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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Deuteronomy 15:2

 

 

"This is the manner of remission: every creditor shall release what he has loaned to his neighbor; he shall not exact it of his neighbor and his brother, because the LORD'S remission has been proclaimed.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And this is the manner of the release,.... Or the rules to be observed in making it:

every creditor that lendeth ought unto his neighbour shall release it; that is, forgive the debt, or free the debtor from any obligation to payment. Some think this was only a release of debts for this year, in which there was no ploughing nor sowing, and so a poor man could not be in any circumstances to pay his debts, but might be exacted afterwards; but it rather seems to be a full release, so as the payment of them might not be demanded, neither this year nor afterwards; indeed, if a person afterwards should be in a capacity to pay his debts, he would be obliged, in conscience, duty, and honour, to pay them, though no reserve was made in this law, which nowhere appears:

he shall not exact it of his neighbour, or of his brother: he might receive it, if payment was offered, but he might not demand it, or sue for it; or give his neighbour or brother, whether in a natural or religious sense, any trouble about it: the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"his brother, an Israelite;'one of the same nation and religion with him, though he might not be related in the bonds of consanguinity:

because it is called the Lord's release; appointed and commanded by him, and was for his honour and glory, as a God gracious and merciful to the poor, and beneficent to those creditors; and which was proclaimed in his name, by the civil magistrate, according to his order; so the Targum of Jonathan,"because the house of judgment, or the sanhedrim, proclaimed it a release before the Lord.'Now this was typical of a release of debts, or of forgiveness of sins, which is an act of God's grace through Christ, and for his sake. Sins are called debts, not what men owe to God, for then it would be right to commit them, and they might be committed with impunity, yea, with praise, since it would be doing what is fit and right, and well pleasing to God; but men are debtors to fulfil the law, and in case of failure, or a breach of it, are bound to the debt of punishment; and these debts are very numerous, and men are incapable of paying them: and by a release of these is meant not a liberty of sinning, nor a freedom from the being or bondage of sin, but from the guilt of it, and from obligation to punishment for it; and is properly the forgiveness of sin, which is expressed by various phrases, as a non-imputation, a non-remembrance, a covering, blotting out, and removing of sin, and here typically a release of debts; see Matthew 6:12, and God only can make it; he is the creditor, sin is committed against him, and he only can forgive it, which he does freely, fully, and at once, see Luke 7:41.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/deuteronomy-15.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And this [is] the manner of the release: Every a creditor that lendeth [ought] unto his neighbour shall release [it]; he shall not exact [it] of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it is called the LORD'S release.

(a) He shall only release his debtors, who are not able to pay for that year.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/deuteronomy-15.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Every creditor that lendeth ought unto his neighbour shall release it — not by an absolute discharge of the debt, but by passing over that year without exacting payment. The relief was temporary and peculiar to that year during which there was a total suspension of agricultural labor.

he shall not exact it … of his brother — that is, an Israelite, so called in opposition to a stranger or foreigner.

because it is called the Lord‘s release — The reason for acquitting a debtor at that particular period proceeded from obedience to the command, and a regard for the honor, of God; an acknowledgment of holding their property of Him, and gratitude for His kindness.


Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/deuteronomy-15.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And this is the manner of the release: Every creditor that lendeth ought unto his neighbour shall release it; he shall not exact it of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it is called the LORD's release.

Every creditor — Here is, a law for poor, insolvent debtors. Every seventh year was a year of release, when among other acts of grace, this was one, that every Israelite, who had borrowed money, and had not been able to pay it before, should this year be released from it. And tho' if he was able, he was bound in conscience to pay it afterwards, yet it could not be recovered by law.

His brother — This is added to limit the word neighbour, which is more general, unto a brother, in nation and religion, an Israelite.

The Lord's release — Or, a release for the Lord, in obedience to his command, for his honour, and as an acknowledgment of his right in your estates, and of his kindness in giving and continuing them to you.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/deuteronomy-15.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Deuteronomy 15:2 And this [is] the manner of the release: Every creditor that lendeth [ought] unto his neighbour shall release [it]; he shall not exact [it] of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it is called the LORD’S release.

Ver. 2. He shall not exact it.] For that seventh year at least, because there was neither sowing nor reaping that year; how then could the poor pay their debts? We must all "put on bowels of mercy, forbearing one another, and forgiving one another," &c. [Colossians 3:12-13]


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 2. Every creditor that lendeth—shall release This cannot well be meant of money lent to those who were well able to pay; for nothing could have been more absurd than to have extinguished debts whereby the borrower was enriched: but it must be meant of money lent to an Israelite who was in poor circumstances, as appears from ver. 4. Le Clerc, with others, seems to understand the precept thus: that they were only to forbear to demand it this year; for, as there was no sowing or produce of the land every seventh year, Hebrew debtors, unless they were very rich, could not have paid their debts that year without great inconvenience: and indeed the Hebrew word does not import an absolute remission, but an intermission only. However, with respect to the indigent and necessitous, more seems to be designed, namely, that they should have an entire acquittance of their debts; though, if afterwards they grew rich, they were bound in good conscience to pay. Accordingly, most of the rabbis hold the release to be perpetual, though they have their limitations for some debts and debtors; for instance, if a man lent his neighbour money, setting him an appointed time to repay, as of ten years, he was not released from the debt in the seventh: if he conditioned with him not to release that particular debt in the seventh year, the obligation remained. The words, because it is called the Lord's release, are rendered by Dr. Waterland, because the Lord's release hath been or is proclaimed, with which Houbigant agrees: postquam remissio domini fuerit promulgata.


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Shall release it; not absolutely and finally forgive it, but forbear it for that year, as may appear,

1. Because the word doth not signify a total dismission or acquitting, but an intermission for a time, as Exodus 23:11. He shall not exact it, as it here follows, i.e. force it from him by course of law or otherwise, to wit, that year, which is easily understood out of the whole context.

2. Because the person releasing is called a creditor, and his communicating to him what he desires and needs is called lending here and Deuteronomy 15:8; whereas it were giving, and the person giving it were no creditor, but a donor, if it were to be wholly forgiven to him.

3. Because the reason of this law is temporary and peculiar to that year, wherein there being no sowing nor reaping, they were not in a capacity to pay their debts.

4. Because it seems unjust and unreasonable, and contrary to other scriptures, which require men to pay what they borrow, as Psalms 37:21. Yet I deny not that in case of poverty the debt was to be forgiven; but that was not by virtue of this law, but of other commands of God.

Or of his brother: this is added to explain and limit the word

neighbour, which is more general, unto a brother, to wit, in nation and religion; to an Israelite, who is opposed to a foreigner, Deuteronomy 15:3, Heb. and a brother, for that is a brother, the particle and being oft so used, as Genesis 13:15, &c.

The Lord’s release; or, a release to or for the Lord, in obedience to his command, for his honour, and as an acknowledgment of his right in your estates, and of his kindness in giving and continuing them to you. If you are unwilling to release this for your brother’s sake, yet do it for God’s sake, your Lord and the chief Creditor.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

2. Every creditor… shall release — This must be understood as a release from compulsory payment for that year, not an entire remission of the debt.


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/deuteronomy-15.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Deuteronomy 15:2. Every creditor that lendeth aught shall release it — This cannot be meant of money lent to those who had borrowed it for the purchase of lands, trade, or other improvements, and who were able to pay; for nothing could have been more absurd than to have extinguished such debts, whereby the borrower was enriched. But it must be understood of money lent to an Israelite who was in poor circumstances, as appears from verse

4. According to this law, every poor Israelite who had borrowed money, and had not been able to pay it before, should this year be released from it. And though, if he were able, he was bound in conscience to pay it afterward, yet it could not be recovered by law. His brother — This is added to limit the word neighbour, which is more general, unto a brother, in nation and religion, an Israelite. The Lord’s release — Or, a release for the Lord, in obedience to his command, for his honour, and as an acknowledgment of his right in your estates, and of his kindness in giving and continuing them to you.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Again. Hebrew does not mention friend. (Haydock) --- "He shall not exact it, (or urge) his neighbour or his brother, because," &c. Whence Cajetan gathers, that debts might be demanded after the expiration of the seventh year, on which the products of the earth did not enable the Jews to pay any thing. Grotius also asserts, that perpetual debts might be required; and Menoch, includes things lent under the same regulation. But all debts became extinct as soon as the seventh year commenced; (ver. 9.; Calmet) at least they could not be demanded till it was expired; though things merely lent, might be taken back. (Du Hamel)


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/deuteronomy-15.html. 1859.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And this is the manner of the release: Every creditor that lendeth ought unto his neighbour shall release it; he shall not exact it of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it is called the LORD's release.

Every creditor ... shall release it - not by an absolute discharge of the debt, but by passing over that year without exacting payment. The relief was temporary and special to that year, during which there was a total suspension of agricultural labour. He shall not exact it of his ... brother - i:e., an Israelite, fellow-countryman, so called in opposition to a stranger or foreigner.

The Lord's release. The reason for acquitting a debtor at that particular period proceeded from obedience to the command and a regal to the honour of God-an acknowledgment of holding their property of Him, and gratitude for His kindness.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/deuteronomy-15.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And this is the manner of the release: Every creditor that lendeth ought unto his neighbour shall release it; he shall not exact it of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it is called the LORD'S release.
creditor that lendeth
Heb. master of the lending of his hand. exact it.
Nehemiah 5:7-11; Isaiah 58:3; Amos 8:4-6; Matthew 6:12,14,15; 18:25-35; Luke 6:34-38; Luke 7:42; James 2:13

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 15:2". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/deuteronomy-15.html.

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