinthians 10:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10

Verse 15

Study ( σπούδασον )

Originally, make haste. In Paul, Galatians 2:10; Ephesians 4:3(note); 1 Thessalonians 2:17.

To shew thyself approved ( σεαυτὸν δόκιμον παραστῆσαι )

Παραστῆσαι , better, present. In Pastorals only here and 2 Timothy 4:17. Often in Acts and Paul. See on Acts 1:3; see on Romans 16:2; see on Ephesians 5:27. Δόκιμον approvedonly here in Pastorals, five times by Paul. See on James 1:12. See on δοκιμή approvedness Romans 5:4; and see on δοκιμάζειν toapprove on test, 1 Peter 1:7.

A workman ( ἐργάτης )

In Paul, 2 Corinthians 11:13; Philemon 3:2. In Pastorals, 1 Timothy 5:18.

That needeth not to be ashamed ( ἀνεπαίσχυντον )

N.T.oolxx, oClass. Lit. not made ashamed, as Philemon 1:20. A workman whose work does not disgrace him.

Rightly dividing ( ὀρθοτομοῦντα )

N.T.ooClass. In lxx, Proverbs 3:6; Proverbs 11:5; both times in the sense of directing the way. From ὀρθός straightand τέμνειν tocut. Hence, to cut straight, as paths; to hold a straight course; generally, to make straight; to handle rightly. Vulg. recte tractare. The thought is that the minister of the gospel is to present the truth rightly, not abridging it, not handling it as a charlatan (see on 2 Corinthians 2:17), not making it a matter of wordy strife (2 Timothy 2:14), but treating it honestly and fully, in a straightforward manner. Various homiletic fancies have been founded on the word, as, to divide the word of truth, giving to each hearer what he needs: or, to separate it into its proper parts: or, to separate it from error: or, to cut straight through it, so that its inmost contents may be laid bare. Others, again, have found in it the figure of dividing the bread, which is the office of the household steward; or of dividing the sacrificial victims; or of cutting a straight furrow with the plough.

Verse 16

Shun ( περιίστασο )

PoIn Pastorals, here and Titus 3:9. Originally, to place round; to stand round. In the middle voice, to turn one's self about, as for the purpose of avoiding something: hence, avoid, shun. Often in Class., but in this sense only in later Greek.

Profane and vain babblings ( βεβήλους κενοφωνίας )

For profane, see on 1 Timothy 1:9. Vain is superfluous, being implied in babblings. For babblings, see on 1 Timothy 6:20. Babble is a word of early origin, an imitative word, formed on the efforts of a young child to speak, and having its counterparts in many languages. It appears very early in English, as in Piers Plowman:

“And so I bablede on my bedes.”

Vis. 2487.


“Who will open himselfe to a blab or a babler?”

Ess. vi


“Leave thy vain bibble babble.”

Twelfth N. iv. 2.

They will increase ( προκόψουσιν )

See on Romans 13:12, and see on Galatians 1:14.

Ungodliness ( ἀσεβείας )

The opposite of εὐσέβεια godlinessfor which see on 1 Timothy 2:2. In Pastorals, Titus 2:12. In Paul, Romans 1:18; Romans 11:26, cit.

Verse 17

Will eat ( νομὴν ἕξει )

Lit. will have pasturage, and so grow. Νομὴ πυρός aspreading of fire: a sore is said νομὴν ποιεῖσθαι tospread. Comp. Acts 4:17, διανεμηθῇ spreadof the influence of the miracle of Peter, from the same root, νέμειν todistribute or divide; often of herdsmen, to pasture. Νομὴ only here and John 10:9

Canker ( γάγγραινα )

Transliterated into gangrene. An eating sore; a cancer. N.T.oolxx. Comp. Ovid:

“Solet immedicabile cancer

Serpere, et illaesas vitiatis addere partes.”

Metam. ii. 826

Verse 18

Have erred ( ἠστόχησαν )

See on 1 Timothy 1:6.

The resurrection ( ἀνάστασιν )

Only here in Pastorals.

Verse 19

Nevertheless ( μέντοι )

Mostly in John. oP. Only here in Pastorals.

The foundation of God standeth sure ( ὁ στερεὸς θεμέλιος τοῦ θεοῦ ἕστηκεν )

Wrong. Στερεὸς sureis attributive, not predicative. Rend. the firm foundation of God standeth. The phrase foundation of God, N.T.o Θεμέλιος foundationis an adjective, and λίθος stoneis to be supplied. It is not to be taken by metonymy for οἰκία house(2 Timothy 2:20), but must be interpreted consistently with it, and, in a loose way, represents or foreshadows it. So we speak of an endowed institution as a foundation. By “the sure foundation of God” is meant the church, which is “the pillar and stay of the truth” (1 Timothy 3:15), by means of which the truth of God is to withstand the assaults of error. The church has its being in the contents of “the sound teaching” (1 Timothy 1:10), which is “according to godliness” (1 Timothy 6:3), and which is deposited in it. “The mystery of godliness “ is intrusted to it (1 Timothy 3:16). Its servants possess “the mystery of the faith” (1 Timothy 3:9). In 1 Corinthians 3:11, Christ is represented as “ the chief corner-stone.” In Ephesians 2:20, the church is built “upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets,” with Christ as the corner-stone, and grows into a “holy temple ( ναὸν ) in the Lord.” Here, the church itself is the foundation, and the building is conceived as a great dwelling-house. While the conception of the church here does not contradict that of Paul, the difference is apparent between it and the conception in Ephesians, where the church is the seat of the indwelling and energy of the Holy Spirit. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17. Στερεός firmonly here, Hebrews 5:12, Hebrews 5:14, and 1 Peter 5:9(note). Ἕστηκεν standethin contrast with overthrow (2 Timothy 2:18).

Seal ( σφραγῖδα )

Mostly in Revelation. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Romans 4:11; 1 Corinthians 9:2. Used here rather in the sense of inscription or motto. Comp. Deuteronomy 6:9; Deuteronomy 11:20; Revelation 21:14. There are two inscriptions on the foundation stone, the one guaranteeing the security, the other the purity, of the church. The two go together. The purity of the church is indispensable to its security.

The Lord knoweth them that are his ( ἔγνω κύριος τοὺς ὄντας αὐτοῦ )

The first inscription: God knows his own. Comp. Numbers 16:5; 1 Corinthians 13:12. For ἔγνω knowethsee on Galatians 4:9. Them that are his, his ἐκλεκτοὶ chosensee 2 Timothy 2:10; Titus 1:1; Romans 8:33; Colossians 3:12; 1 Peter 2:9: Revelation 17:14. Not, however, in any hard, predestinarian sense. Comp. John 10:14; Matthew 7:23; Luke 13:25, Luke 13:27.

Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity

The second inscription, concerning the purity of the church. For of Christ rend. of the Lord ( κυρίου ). Ὁνομάζων namethonly here in Pastorals. It means to give a name to, to style, as Mark 3:14; Luke 6:14; 1 Corinthians 5:11: to pronounce a name as having a special virtue, as in incantation, as Acts 19:13: to utter a name as acknowledging and appropriating what the name involves, as a confession of faith and allegiance. So here. Comp. Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 5:11; Isaiah 26:13. For ὄνομα namesee on 2 Thessalonians 1:12. Ἁποστήτω ἀπὸ ἀδικίας departfrom iniquity. For the verb, see on 1 Timothy 4:1. Mostly in Luke and Acts. Comp. Numbers 16:26; Isaiah 52:11. Whatever may be implied in God's election, it does not relieve Christians of the duty of strict attention to their moral character and conduct. Comp. Philemon 2:12. The gift of grace (Ephesians 2:8) is exhibited in making one a coworker with God (1 Corinthians 3:9). The salvation bestowed by grace is to be “carried out” (Philemon 2:12) by man with the aid of grace (Romans 6:8-19; 2 Corinthians 6:1). What this includes and requires appears in Philemon 3:10; Philemon 4:1-7; Ephesians 4:13-16, Ephesians 4:22ff.; Colossians 2:6, Colossians 2:7.

Verse 20

d But the church embraces a variety of characters. Unrighteous men steal into it. So, in a great household establishment there are vessels fit only for base uses.

House ( οἰκίᾳ )

As θεμέλιος foundation indicates the inward, essential character of the church, οἰκία exhibits its visible, outward aspect. The mixed character of the church points to its greatness ( μεγάλῃ ).

Vessels ( σκεύη )

See on Matthew 12:29; see on Mark 3:27; see on Acts 9:15; see on Acts 27:17; see on 1 Peter 3:7.

Of wood and of earth ( ξύλινα καὶ ὀστράκινα )

Ξύλινος woodenonly here and Revelation 9:20. Ὁστράκινος ofbaked clay, only here and 2 Corinthians 4:7(note). Comp. the different metaphor, 1 Corinthians 3:12.

Some to honor and some to dishonor

After Romans 9:21.

Verse 21

Purge ( ἐκκαθάρῃ )

Only here and 1 Corinthians 5:7. The meaning is, separate himself from communion with.

From these ( ἀπὸ τούτων )

From such persons as are described as “vessels unto dishonor.” Some attempt to relieve the awkwardness of this figure by referring these to persons mentioned in 2 Timothy 2:16, 2 Timothy 2:17.

Unto honor ( εἰς τιμήν )

Const. with vessel, not with sanctified.

Sanctified ( ἡγιασμένον )

Comp. 1 Timothy 4:5. Set apart to noble and holy uses, as belonging to God. See on ἁγιασμός sanctification Romans 6:19. For ἅγιος holysee on 1 Timothy 5:10.

Meet ( εὔχρηστον )

From εὐ welland χρᾶσθαι touse. Hence, easy to make use of, useful. The A.V. meet, is fit, suitable. Rend. serviceable. In contrast with to no profit, 2 Timothy 2:14. See Philemon 1:11, where the contrast with ἄχρηστος uselessis brought out. Only here, 2 Timothy 4:11, Philemon 1:11.

For the master's use ( τῷ δεσπότῃ )

Use is superfluous. Rend. for the master. The master of the household. See on 1 Timothy 6:1.

Prepared ( ἡτοιμασμένον )

In Paul, 1 Corinthians 2:9; Philemon 1:22. Only here in Pastorals. Comp. Titus 3:1.

Every good work

The phrase in Paul, 2 Corinthians 9:8; Colossians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:17. In Pastorals, 1 Timothy 5:10; 2 Timothy 3:17; Titus 1:16; Titus 3:1.

Verse 22

Youthful lusts ( νεωτερικὰς ἐπιθυμίας )

Νεωτερικὸς youthfulN.T.oFor ἐπιθυμία desirelust, see on Mark 4:19; see on 1 Thessalonians 4:5. Such counsel from Paul to Timothy seems strange.

Follow ( δίωκε )

Pursue. Stronger than follow. A favorite word with Paul to denote the pursuit of moral and spiritual ends. See Romans 9:30, Romans 9:31; Romans 12:13; 1 Corinthians 14:1; Philemon 3:12.

Peace ( εἰρήνην )

Not a distinct virtue in the list, but a consequence of the pursuit of the virtues enumerated. Const. with with them that call, etc. For peace with διώκειν pursuesee Romans 14:19; Hebrews 12:14, and Psalm 34:14, cit. 1 Peter 3:11.

Call on the Lord ( ἐπικαλουμένων τὸν κύριον )

A Pauline phrase, only here in Pastorals. See Romans 10:12, Romans 10:13, Romans 10:14; 1 Corinthians 1:2. See also Acts 2:21; Acts 9:14; Acts 22:16.

Out of a pure heart ( ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας )

Const. with call on the Lord. The phrase, 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Peter 1:22. Comp. Matthew 5:8.

Verse 23

Foolish ( μωρὰς )

In Pastorals only here and Titus 3:9. Μωρός means dull, sluggish, stupid: applied to the taste, flat, insipid: comp. μωρανθῇ havelost his savor, Matthew 5:13. In Pastorals never substantively, a fool, but so in 1 Corinthians 3:18; 1 Corinthians 4:10. Comp. ἄφρων , 1 Corinthians 15:36.

Unlearned ( ἀπαιδεύτους )

Rev. ignorant is better; but the meaning at bottom is undisciplined: questions of an untrained mind, carried away with novelties: questions which do not proceed from any trained habit of thinking.

Questions ( ζητήσεις )

Better, questionings. See on 1 Timothy 6:4.

Avoid ( παραιτοῦ )

See on 1 Timothy 4:7. Better, refuse or decline.

Gender ( γεννῶσι )

Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, metaphorically, 1 Corinthians 4:15; Philemon 1:10; Galatians 4:24.

Verse 24

The servant of the Lord ( δοῦλον κυρίου )

The teacher or other special worker in the church. Comp. Titus 1:1; Romans 1:1; Galatians 1:10; Philemon 1:1, Colossians 4:12. Of any Christian, 1 Corinthians 7:22; Ephesians 6:6. The phrase is often applied to the Old Testament prophets as a body: see Amos 3:7; Jeremiah 7:25; Ezra 9:11; Daniel 9:6. To Joshua, Judges 2:8; to David, Psalm 78:70.

Must not ( οὐ δεῖ )

Moral obligation.

Gentle ( ἤπιον )

Only here and 1 Thessalonians 2:7(note).

Apt to teach, patient ( διδακτικόν, ἀνεξίκακον )

Διδακτικός apt to teach, only here and 1 Timothy 3:2(note). Ἁνεξικακία forbearingN.T.o Ανεξικακία forbearanceWisd. 2:19. Rend. Forbearing.

Verse 25

In meekness ( ἐν πραὺτητι )

A Pauline word, only here in Pastorals, but comp. πραυπαθία , 1 Timothy 6:11(note). Const. with instructing.

Instructing ( παιδεύοντα )

See on 1 Timothy 1:20. Better, correcting.

Those that oppose themselves ( τοὺς ἀντιδιατιθέμενους )

N.T. olxx. Class. only late Greek. Themselves is wrong. The meaning is, those who oppose the servant of the Lord; Who carry on the ἀντιθέσεις oppositions(1 Timothy 6:20); = gainsayers ( ἀντιλέγοντες Titus 1:9). Paul's word is ἀντίκεισθαι tooppose: see 1 Corinthians 16:9; Galatians 5:17; Philemon 1:28; 2 Thessalonians 2:4.

Repentance ( μετάνοιαν )

Only here in Pastorals. See on repent Matthew 3:2.

To the acknowledging of the truth ( εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας )

More correctly, the knowledge. The formula PastoSee 1 Timothy 2:4(note); 2 Timothy 3:7. For εἰς untoafter μετάνοια repentancesee Mark 1:4; Luke 3:3; Luke 24:47; Acts 11:18; Acts 20:21; 2 Corinthians 7:10.

Verse 26

May recover themselves ( ἀνανήψωσιν )

Lit. may return to soberness. N.T.oSee on be sober, 1 Thessalonians 5:6. A similar connection of thought between coming to the knowledge of God and awaking out of a drunken stupor, occurs 1 Corinthians 15:34.

Out of the snare of the devil ( ἐκ τῆς τοῦ διαβόλου παγίδος )

Comp. Psalm 124:7. The phrase snare of the devil, only here and 1 Timothy 3:7(note). The metaphor is mixed; return to soberness out of the snare of the devil.

Who are taken captive ( ἐζωγρημένοι )

Or, having been held captive. Only here and Luke 5:10(note on thou shalt catch ).

By him ( ὑπ ' αὐτοῦ )

The devil.

At his will ( εἰς τὸἐκείνου θέλημα )

Better, unto his will: that is, to do his (God's) will.

The whole will then read: “And that they may return to soberness out of the snare of the devil (having been held captive by him) to do God's will.”


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Bibliography Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 2:4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

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