corner graphic

Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

Revelation 22



Verse 1



Clear ( λαμπρὸν )

See on Luke 23:11. Rev., bright.

Verse 2

In the midst of the street thereof

Some connect these words with the preceding. So Rev.

On either side ( ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐντεῦθεν )

For the latter ἐντεῦθεν read ἐκεῖθεν , as render, as Rev., on this side and on that.

Tree ( ξύλον )

See on Luke 23:31, and see on Revelation 2:7.

Twelve manner of fruits ( καρποὺς δώδεκα )

Lit., twelve fruits. Some render crops or harvests of fruit. On these two verses compare Ezekiel 47:1-12; Joel 3:18; Zechariah 14:8.

Verse 3

Shall serve ( λατρεύσουσιν )

See on Luke 1:74. Rev., do Him service. The word originally means to serve for hire. In the New Testament, of the worship or service of God in the use of the rites intended for His worship. It came to be used by the Jews in a very special sense, to denote the service rendered to Jehovah by the Israelites as His peculiar people. See Romans 9:4; Acts 26:7; Hebrews 9:1, Hebrews 9:6. Hence the significant application of the term to Christian service by Paul in Philemon 3:3.

Verse 4

See His face

Compare 1 John 3:2; Matthew 5:8; Exodus 33:20; Psalm 17:15.

Verse 5

No night there ( ἐκεῖ )

Substitute ἔτι anymore. Rev., there shall be night no more.

Verse 6

The Lord God ( Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς )

Rather, as Rev., the Lord, the God.

Of the holy prophets ( τῶν ἁγίων προφητῶν )

For ἁγίων holysubstitute πνευμάτων spiritsand render, as Rev., the God of the spirits of the prophets.

Be done ( γεγέσθαι )

Better, as Rev., come to pass.

Verse 7

Keepeth ( τηρῶν )

A favorite word with John, occurring in his writings more frequently than in all the rest of the New Testament together. See on reserved 1 Peter 1:4.

Book ( βιβλίου )

Diminutive, properly a little book or scroll. See on writing, Matthew 19:7; see on bill, Mark 10:2; see on book, Luke 4:17.

Verse 8

I John saw ( ἐγὼ Ἱωάννης ὁ βλέπων )

The A.V. overlooks the article with the participle - the one seeing. Hence Rev., correctly, I John am he that heard and saw.

Had heard and seen ( ἤκουσα καὶ ἔβλεψα )

Aorist tense. There is no need of rendering it as a pluperfect. Rev., rightly, I heard and saw. The appeal to hearing and seeing is common to all John's writings. See John 1:14; John 19:35; John 21:14; 1 John 1:1, 1 John 1:2; 1 John 4:14.

Verse 9

See thou do it not ( ὅρα μή )

Lit., see not.

Thy brethren the prophets

The spiritual brotherhood of John with the prophets is exhibited in Revelation.

Verse 10

Seal ( σφραγίσῃς )

Rev., seal up. This word occurs eighteen times in Revelation and twice in the Gospel, and only five times elsewhere in the New Testament. It means to confirm or attest (John 3:33); to close up for security (Matthew 27:66; Revelation 20:3); to hide or keep secret (Revelation 10:4; Revelation 22:10); to mark a person or thing (Revelation 7:3; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:30)

Time ( καιρὸς )

See on Matthew 12:1.

Verse 11

Unjust ( ἀδικῶν )

Rev., better, unrighteous.

Let him be unjust ( ἀδικησάτω )

The verb means to do wickedly. Hence Rev., correctly, let him do unrighteousness.

He which is filthy ( ὁ ῥυπῶν )

Only here in the New Testament. On the kindred noun ῥύπος filthsee on 1 Peter 3:21. Ῥυπαρία filthinessoccurs only in James 1:21; and the adjective ῥυπαρός filthyonly in James 2:2.

Let him be filthy ( ῥυπωσάτω )

The best texts read ῥυπανθήτω lethim be made filthy. So Rev.

Let him be righteous ( δικαιωθήτω )

Read δικαιοσύνην ποιησάτω lethim do righteousness. So Rev.

Let him be holy ( ἁγιασθήτω )

Rev., giving literally the force of the passive voice, let him be made holy.

Verse 12

My reward is with me ( ὁ μισθός μου μετ ' ἐμοῦ )

Μισθός rewardis strictly wages. Compare Isaiah 40:10; Isaiah 62:11. See on 2 Peter 2:13.

To give ( ἀποδοῦναι )

Lit., to give back or in return for, thus appropriate to μισθός rewardHence Rev., better, render. See on give an account, Luke 16:2; and see on gave, Acts 4:33.

Shall be ( ἔσται )

Read ἐστιν isi0.

Verse 14

That do His commandments ( οἱ ποιοῦντες τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ )

Read οἱ πλύνοντες τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν theythat wash their robes. Compare Revelation 7:14.

That they may have right to the tree of life ( ἵνα ἔσται ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς )

Lit., in order that theirs shall be authority over the tree of life. For ἐξουσία rightauthority, see on John 1:12. Ἑπί may be the preposition of direction: “may have right to come to ” (so Rev.) or may be rendered over.

Verse 15

Dogs ( οἱ κύνες )

The A.V. omits the article “the dogs.” Compare Philemon 3:2. This was the term of reproach with which the Judaizers stigmatized the Gentiles as impure. In the Mosaic law the word is used to denounce the moral profligacies of heathen worship (Deuteronomy 23:18). Compare Matthew 15:26. Here the word is used of those whose moral impurity excludes them from the New Jerusalem. “As a term of reproach, the word on the lips of a Jew, signified chiefly impurity; of a Greek, impudence. The herds of dogs which prowl about Eastern cities, without a home and without an owner, feeding on the refuse and filth of the streets, quarreling among themselves, and attacking the passer-by, explain both applications of the image” (Lightfoot, on Philemon 3:2).


See on Revelation 9:21, and compare Revelation 21:8.

Whoremongers ( πόρνοι )

Rev., better, fornicators.

Maketh ( ποιῶν )

Or doeth. Compare doeth the truth, John 3:21; 1 John 1:6. See on John 3:21.

Verse 16

The root

Compare Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10. See on Nazarene, Matthew 2:23.

The morning-star

See on Revelation 2:28.

Verse 17

The Spirit

In the Church.

The Bride

The Church.


The voice of the Spirit and the Bride.

Verse 19

The Book of Life

Read τοῦ ξύλου thetree. So Rev.

Verse 20

Even so ( ναὶ )


Verse 21

Our Lord ( ἡμῶν )


With you all ( μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν )

The readings differ. Some read μετὰ πάντων withall, omitting you. Others, μετὰ τῶν ἁγίων withthe saints.


Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.

Bibliography Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 22:4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology