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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Isaiah 45:13

 

 

"I have aroused him in righteousness And I will make all his ways smooth; He will build My city and will let My exiles go free, Without any payment or reward," says the LORD of hosts.

Adam Clarke Commentary

I have raised him up - This evidently refers to Cyrus, and to what he did for the Jews; and informs us by whom he was excited to do it.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/isaiah-45.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

I have raised him up - That is. Cyrus (see the notes at Isaiah 41:2).

In righteousness - In Isaiah 41:2, he is called ‹the righteous man.‘ He had raised him up to accomplish his own righteous plans. It does not necessarily mean that Cyrus was a righteous man (see the notes at Isaiah 41:2).

And I will direct all his ways - Margin, ‹Make straight.‘ This is the meaning of the Hebrew word (see the notes at Isaiah 40:4). The sense here is, I will make his paths all smooth and level, that is, whatever obstacles are in his way I will remove, and give him eminent success.

He shall build my city - Jerusalem. See Ezra 1:2, where, in his proclamation, Cyrus says, ‹Jehovah, God of heaven, hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah.‘ It is very probable that Cyrus was made acquainted with these predictions of Isaiah. Nothing would be more natural than that the Jews in Babylon, when he should become master of the city, knowing that he was the monarch to whom Isaiah referred, and that he had been raised up for their deliverance, should acquaint him with these remarkable prophecies, and show him that God bad long before designated aim to accomplish this great work (compare the notes at Isaiah 44:28).

And he shall let go my captives - Hebrew, ‹My captivity,‘ or ‹my migration;‘ that is, those of his people who were in captivity.

Not for price - They shall not be purchased of him as slaves, nor shall they be required to purchase their own freedom. They shall be sent away as freemen, and no price shall be exacted for their ransom (compare Isaiah 52:3). The Jews in Babylon were regarded as captives in war, and therefore as slaves.

Nor for reward - The Hebrew word used here (שׁחד shochad ) denotes properly that which is given to conciliate the favor of others, and hence, often a bribe. Here it means, that nothing should be given to Cyrus for their purchase, or to induce him to set them at liberty. He should do it of his own accord. It was a fact that he not only released them, but that he endowed them with rich arid valuable gifts, to enable them to restore their temple and city Ezra 1:7-11.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/isaiah-45.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

I have raised him up in righteousness,.... Though this may be said with some respect to Cyrus, yet chiefly to Christ, of whom Cyrus was a type; him the Lord appointed and determined to be the Saviour and Redeemer of his people; him he sent forth in time for that purpose, in righteousness or faithfulness to concerning him: or, "unto righteousness"F19בצדק "adjustitiam", V. L. , as the Vulgate Latin version; to bring in an everlasting righteousness for the justification of his people: or, "with righteousness", as the Septuagint version isF20 μετα δικαιοσυνης, Sept. "cum justitia", Forerius. :

I have raised him up a King with righteousness; a righteous King, a King that reigns in righteousness, as Christ does, and better agrees with him than Cyrus; see Jeremiah 23:5,

and I will direct all his ways; or "make them plain"F21אישר "aequabo", Piscator; "aequaturus", Junius & Tremellius; "rectificabo", Vatablus; "rectificabam", Cocceius; "aequas faciam", Vitringa. ; remove all difficulties and obstructions out of his way; he shall succeed and prosper, as the "pleasure of the Lord did prosper" in the hands of Christ; God being at his right hand as man and Mediator, to direct, counsel, and assist him, and to make him successful:

he shall build my city; not Cyrus, for he did not build the city of Jerusalem, whatever orders he might give for it, Isaiah 44:28 though his proclamation only mentions the temple, Ezra 1:2, but Christ, the builder of the church, often compared to a city, and called the city of God, of which the saints are fellow citizens; and which is built by Christ, upon himself the Rock, against which the gates of hell cannot prevail, Matthew 16:18,

and he shall let go my captives, not for price, nor reward, saith the Lord of hosts; the Lord's people are captives to sin, Satan, and the law; Christ has not only redeemed these captives, but has proclaimed liberty to them, and delivered them from their bondage by his Spirit and grace; and all this freely, not through any merits of theirs, but of his own rich grace and mercy; and though they are redeemed with a price; yet not with corruptible things, as silver and gold, but with the precious blood of Christ; and whatever their redemption and freedom cost him, it costs them nothing, it is to them without money and without price, Isaiah 52:3.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/isaiah-45.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

I have raised p him up in righteousness, and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for q price nor reward, saith the LORD of hosts.

(p) That is, Cyrus, that I may show by him the faithfulness of my promise in delivering my people.

(q) Meaning, freely and without ransom, or any grievous condition.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/isaiah-45.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

him — Cyrus, type of Messiah, who redeems the captives of Satan “without money and without price” (Isaiah 55:1), “freely” (gratuitously) (Isaiah 52:3; Isaiah 61:1; Zechariah 9:11; Romans 3:24).

in righteousness — to fulfil My righteous purpose (see on Isaiah 41:2; see on Isaiah 42:6; see on Jeremiah 23:6).


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/isaiah-45.html. 1871-8.

Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament

He who created all things, and called all things into existence, had also raised up this Cyrus, whose victorious career had increased the anxieties and fears of the exiles, instead of leading them to lift up their heads, because their redemption was drawing nigh. “I, I have raised him up in righteousness, and all his ways shall I make smooth: He will build my city, and release my banished ones, not for price nor for reward, saith Jehovah of hosts.” All the anxieties of the exiles are calmed by the words “in righteousness,” which trace back the revolutions that Cyrus was causing to the righteousness of Jehovah, i.e., to His interposition, which was determined by love alone, and tended directly to the salvation of His people, and in reality to that of all nations. And they are fully quieted by the promise, which is now expressed in the clearest and most unequivocal words, that Cyrus would build up Jerusalem again, and set the captivity free ( gâlūth , as in Isaiah 20:4), and that without redemption with money (Isaiah 52:3) - a clear proof that Jehovah had not only raised up Cyrus himself, but had put his spirit within him, i.e., had stirred up within him the resolution to do this (see the conclusion to the books of Chronicles, and the introduction to that of Ezra). This closes the first half of our sixth prophecy.


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The Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament is a derivative of a public domain electronic edition.

Bibliography
Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/kdo/isaiah-45.html. 1854-1889.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

I have raised him up in righteousness, and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward, saith the LORD of hosts.

Him — Cyrus.

In righteousness — Most justly, to punish the wicked Babylonians, to plead the cause of the oppressed ones, to manifest my righteousness, and truth, and goodness.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/isaiah-45.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

13.I have raised him up. He now continues the subject on which he had entered in the beginning of the chapter; for, having undertaken to soothe their affliction, which was exceedingly sharp and severe, Isaiah holds out the hope of deliverance, and stretches out his hand to them, that they may look for an absolutely certain redemption. Though you think that you are ruined, yet the Lord will protect you against destruction. Why the reproof which we have seen was intermingled with it, may be easily gathered from the event itself; for, if Isaiah had not abruptly made this digression, the Jews, in their vehement impatience, would have been hurried into despair.

In righteousness. This means “justly and truly,” and must be understood relatively; for it assigns the reason why God determined to raise up Cyrus, that is, because he is a faithful guardian of his Church, and does not disappoint his worshippers. Some explain it, “in justice,” that is, in order that he may punish the Babylonians; and others, “that he may reign justly;” but the Prophet meant nothing of this sort. But in the Scriptures, “righteousness” often signifies fidelity, (Psalms 5:8), because the Lord manifests his “righteousness” by fulfilling his promises and defending his servants. The “righteousness”of God shines brightly in giving a display of exalted and perfect rectitude by saving his people; for, although there is no work of God on which a mark of righteousness is not engraven, yet a much more clear and striking proof is seen in the salvation of the Church. The meaning therefore is, that he “raised up” Cyrus, in order to manifest his “righteousness” in him, whom he has appointed to lead and conduct in bringing back his people.

He shall build my city. Jerusalem is meant, which he calls “his city,” because he wished that there the remembrance of his name should be preserved, and because he had consecrated it in a peculiar manner to himself. In like manner God himself had declared,

“Wherever I shall cause my name to be recorded, I will come to thee, and will bless thee.” (Exodus 20:24.)

Now, there was no other city which he had appointed for sacrifices and vows, and for calling on his name; and, therefore, also it is called (Psalms 46:4) “The city of God, the holy tabernacle of the Most High, for God is in the midst of her;” and in another place it is said, “This is my rest for ever and ever.” (Psalms 132:14.) Now, Cyrus did not build this city with his own hand, but by royal edicts forbade any one to hinder the rebuilding of it, and likewise supplied the people with provisions and money. (2 Chronicles 36:23; Ezra 1:2.)

And shall release my captivity, not for a price, that is, “for nothing.” This was uncommon; for, if captives are released by a conqueror, either a price is demanded, or harsh conditions are imposed on them; but Cyrus did nothing of that kind. Hence it follows that this deliverance took place by the will of God, and not by the will of man. The word “captivity” is here used as a collective noun, denoting “captives.”


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/isaiah-45.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Isaiah 45:13 I have raised him up in righteousness, and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward, saith the LORD of hosts.

Ver. 13. I have raised him up,] i.e., Cyrus. [Ezra 1:1]

And I will direct all his ways,] sc., When he cometh against the Babylonians, Lydians, &c., on mine errand. But when moved by his ambition, he invaded Scythia, and cruelly wasted the country, God took no further charge of him; as I may say, He that is out of God’s precincts, is out of his protection.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/isaiah-45.html. 1865-1868.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

Was there ever a more blessed and gracious proclamation made by God the Father, concerning the person, work, and glory of the Lord Jesus Christ, than what is contained in these words? To read this verse with reference to Cyrus, as some have done, is to enervate the passage sadly, and endanger the mind to overlook the one great object intended. For after allowing all that may be said of Cyrus, as God's instrument and servant, in delivering the Church from the oppressions they underwent in Babylon; still the temporal mercies then shown are, so inconsiderable, compared to the everlasting and eternal redemption from sin, death, and hell by the Lord Jesus Christ, that they are not worthy to be mentioned. And surely it is to this, all along, that God the Father refers as the one great object of all salvation, which, is to glorify his dear Son. Reader! keep, I pray you, your eyes steadily fixed upon the glorious person of Jesus. Hear what God the Father, even the Lord of hosts saith, in this blessed verse; that it is he who hath raised him up, called him, appointed him, anointed him, and blessed him, as thy Redeemer. He, Jehovah alone, directed, ordered, and crowned with success all that Christ did in salvation. Behold the Lord Jesus, in all this, building his Church, and delivering all his people; and all without money and without price; and then fall down on thy knees, crying out, with the Apostle: Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift; 2 Corinthians 9:15.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/isaiah-45.html. 1828.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

I have raised him; Cyrus, who; was named before, Isaiah 45:1.

In righteousness; not in a way of absolute sovereignty, as I might have done, but most justly, to punish the wicked Babylonians, to plead the cause of the innocent oppressed ones, to manifest my own righteousness, and truth, and goodness.

Direct all his ways; guide and assist him in all his travels and marches, in all his attempts, and battles, and sieges, crowning him with success in all his undertakings.

Not for price nor reward; freely, without requiring any ransom for or from them, as is usual in such cases. Such an exact prediction of these things, which depended wholly upon the mind and will of Cyrus, is mentioned here, as an infallible evidence of the certainty of God’s foreknowledge, and of his being the only true God, because idols could discover no such things at such a distance of time.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/isaiah-45.html. 1685.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

God"s raising up of Cyrus was consistent with His righteousness. He would enable Cyrus to succeed. Cyrus would be responsible for the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the release of the Israelites from Babylonian exile. The Almighty Yahweh would do this without even rewarding Cyrus. Cyrus" action would not put him in the Lord"s debt because he would simply be carrying out the will of the sovereign God (cf. Luke 17:9-10).

"It is ironic, but typical, that Cyrus obeys without question, while Israel rebels." [Note: Watts, Isaiah 34-66 , p157.]


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/isaiah-45.html. 2012.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Justice. Cyrus shall punish the Chaldeans and restore the Jews. (Calmet) --- The prophet returns to him after having mentioned a greater Saviour, ver. 8. (Houbigant)


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/isaiah-45.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

raised him up : i.e. raised Cyrus up.

he shall build My city. Nehemiah rebuilt only the walls. See Nehemiah 7:4.

The city was not rebuilt until after the return under Zerubbabel, and the emancipation by Cyrus. See App-68.

captives. Hebrew captivity. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the captives in it.

the LORD of hosts. See note on 1 Samuel 1:3


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/isaiah-45.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

I have raised him up in righteousness, and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward, saith the LORD of hosts.

I have raised him up ... he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward

- Cyrus, type of Messiah, who redeems the captives of Satan "without money and without price" (Isaiah 55:1), "freely" (gratuitously) (Isaiah 52:3; Isaiah 61:1; Zechariah 9:11; Romans 3:24).

In righteousness - to fulfill my righteous purpose (note, Isaiah 41:2; Isaiah 42:6; Jeremiah 23:6).


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/isaiah-45.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(13) I have raised him up in righteousness . . .—This was the answer to the murmurers. It would be seen by the results, the city rebuilt, the exiles restored to their home, that the conquests of Cyrus had been ordered by the loving righteousness of Jehovah; and he would do this, not through the greed and ambition of other conquerors, but because the spirit of the Lord stirred him (2 Chronicles 36:22).


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/isaiah-45.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I have raised him up in righteousness, and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for price nor reward, saith the LORD of hosts.
raised him
1-6; 41:2,25; 46:11; 48:14,15
in righteousness
42:6; Psalms 65:5
direct
or, make straight.
1,2
he shall build
44:28; 52:5; 2 Chronicles 36:22,23; Ezra 1:3-11; 49:25; 52:2,3; Romans 3:24-26; 1 Peter 1:18,19; 13:17

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:13". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/isaiah-45.html.

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