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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Deuteronomy 15:12

 

 

"If your kinsman, a Hebrew man or woman, is sold to you, then he shall serve you six years, but in the seventh year you shall set him free.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee,.... By others, as by the sanhedrim for theft, for which a man might be sold, but not a woman, as Jarchi observes; but then a father might sell his daughter for an handmaid, if little and under age; and to such cases this law is supposed to refer; see Exodus 21:2 though a man on account of poverty might sell himself:

and serve thee six years; as he was bound to do, if his master lived so long; if he died before the six years were out, he was obliged to serve his son, but not his daughter, nor his brother, nor his heirs, as the Jewish writers affirmF7Maimon. & Bartenora in Misn. Kiddushin. c. 1. sect. 2. : then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee; that is, at the end of the sixth, and beginning of the seventh year; see Exodus 21:2.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/deuteronomy-15.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Deuteronomy 15:12-19. Hebrew servants‘ freedom.

if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee — The last extremity of an insolvent debtor, when his house or land was not sufficient to cancel his debt, was to be sold as a slave with his family (Leviticus 25:39; 2 Kings 4:1; Nehemiah 5:1-13; Job 24:9; Matthew 18:25). The term of servitude could not last beyond six years. They obtained their freedom either after six years from the time of their sale or before the end of the seventh year. At the year of jubilee, such slaves were emancipated even if their six years of service were not completed [see on Leviticus 25:39 ].


Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/deuteronomy-15.html. 1871-8.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

Observe, it is a brother that is here spoken of: one included in the covenant promises. To everyone of this character there is a year of release, whether male or female. Colossians 3:11.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1828.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.

If thy brother be sold — Either by himself, or his parents, or as a criminal.

Six years — To be computed from the beginning of his servitude, which is every where limited to the space of six years.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/deuteronomy-15.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Deuteronomy 15:12 [And] if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.

Ver. 12. In the seventh year,] viz., Since he was sold unto thee.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

If thy brother be sold unto thee. See Poole "Exodus 22:3".

Six years; to be computed, either,

1. From the year of release; as they gather from hence that personal and real debts were both released together. But that seems to be supposed rather than proved; nay, there is a manifest difference between them, for the release of real debts is expressly mentioned and required in the year of release, but so is not the release of the personal debt of servitude, either here or elsewhere. Or rather,

2. From the beginning of this servitude, which is every where limited unto the space of six years, as here and below, Deuteronomy 15:18 Exodus 21:2 Jeremiah 34:14. And it seems a strange and forced exposition, to take these six years for so much of the six years as remains until the year of release, which possibly might not be one quarter of a year, whereas a hired servant serves for a far longer time, and this is said to be worth a double-hired servant, in regard of the longer time of his service, Deuteronomy 15:18. Add to this, that it is mentioned as the peculiar privilege of the year of jubilee, that such servants were then freed, though their six years of service were not expired.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

12. In the seventh year thou shalt let him go free — The seventh year was not of necessity the sabbatical year, but the seventh year from the beginning of his servitude. The humane features of the Hebrew law in respect to slavery was very marked. The slave was not only manumitted, but he was not allowed to go away in poverty.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/deuteronomy-15.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Deuteronomy 15:12. If thy brother be sold — Either by himself or his parents, or as a criminal. Six years — To be computed from the beginning of his servitude, which is everywhere limited to the space of six years.


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Free. The Hebrews might sell themselves only to their own countrymen; and the judges might condemn those who had committed a theft, and had not wherewith to make restitution, to be sold to their brethren. See Exodus xxi. 2.


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

brother. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6) by adding "[or thy sister]".

Hebrew man. Compare Exodus 21:2. Jeremiah 34:13, Jeremiah 34:14.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/deuteronomy-15.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.

If thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold. The last extremity of an insolvent debtor, when his house or land was not sufficient to cancel his debt, was to be sold as a slave, with his family (Leviticus 25:39; 2 Kings 4:1; Nehemiah 5:1-13; Job 24:9; Matthew 18:25). The term of servitude could not last beyond six years: they obtained their freedom either after six years from the time of their sale, or before the end of the seventh year; and at the year of jubilee such slaves were emancipated although their six years of service were not completed.

The terms, "thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman," are special. "Thy brother" is applied to a stranger (Leviticus 25:35). Hebrew man and Hebrew woman indicates a person of foreign origin, not native Israelite-one who, by long residence in Canaan, was admitted to the ordinary rights and privileges of Hebrews, but belonged to a special and distinct class of servants-not connected with pagandom, and yet not to be regarded as proper Israelites; but born in a state of servitude, and constituting a middle class between the impoverished Israelites and the proper servants bought of pagan-the class to which would belong those descended from a maid-servant given in marriage by the master to his servant (Exodus 31:5).

Saalschutz further considers this case limited to an actual maid-servant-one who has been previously such, and whom her owner sells to another. It points to a foreign slave; and consequently the statute here is different from that in Exodus 21:7-16, which relates to a free Hebrew woman.

Michaelis ('Comment.,' 2:, sec. 88) pronounces the legal provision detailed in this passage as an improvement on the spirit of the Jewish code. But, on Saalschutz' hypothesis, this and the law in Exodus provide for persons in totally different circumstances.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/deuteronomy-15.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(12) In the seventh year.—This is to be understood of the Sabbatical year whenever it came. It would rarely happen that the Hebrew slave would serve for the full period of six years.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.
1; Exodus 21:2-6; Leviticus 25:39-41; Jeremiah 34:14; John 8:35,36

Copyright Statement
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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:12". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/deuteronomy-15.html.

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