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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Isaiah 15:4

 

 

Heshbon and Elealeh also cry out, Their voice is heard all the way to Jahaz; Therefore the armed men of Moab cry aloud; His soul trembles within him.

Adam Clarke Commentary

The armed soldiers "The very loins" - So the Septuagint, ἡ οσφυς, and the Syriac. They cry out violently, with their utmost force.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/isaiah-15.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And Heshbon shall cry - This was a celebrated city of the Amorites, twenty miles east of the Jordan Joshua 13:17. It was formerly conquered from the Moabiltes by Sihon, and became his capital, and was taken by the Israelites a little before the death of Moses Numbers 21:25. After the carrying away of the ten tribes it was recovered by the Moabites. Jeremiah Jeremiah 48:2 calls it ‹the pride of Moab.‘ The town still subsists under the same name, and is described by Burckhardt. He says, it is situated on a hill, southwest from El Aal (Elealeh). ‹Here are the ruins of an ancient town, together with the remains of some edifices built with small stones; a few broken shafts of columns are still standing, a number of deep wells cut in the rock, and a large reservoir of water for the summer supply the inhabitants.‘ (“Travels in Syria,” p. 365.)

And Elealeh - This was a town of Reuben about a mile from Heshbon Numbers 32:37. Burckhardt visited this place. Its present name is El Aal. ‹It stands on the summit of a hill, and takes its name from its situation - Aal, meaning “the high.” It commands the whole plain, and the view from the top of the hill is very extensive, comprehending the whole of the southern Belka. El Aal was surrounded by a well built wall, of which some parts yet remain. Among the ruins are a number of large cisterns, fragments of walls, and the foundations of houses, but nothing worthy of notice. The plain around it is alternately chalk and flint.‘ (“Travels in Syria,” p. 365.)

Even unto Jahaz - This was a city east of Jordan, near to which Moses defeated Sihon. It was given to Reuben Deuteronomy 2:32, and was situated a short distance north of Ar, the capital of Moab.

The armed soldiers of Moab - The consternation shall reach the very army. They shall lose their courage, and instead of defending the nation, they shall join in the general weeping and lamentation.

His life shall be grievous - As we say of a person who is overwhelmed with calamities, that his life is wearisome, so, says the prophet, shall it be with the whole nation of Moab.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/isaiah-15.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh,.... Two other cities in the land of Moab. The first of these was the city of Sihon king of the Amorites, who took it from the Moabites, Numbers 21:25 it came into the hands of the Reubenites, Numbers 32:3 and afterwards was again possessed by the Moabites, Jeremiah 48:2. JosephusF20Antiqu. l. 13. c. 15. sect. 4. calls it Essebon, and mentions it among the cities of Moab; it goes by the name of Esbuta in PtolemyF21Geograph. l. 5. c. 17. P. 137. ; and is called Esbus by JeromF23De locis Hebraicis, fol. 90. M. , who says it was a famous city of Arabia in his time, in the mountains over against Jericho, twenty miles distant from Jordan; hence we read of the Arabian Esbonites in PlinyF24Nat. Hist. l. 5. c. 11. . Elealeh was another city of Moab, very near to Heshbon and frequently mentioned with it, Isaiah 16:9. Jerom saysF25De locis Hebraicis, fol. 90. M. that in his time it was a large village, a mile from Esbus, or Heshbon. By these two places are meant the inhabitants of them, as the Targum paraphrases it, who cried for and lamented the desolation that was coming, or was come upon them:

their voice shall be heard even unto Jahaz; sometimes called Jahazah, Joshua 13:18 it was a frontier town, at the utmost borders of the land, Numbers 21:23 hence the cry of the inhabitants of the above cities is said to reach to it, which expresses the utter destruction that should be made; see Jeremiah 48:34 this is thought to be the same place PtolemyF26Geograph. l. 5. c. 17. p. 137. calls Ziza. JeromF1De locis Hebraicis, fol. 92. F. calls it Jazza, as it is in the Septuagint here, and says that in his time it was shown between Medaba and Deblathai.

Therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out; not as when they go to battle, with courage and cheerfulness, as some have thought; but through fear, and as in great terror and distress; and so it signifies, that not only the weak and unarmed inhabitants, men and women, should be in the utmost confusion and consternation, but the soldiers that should fight for them, and defend them; who were accoutred, or "harnessed", as the word signifies, and were "girt" and prepared for war, as the Targum renders it; even these would be dispirited, and have no heart to fight, but lament their sad case:

his life shall be grievous to everyone; the life of every Moabite would be a burden to him; he would choose death rather than life; so great the calamity: or the life of every soldier; or "his soul shall cry out", grieve or mourn for "himself"F2נפשו ירעה לו "anima ejus vociferabit sibi", Pagninus & Montanus. ; for his own unhappy case; he shall only be concerned for himself, how to save himself, or make his escape; having none for others, for whose defence he was set, and for whom he was to fight; but would have no concern for his king or country, only for himself.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/isaiah-15.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Heshbon — an Amorite city, twenty miles east of Jordan; taken by Moab after the carrying away of Israel (compare Jeremiah 48:1-47).

Elealeh — near Heshbon, in Reuben.

Jahaz — east of Jordan, in Reuben. Near it Moses defeated Sihon.

therefore — because of the sudden overthrow of their cities. Even the armed men, instead of fighting in defense of their land, shall join in the general cry.

life, etc. — rather, “his soul is grieved” (1 Samuel 1:8) [Maurer].


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/isaiah-15.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh: their voice shall be heard even unto Jahaz: therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out; his life shall be grievous unto him.

Heshbon — Two other Moabitish cities.

Jahaz — Another city in the utmost borders of Moab.

Soldiers — Who use to be the most courageous.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/isaiah-15.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

4.And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh. Here he names other cities; for his design is to bind up, as it were, in a bundle all the cities of that country, that they may be involved in the general destruction; as if he had said, that none at all shall be exempted.

Therefore the light-armed soldiers of Moab shall howl. Though על כן (gnal ken) literally signifies therefore, yet some think that a reason is not here assigned; but that is of little importance. The Prophet shows that there will be none that does not howl; for he declares that the bold and courageous shall mourn. Next he adds, the soul of every one shall howl to him. (241) Every one shall be so engrossed with his own grief, that he will not think of his neighbors.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/isaiah-15.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Isaiah 15:4 And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh: their voice shall be heard [even] unto Jahaz: therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out; his life shall be grievous unto him.

Ver. 4. And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh.] See on Isaiah 15:2.

The armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out.] As being faint hearted and unwilling to fight, because to no purpose.

His life shall be grievous to him.] Heb., His soul shall be ill-affected to him, or, for himself; that is, say some, all his care shall be for himself; let others shift as they can.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/isaiah-15.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Heshbon and Elealeh; two other Moabitish cities; of which see Numbers 21:25,26 32:3,37.

Jahaz another city in the utmost borders of Moab, Numbers 21:23, called also Jahazah, Joshua 21:36.

The armed soldiers, who should be, and use to be, the most courageous.

His life shall be grievous unto him; the Moabites shall generally long for death, to free themselves from those dreadful calamities which they perceive unavoidably coming upon them.


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/isaiah-15.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

4. Heshbon, and other cities north, and back to the south again, join in the cry. Heshbon, an ancient royal residence of the Amorites, (Numbers 21:26, seq.,) on falling into the hands of the Israelites, was assigned to Reuben, (Joshua 13:17;) then to Gad as a city of the Levites.

Jahaz — This place would seem to have lain eastward toward the desert, as may be inferred from Numbers 21:23, and Deuteronomy 2:32, for it was from there that Sihon marched down into the wilderness against the Israelite warriors who conquered him.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/isaiah-15.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Isaiah 15:4. And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh — Two other Moabitish cities; of which see Numbers 21:25-26; Numbers 32:3; Numbers 32:37. Their voice shall be heard unto Jahaz — Another city in the utmost borders of Moab. The armed soldiers shall cry out — Even the warriors themselves, who should defend the state, shall lose all their spirit and courage, and join in the general lamentation and dismay: see Jeremiah 48:34; Jeremiah 48:41. His life shall be grievous unto him — The Moabites shall generally long for death, to free them from those dreadful calamities which they perceive unavoidably coming upon them.


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/isaiah-15.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Itself. Every one shall deplore his own distress.


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/isaiah-15.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Heshbon. Now Heshoan. The capital of the Amorites. Rebuilt by Reuben (Numbers 32:37).

cry = cry in pain.

Elealeh. Nowel" Al, near Heshbon. Compare Isaiah 16:9. Numbers 32:3, Numbers 32:37. Jeremiah 48:34.

Jahaz. Not identified. Numbers 21:23. Deuteronomy 2:32. Judges 11:20.

armed soldiers = light-armed troopers.

cry out = shout for joy.

ife = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

grievous unto him = vexed within him.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/isaiah-15.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh: their voice shall be heard even unto Jahaz: therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out; his life shall be grievous unto him.

Heshbon - an Amorite city, 20 miles east of Jordan; taken by Moab, after the carrying away of Israel, (cf. Jer

48.)

Elealeh - near Heshbon, in Reuben.

Jahaz - east of Jordan, in Reuben. Near it Moses defeated Sihon.

Therefore - because of the sudden overthrow of their cities.

The armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out - even the armed men, instead of fighting in defense of their land, shall join in the general cry.

His life shall be grievous unto him - rather, 'his soul is grieved' (1 Samuel 1:8) (Maurer). Compare with the English version, Revelation 9:6.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/isaiah-15.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(4) And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh . . .—Of the places thus named (1) Heshbon (now Heshan) was twenty miles east of the Jordan, on a line from the northern extremity of the Dead Sea. It is first mentioned as in the power of Sihon king of the Amorites (Numbers 21:26). On his overthrow it was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Numbers 32:37), and became a city of the Levites (Joshua 21:39). It had probably fallen into the hands of the Moabites, to whom it had originally belonged (Numbers 21:26). Its ruins exhibit architecture of various periods, Jewish, Roman, and Saracenic; (2) Elealeh, obviously near Heshbon, had shared its fate (Numbers 32:3; Numbers 32:37). The ancient name still attaches to its ruins in the form El-A’al; (3) Jahaz was the scene of the battle between Sihon and the Israelites (Numbers 21:23; Deuteronomy 2:32; Judges 11:20), and was also within the region assigned to Reuben (Joshua 13:10) north of the Arnon. The language of Isaiah implies that it was at some distance from the other two cities. Their cry was to be heard even there. In the Moabite inscription it appears as annexed to Dibon (Records of the Past, xi. 167). Eusebius (Onomast.) names it as between Medeba and Debus, the latter name being probably identical with Dibon. The panic is intensified by the fact that even the “armed soldiers” of Moab are powerless to help, and can only join in the ineffectual wailing.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/isaiah-15.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh: their voice shall be heard even unto Jahaz: therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out; his life shall be grievous unto him.
Heshbon
16:8,9; Numbers 32:3,4; Jeremiah 48:34
Jahaz
Numbers 21:23; Deuteronomy 2:32; Joshua 13:18; Judges 11:20
his
Genesis 27:46; Numbers 11:15; 1 Kings 19:4; Job 3:20-22; 7:15,16; Jeremiah 8:3; 20:18; Jonah 4:3,8; Revelation 9:6

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 15:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/isaiah-15.html.

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