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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Deuteronomy 21:22

 

 

"If a man has committed a sin worthy of death and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree,

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

There were four methods of execution in use among the ancient Jews; stoning (Exodus 17:4; Deuteronomy 13:10, etc.), burning Leviticus 20:14; Leviticus 21:9, the sword Exodus 32:27, and strangulation. The latter, though not named in Scripture, is regarded by the rabbis as the most common, and the proper one to be adopted when no other is expressly enjoined by the Law. Suspension, whether from cross, stake, or gallows, was not used as a mode of taking life, but was sometimes added after death as an enhancement of punishment. Pharaoh‘s chief baker Genesis 40:19 was hanged after being put to death by the sword; and similarly Joshua appears Joshua 10:26 to have dealt with the five kings who made war against Gibeon. Compare also Numbers 25:4.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/deuteronomy-21.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death,.... This before mentioned, or any other that deserves death, any kind of death, as strangling, killing with the sword, burning and stoning, to which the Jews restrain it here:

and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him, on a tree; is condemned to stoning, and after that they hang him, as the Targum of Jonathan; and according to the Jewish Rabbins, as Jarchi observes, all that were stoned were to be hanged, and only men, not womenF7Misn. Sotah, c. 3. sect. 8. ; for it is remarked that it is said "him" and not "her"F8Maimon. & Bartenora in. ib. : about this there is a dispute in the MisnahF9Misn. Sanhedrin, c. 6. sect. 4. ;"all that are stoned are hanged, they are the words of R. Eliezer; but the wise men say none are to be hanged but the blasphemer and idolater; a man is to be hanged with his face to the people, a woman with her face to the tree, they are the words of R. Eliezer; but the wise men say, a man is to be hanged, but no woman, to whom R. Eliezer replied, did not Simeon Ben Shetach hang women in Ashkelon? they answered him, he hung eighty women (at once), but they do not judge or condemn two in one day;'so that this was a particular case at a particular time, and not be drawn into an example: in the same place it is asked,

"how they hang one? they fix a beam in the earth, and a piece of wood goes out of it (near the top of it, as one of the commentatorF11Bartenora in Misn. Sanhedrin, c. 6. sect. 4. remarks), and join his two hands together and hang him;'that is, by his hand, not by his neck, as with us, but rather in the crucifixion; only in that the hands are spread, and one hand is fastened to one part of the cross beam, and the other to the other end.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/deuteronomy-21.html. 1999.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree:

On a tree — Which was done after the malefactor was put to death some other way, this publick shame being added to his former punishment.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/deuteronomy-21.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

The object of this precept was to banish inhumanity and barbarism from the chosen people, and also to impress upon them horror even of a just execution. And surely the body of a man suspended on a cross is a sad and hideous spectacle; for the rights of sepulture are ordained for man, both as a pledge and symbol of the resurrection, and also to spare the eyes of the living, lest they should be defiled by the sight of so horrible a thing. Moses does not here speak generally, but only of those malefactors who are unworthy of the honor of burial; yet the public good is regarded in the burial even of such as these, lest men should grow accustomed to cruelty, and thus become more ready to commit murder. Moreover, that they may take more careful heed in this matter, he declares that the land would be defiled, if the corpse should be left hanging on the cross, since such inhumanity pollutes and disgraces the land. And this was more intolerable in Judea, which God had given as an inheritance to his elect people, that he might be there worshipped reverentially, and purely, every profanation being excluded. The man so hanged is called (42) “the curse of God,” because this kind of punishment is detestable in itself. God, indeed, does not forbid criminals to be crucified, or hanged on a gallows, but rather gives His sanction to this mode of punishment; He only, by His own example, exhorts the Israelites to abhor all atrocity. Although, therefore, He does not disapprove of the punishment, He still says that lie abominates those that are hanged on a tree, that the scandal may be immediately removed; nor does He call them accursed, as if their salvation was to be despaired of, but because the hanging was a mark of His curse. This passage Paul applies to Christ, to teach us that He was made κατάρα ( a curse) for us, that He might deliver us from the curse of the Law. ( Galatians 3:13.) For, since all are guilty of transgression, and thus the whole race of mankind is implicated in the curse, there was no other mode of deliverance, except that Christ should substitute Himself in our place. Nor was God unmindful of His sentence, when He suffered His only-begot, tea Son to be crucified. Hence it follows that He submitted Himself to our condition, in order; that we might receive God’s blessing; since He was

made sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness
of God in Him.” (
2 Corinthians 5:21.)


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These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/deuteronomy-21.html. 1840-57.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Which was done after the malefactor was put to death some other way, this public shame being added to his former punishment. See Joshua 7:25 8:29 10:26 2 Samuel 4:12.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/deuteronomy-21.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

22. If a man… be put to death — Capital punishment among the Hebrews was usually inflicted by stoning. See Exodus 17:4; Deuteronomy 13:10; John 10:31; Acts 14:5. Burning, in early times, was the punishment for unchastity. Genesis 38:24. In Leviticus 21:9, it is made the penalty for this sin in the case of a priest’s daughter. It was also the punishment for incest. Death by the sword or spear is mentioned in Exodus 19:13; Exodus 32:27; Numbers 25:7-8. According to the rabbins strangling was the most common method of capital punishment.

Hang him on a tree — That is, after he has been put to death his body is to be ignominiously exposed to public view.


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/deuteronomy-21.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Deuteronomy 21:22. On a tree — Which was done after the malefactor was put to death some other way; this public shame being added to his former punishment.


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/deuteronomy-21.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Gibbet. Whether the person was first killed, as the Jews assert, or he was left to die upon the gibbet, see Calmet's Diss. It is also a matter of doubt, whether he was nailed to the gibbet, or hung on it by a rope. (Bonfrere)


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/deuteronomy-21.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

hang = hang up: i.e. after putting to death, not to put to death by hanging.

a tree = timber: i.e. a wooden stake. Compare Joshua 8:29; Joshua 10:26, Joshua 10:27. Galatians 1:3, Galatians 1:13.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/deuteronomy-21.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree:

If a man have committed a sin ... and thou hang him on a tree. Hanging was not a Hebrew form of execution-gibbeting is meant; but the body was not to be left to rot, or be a prey to ravenous birds; it was to be buried "that day," either because the stench of a hot climate would corrupt the air, or the spectacle of an exposed corpse bring ceremonial defilement on the land.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/deuteronomy-21.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree:
worthy of death
Heb. of the judgment of death. The Hebrews understand this not of putting to death by hanging, but of hanging a man up after he was stoned to death; which was done more ignominiously of some heinous malefactors. We have the examples of Rechab and Baanah, who, for murdering Ish-bosheth, were slain by David's commandment, their hand and feet cut off, and then hanged up.
2 Samuel 4:12; Joshua 8:29; 10:26; Song of Solomon in:; and such was the cruel death of our blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.; 19:6; 22:26; 1 Samuel 26:16; Matthew 26:66; Acts 23:29; 25:11,25; 26:31
thou hang
2 Samuel 21:6,9; Luke 23:33; John 19:31-38

Copyright Statement
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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:22". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/deuteronomy-21.html.

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