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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Isaiah 45:14

 

 

Thus says the LORD, "The products of Egypt and the merchandise of Cush And the Sabeans, men of stature, Will come over to you and will be yours; They will walk behind you, they will come over in chains And will bow down to you; They will make supplication to you: `Surely, God is with you, and there is none else, No other God.' "

Adam Clarke Commentary

The labor of Egypt "The wealth of Egypt" - This seems to relate to the future admission of the Gentiles into the Church of God. Compare Psalm 68:32; Psalm 72:10; Psalm 60:6-9. And perhaps these particular nations may be named, by a metonymy common in all poetry, for powerful and wealthy nations in general. See note on Isaiah 60:1.

The Sabeans, men of stature "The Sabeans, tall of stature" - That the Sabeans were of a more majestic appearance than common, is particularly remarked by Agatharchides, an ancient Greek historian quoted by Bochart, Phaleg, 2:26, τα σωματα εστι των κατοικουντων αξιολογωτερα . So also the Septuagint understand it, rendering it ανδρες ὑψηλοι, "tall men." And the same phrase, מדה אנשי anshey middah, is used for persons of extraordinary stature, Numbers 13:32, and 1 Chronicles 20:6.

They shall make supplication unto thee "They shall in suppliant guise address thee" - The conjunction ו vau is supplied by the ancient Versions, and confirmed by fifteen MSS. of Kennicott's, (seven ancient), thirteen of De Rossi's, and six editions, ואליך veelayich . Three MSS. (two ancient) omit the ו vau before אליך elaylch at the beginning of the line.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/isaiah-45.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Thus saith the Lord - This verse is designed to denote the favors which in subsequent times would be conferred on Jerusalem, the city which Isaiah 45:13 was to be rebuilt. It bas reference, according to Lowth, to the conversion of the Gentiles, and their admission into the church of God. Grotius, however, understands it as addressed to Cyrus, and as meaning that, because he had released the Jews without reward, therefore God would give him the wealth of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sabaea, and that those nations should be subject to him. But in this opinion probably he stands alone, and the objections to it are so obvious that they need not be specified. Some of the Jewish interpreters suppose that it refers to the same events as those recorded in Isaiah 43:3, and that it relates to the fact that God had formerly given those nations for the deliverance and protection of his people. They suppose that particular reference is had to the slaughter and destruction of the army of Sennacherib. Vitringa regards it as referring to the fact that proselytes should be made from all these nations to the true religion, and finds, as he supposes, a fulfillment of it in the times of the Saviour and the apostles. In regard to the true meaning of the passage; we may observe:

1. That it refers to the times that would succeed their return from their exile; and not to events that were then past. This is apparent on the face of the passage.

2. It relates to Jerusalem, or to the people of God, and not to Cyrus. This is evident, because it was not true that these nations became subject to Cyrus after his taking Babylon, for it was not Cyrus, but his son Cambyses that invaded and subdued Egypt, and because the whole phraseology has reference to a conversion to religion, and not to the subjection involved in the conquests of war.

3. It appropriately relates to a conversion to the true God, and an embracing of the true religion. This is implied in the language in the close of the verse, ‹saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God.‘

4. The passage, therefore, means, that subsequent to their return from Babylon, there would be the conversion of those nations; or that they - perhaps mentioned here as the representatives of great and mighty nations in general - would be converted to the true faith, and that their wealth and power would be consecrated to the cause of Yahweh. The time when this was to be, is not fixed in the prophecy itself. It is only determined that it was to be subsequent to the return from the exile, and to be one of the consequences of that return. The fulfillment, therefore, may be sought either under the first preaching of the gospel, or in times still more remote. A more full explanation will occur in the examination of the different parts of the verse.

The labor of Egypt - That is, the fruit, or result of the labor of Egypt; the wealth of Egypt (see the word thus used in Job 10:3; Psalm 78:46; Isaiah 55:2; Jeremiah 3:24; Jeremiah 20:5; Ezekiel 23:9). The idea is, that Egypt would be converted to the true religion, and its wealth consecrated to the service of the true God. The conversion of Egypt is not unfrequently foretold Psalm 68:31:

Princes shall come out of Egypt.

Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.

See the notes at Isaiah 19:18-22 - where the conversion of Egypt is introduced and discussed at length.

And merchandise of Ethiopia - On the situation of Ethiopia, see the notes at Isaiah 18:1. The word ‹merchandise‘ here means the same as wealth, since their wealth consisted in their traffic. That Cush or Ethiopia would be converted to the true religion and be united to the people of God, is declared in the passage above quoted from Psalm 68:31; and also in various other places. Thus in Psalm 67:4: ‹Behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man was born there;‘ Zephaniah 3:10: ‹From beyond the ruins of Ethiopia, my suppliants, even the daughters of my dispersed, shall bring mine offering.‘

And of the Sabeans, men of stature - (סבאים sebâ'ı̂ym ). The inhabitants of Seba (סבא sebâ' not שׁבא shebâ' ). Sheba and the Sabeans of that name were a country and people of Arabia Felix - comprising a considerable part of the country now known as Yemen, lying in the southwest part of Arabia Joel 3:8; Job 1:15. That country abounded in frankincense, myrrh, spices, gold, and precious stones 1 Kings 10:1; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20. Seba, here referred to, was a different country. It was inhabited by a descendant of Cush Genesis 10:7, and was probably the same as Meroe in Upper Egypt (see the notes at Isaiah 43:3). That this people was distinguished for height of stature is expressly affirmed by Herodotus (iii. 20), who says of the Ethiopians, among whom the Sabeans are to be reckoned, that they were ‹the tallest of men‘ ( λέγονται εἶναι μέγιστοι ἀνθρώπων legontai einai megistoi anthrōpōn ); and Solinus affirms that the Ethiopians are ‹twelve feet high.‘ Agatharchides, an ancient Greek poet, quoted by Bochart (Phaleg. ii. 26), says of the Sabeans, τὰ σώματά ἐστι τῶν κατοικούντων ἀξιολογωτερα ta sōmata esti tōn katoikountōn achiologōtera - ‹the bodies of those who dwell there are worthy of special remark.‘ This shows at least a coincidence between the accounts of Scripture and of profane writers. This country is alluded to by Solomon in Psalm 72:10:

The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents;

The kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts.

They are connected here with the Egyptians, and with the inhabitants of Ethiopia or Cush; and their conversion to the true religion would occur probably about the same time. Doubtless the Christian religion was early introduced into these countries, for among those converted on the day of Pentecost, were foreigners from Egypt, and the adjacent countries Acts 2:10-11, who would carry the gospel with them on their return. See also the ease of the eunuch of Ethiopia Acts 8:26-39, by whom, undoubtedly, the gospel was conveyed to that region The first bishop of Ethiopia was Frumentius, who was made bishop of that country about 330 a.d. There is a current tradition among the Ethiopians that the Queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, was called Maqueda and that she was not from Arabia, but was a queen of their own country. They say that she adopted the Jewish religion, and introduced it among her people; and the eunuch, who was treasurer under Queen Candace, was probably a Jew by religion if not by birth. Yet there will be in future times a more signal fulfillment of this prophecy, when the inhabitants of these countries, and the people of all other nations, shall be converted to the true religion, and shall give themselves to God (compare the notes at Isaiah 60:3-14). That prophecy has a remarkable similarity to this, and indeed is little more than a beautiful expansion of it.

Shall come over unto thee - To thy religion; or shall be united to thee in the worship of the true God. It denotes a change not of place, but of character, and of religion.

And they shall be thine - A part of thy people; united to thee. The whole language of this description, however, is taken from the custom in the conquests of war, where one nation is made subject to another, and is led along in chains. It is here figurative, denoting that the true religion would make rapid and extensive conquests among the pagan; that is, that the true religion would everywhere triumph over all others. The phrase ‹shall come over,‘ denotes that their subjection would be voluntary, and that they should freely abandon their own systems; while the phrases ‹shall be thine,‘ ‹in chains,‘ denote the triumphant and mighty power of the truth.

They shall come after thee - You shall precede them in the honor of having conveyed to them the true religion, and in that priority of rank which always belongs to those who are first blessed with intelligence, and with the revelation of God.

In chains shall they come over - Language taken from conquests, when subjugated nations are led along as captives; and here denoting the power of that truth which would subdue their false systems, and bring them into complete and entire subjection to the true religion. This does not mean that it would be against their will, or that they could not have resisted it; but merely that they would be in fact as entirely subject to the true religion as are prisoners of war, in chains, to the will of their conquerors (see the notes at Isaiah 14:1-2).

And they shall fall down unto thee - Recognizing thee as having the knowledge of the true God. To fall down is indicative of reverence; and it means here that Jerusalem would be honored as being the source from where the true religion should emanate (compare Luke 24:47). An expression similar to that used here occurs in Isaiah 49:23: ‹And kings - and queens - shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet.‘

They shall make supplication unto thee - Lowth renders this, ‹And in suppliant guise address thee.‘ The Hebrew properly means, they shall pray unto thee; but the idea is, that they should come as suppliants to Jerusalem, confessing that there was the knowledge of the only true God, and praying her inhabitants to impart to them an acquaintance with the true religion (see the notes at Isaiah 2:3). The idea indicated by this is, that there would be a condition of anxious solicitude among pagan nations on the subject of the true religion, and that they would seek counsel and direction from those who were in possession of it. Such a state has already existed to some extent among the pagan; and the Scriptures, I think, lead us to suppose that the final spread and triumph of the gospel will be preceded by such an inquiry prevailing extensively in the pagan world. God will show them the folly of idolatry; he will raise up reformers among themselves; the extension of commercial contact will acquaint them with the comparative happiness and prosperity of Christian nations; and the growing consciousness of their own inferiority will lead them to desire that which has conferred so extensive benefits on other lands, and lead them to come as suppliants, and ask that teachers and the ministers of religious may be sent to them. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the present time is, that pagan nations are becoming increasingly sensible of their ignorance and comparative degradation; that they welcome the ministers and teachers sent out from Christian lands; and the increased commerce of the world is thus preparing the world for the final spread of the gospel.

God is in thee - In Jerusalem; or thou art in possession of the only true system of religion, and art the worshipper of the only true God (see Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 60:14).


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These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/isaiah-45.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

Isaiah 45:14

Surely God is in thee

Jehovah Himself present in His Church

I.
THE DIGNITY OF THE CHURCH. One cannot wonder that Solomon should have been overwhelmed with astonishment when Jehovah promised His presence in the temple that had just been erected for His worship and glory. But there is a nobler temple building for God--even that Church which is composed of living stones. It is to the presence of God therein that the text refers, and in vouch-sating His presence we may remark that Jehovah is--

1. Doing honour to His own truth.

2. Exalting His own Son.

3. Imparting His own graces.

II. THE CONSEQUENT SPIRITUALITY OF THE EXPERIENCE OF THE CHURCH. By no phrase could you more accurately describe the real Christian than by the text--“Surely God is in thee.” True religion is not an opinion merely of the understanding, nor external decorum merely of life, nor ecstatic raptures merely of affection. But it is nothing less than a union of our soul with God--a real participation of the Divine nature.

III. Our text, however, not only intimates the dignity of the Christian and the spirituality of his experience, but also THE HOLINESS OF HIS CONDUCT. And unless there be this there is nothing. (R. C. Dillon, D. D.)


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Bibliography
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Isaiah 45:14". The Biblical Illustrator. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/isaiah-45.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

"Thus saith Jehovah, the labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Ethiopia, and the Sabaeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall go after thee; in chains they shall come over; and they shall fall down unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee there is none else, besides him there is no God. Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour. They shall be put to shame, yea, confounded, all of them; they shall go into confusion together that are makers of idols. But Israel shall be saved by Jehovah with an everlasting salvation: ye shall not be put to shame nor confounded world without end."

Isaiah 45:14 here is a picture of the coming of the Gentiles into the New Israel, the Church of God. That Christians of every name and of every race and nation do actually bow themselves down to Christ and worship Him is actually going on right now all over the world; and since Christ is the True Israel, they are actually bowing down and worshipping the Israel of this passage. The mention of "chains" is not a reference to anything literal, but indicates that, "The surrender of these people to Christ will be as total as that of prisoners of war, but in reality their surrender will spring from conviction and issue in salvation,"[18] and will not be the result of any kind of physical restraint whatever. This illustration of former enemies coming and falling down and worshipping "Israel" is also specifically presented again in Revelation 3:9. See my comment on that New Testament instance of the same thing, Vol. 12 of our New Testament Series, p. 80.

The last two verses indicate the ultimate glory of Israel as exhibited in the "Israel of God" under the glorious terms of the New Covenant, in which the universal Brotherhood of the saints in Christ shall appear, Jews and Gentiles together, where no racial requirements are either needed or honored, and where every man shall give an account of himself to God, and where there is no respecter of persons or races, and "Whosoever will may come!"

The confusion and shame of idolaters which is prophesied in Isaiah 45:16 has indeed already been fulfilled. "From the time of the conquest of Babylon, idolatry began to decline; and shortly after the Christian era, in consequence of the spread of the Gospel, it disappeared from the best sections of Asia, Africa, and Europe."[19] With the Edict of Theodosius, Emperor of Rome, in 380 A.D. paganism with its elaborate system of temples, priests, sacrifices, etc. was officially outlawed for all of what is known as Western Civilization.

Throughout all of these last twenty-seven chapters, Isaiah's message points more and more to Jesus Christ and the reign of Messiah and less and less to the physical return of captive Jews from Babylon.


Copyright Statement
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/isaiah-45.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Thus saith the Lord,.... The following words are said not to Cyrus, nor to Christ, but to the church, as the feminine pronouns show; and Kimchi observes, they are directed to Jerusalem:

the labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia, and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee; a prophecy of the conversion of many in these nations, who should join themselves to the churches of Christ, formed among them, and make use of their riches, got by merchandise, labour, and industry, for the support of the interest of religion; and had its accomplishment in part, in the first times of the Gospel, which was brought into Egypt, as it is said, by the Evangelist Mark; and by which, no doubt, many were converted and formed into a church state, and others joined them. The Ethiopian eunuch, baptized by Philip, carried it into his country, where it also met with success, was embraced and professed; as it will be more so in the latter day, when the kings of Seba and Sheba shall offer gifts to Christ, and bring their riches into the church, the same with the Sabeans here; see Psalm 72:10, who are said to be "men of stature"; that is, of a large and tall stature, as the men of Seba are said to be by otherF23As by Agatharcides, l. 5. c. 50. in Gataker. authors; or, "men of measure"F24אנשי מדה "viri mensurae", Vatablus, Cocceius, Pagninus, Montanus; i.e. of a large measure, as Ben Melech interprets it ανδρες υψηλοι, Sept. "viri sublimes", V. L. . The Targum renders it, "men of merchandise"; who used measures in trade and business: "and they shall be thine": give up themselves to the church, become members of it, and submit to its rule and discipline:

they shall come after thee; follow the church and its pastors, as they have them, for examples. The Targum is,

"they shall walk after thy word;'

be directed, guided, and governed by the church:

in chains they shall come over; being subdued and conquered by the grace of God, shall come in the chains of efficacious grace, drawn with the cords of love, and bands of a man; and yet shall come willingly, being made willing in the day of the power of divine grace upon their souls:

and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee; this is not to be understood of religious worship and invocation, such as is made to God, who only is the object of adoration and prayer in that sense; but is only expressive of their profound veneration and respect for the church of God, beseeching that it would receive them into, though unworthy of, its communion; see Isaiah 49:23,

saying, surely God is in thee, and there is none else, there is no god; induced thus to come to the church, and show all this respect unto her, from this consideration, that God is in the midst of her, of a truth, her name being "Jehovah Shammah", the Lord is there; here he grants his presence, here his word is preached, and ordinances administered; and hither converts flock, in hope of enjoying the same blessing also, being fully satisfied there is no other God but in Zion, Zechariah 8:23, Ezekiel 48:35. This passage of Scripture is thus explained in the Jewish ChroniclesF25Seder Olam Rabba, c. 23. p. 64, 65. : "the labour of Egypt", that is, Pharaoh king of Egypt: "and the merchandise of Ethiopia", that is, Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia: "and the Sabeans, men of stature", these are their armies:

they shall come over to thee, this is Jerusalem:

they shall be thine, peace being now made with thee:

they shall come after thee, that is, Hezekiah:

in chains they shall come over, in chains and bracelets:

they shall bow down to thee, and make supplication to thee, they shall give praise to God in the midst of thee, and say,

surely God is in thee.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/isaiah-45.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Thus saith the LORD, The labour r of Egypt, and merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over to thee, and they shall be s thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down to thee, they shall make supplication to thee, [saying], Surely God [is] in thee; and [there is] none else, [there is] no God.

(r) These people were tributaries to the Persians, and so king Artahshashte gave this money toward the building of the temple, (Ezra 7:27).

(s) While they were your enemies, they will now honour you and you will rule them: which was accomplished in the time of Christ.


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/isaiah-45.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

The language but cursorily alludes to Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba, being given to Cyrus as a ransom in lieu of Israel whom he restored (Isaiah 43:3), but mainly and fully describes the gathering in of the Gentiles to Israel (Acts 2:10, Acts 2:11; Acts 8:27-38), especially at Israel‘s future restoration (Isaiah 2:2; Isaiah 14:1, Isaiah 14:2; Isaiah 19:18-22; Isaiah 60:3-14; Isaiah 49:23; Psalm 68:31; Psalm 72:10, Psalm 72:11).

labour — wealth acquired by labor (Jeremiah 3:24).

Sabeans … of stature — the men of Meroe, in Upper Egypt. Herodotus (3.30) calls the Ethiopians “the tallest of men” (see on Isaiah 18:2; see on 1 Chronicles 11:23).

thee — Jerusalem (“my city,” Isaiah 45:13).

in chains — (Psalm 149:8). “The saints shall judge the world” (1 Corinthians 6:2) and “rule the nations with a rod of iron” (Zechariah 14:12-19; Revelation 2:26, Revelation 2:27). The “chains,” in the case of the obedient, shall be the easy yoke of Messiah; as “the sword of the Spirit” also is saving to the believer, condemnatory to the unbeliever (John 12:48; Hebrews 4:12; Revelation 19:15).

God is in thee — (Jeremiah 3:19).


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/isaiah-45.html. 1871-8.

Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament

The second half is uttered in the prospect, that the judgment which Cyrus brings upon the nations will prepare the way for the overthrow of heathenism, and the universal acknowledgment of the God of Israel. The heathen submit, as the first strophe or group of vv. (Isaiah 45:14-17) affirms, to the congregation and its God; the idolatrous are converted, whilst Israel is for ever redeemed. With the prospect of the release of the exiles, there is associated in the prophet's perspective the prospect of an expansion of the restored church, through the entrance of “the fulness of the Gentiles.” “Thus saith Jehovah, The productions of Egypt, and gain of Ethiopia, and the Sabaeans, men of tall stature, will come over to thee, and belong to thee: they will come after thee; in chains they will come over, and cast themselves down to thee; they pray to thee, Surely God is in thee, and there is none else; no Deity at all.” Assuming that יעברוּ has the same meaning in both cases, the prophet's meaning appears to be, that the Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Meroites (see Isaiah 43:3), who had been enslaved by the imperial power of Persia, would enter the miraculously emancipated congregation of Israel (Ewald). But if they were thought of as in a state of subjugation to the imperial power of Asia, who could the promise be at the same time held out that their riches would pass over into the possession of the church? And yet, on the other hand, the chains in which they come over cannot be regarded, at least in this connection, where such emphasis is laid upon the voluntary character of the surrender, as placed upon them by Israel itself (as in Isaiah 60:11 and Psalms 149:8). We must therefore suppose that they put chains upon themselves voluntarily, and of their own accord, and thus offer themselves spontaneously to the church, to be henceforth its subjects and slaves. Egypt, Ethiopia, and Saba are the nations that we meet with in other passages, where the haereditas gentium is promised to the church, and generally in connection with Tyre (vid., Psalms 68:32; Psalms 72:10; compare Isaiah 18:7; Isaiah 19:16., Isaiah 23:18). Whilst the labour of Egypt (i.e., the productions of its labour) and the trade of Ethiopia (i.e., the riches acquired by trade) are mentioned; in the case of Saba the prophecy looks at the tall and handsome tribe itself, a tribe which Agatharchides describes as having σώματα ἀξιολογώτερα . These would place themselves at the service of the church with their invincible strength. The voluntary character of the surrender is pointed out, not only in the expression “they will come over,” but also in the confession with which this is accompanied. In other cases the words hithpallēl 'el are only used of prayer to God and idols; but here it is to the church that prayer is offered. In the prophet's view, Jehovah and His church are inseparably one (compare 1 Corinthians 12:12, where “Christ” stands for the church as one body, consisting of both head and members; also the use of the word “worship” in Revelation 3:9, which has all the ring of a passage taken from Isaiah). א ך is used here in its primary affirmative sense, as in Psalms 58:11. There can be no doubt that Paul had this passage of Isaiah in his mind when writing 1 Corinthians 14:24-25, ἀπαγγέλλων ὅτι ὁ Θεὸς ὄντως ἐν ὑμῖν ἐστί , or, according to a better arrangement of the words, ὅτι ὄντως (= א ך ) ὁ Θεὸς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐστίν . 'Ephes does not signify praeter (as a synonym of בּלעדי , זוּלתי ) either here or anywhere else, but is a substantive used with a verbal force, which stands in the same relation to אין as “there is not at all (absolutely not)” to “there is not;” compare Isaiah 5:8; Isaiah 45:6; Isaiah 46:9, also Deuteronomy 32:36 (derivative passage, 2 Kings 14:26), and Amos 6:10; 2 Samuel 9:3; vid., Isaiah 47:8.


Copyright Statement
The Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament is a derivative of a public domain electronic edition.

Bibliography
Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/kdo/isaiah-45.html. 1854-1889.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Thus saith the LORD, The labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God.

The labour — The wealth gotten by their labour.

Thee — Jerusalem shall not only be rebuilt, but the wealth and glory of other countries shall be brought to it again. This was in part verified in Jerusalem; but it was much more fully accomplished in the church of the gospel, in the accession of the Gentiles to that church which began in Jerusalem, and from thence spread itself into all the parts of the world.

Come over — They shall be taken captive by thee, and willingly submit themselves to thee.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/isaiah-45.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

14.Thus saith Jehovah. He still speaks of the restoration which was afterwards effected under the conduct of Cyrus; but we must keep in remembrance what we formerly remarked, that those promises must be extended farther; for it includes the whole time which followed, down to the coming of Christ. Whoever shall duly consider and weigh this Prophet’s ordinary style will find in his words nothing extravagant, and will not look upon his language as exaggerated.

The labor of Egypt, the merchandise of Ethiopia. The Prophet alludes to the expenses which Cyrus contributed for building and adorning the temple. (Ezra 6:8) At that time was fulfilled what he says, that “the labor of Egypt” and “the merchandise of Ethiopia” came to the Jews; for “Egypt and Ethiopia” were tributaries and subjects of the king of Persia. From those tributes the temple of Jerusalem was rebuilt. But as that restoration was only the prelude to that which was accomplished by Christ, so likewise the homage which foreign nations rendered to the people of God was only the beginning of that homage which various nations rendered to the Church of God, after Christ had been revealed to the world.

Now, under the name of “Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Sabeans,” who flourished at that time, he includes also the rest of the nations. It is as if he had said, “You are now oppressed by the tyranny of foreign nations, but the time shall one day come when they shall be subject to you.” This was not immediately fulfilled, but only at the time when Christ, by his coming, subdued their flinty and hitherto untameable hearts, so that they mildly submitted to the yoke that was laid upon them. But the Lord redeemed his people from Babylon, in order that he might preserve some Church till the coming of Christ, to whose authority all nations should be subject; and therefore we need not wonder, if the Prophet, when speaking of the return of the people, directs his discourse at the same time to God’s end and design, and makes it to be one redemption.

In chains they shall pass over. When he says that the Israelites shall be victorious over all the nations, this depends on the mutual relation between the Head and the members. Because the Only-begotten Son of God unites to himself those who believe in him, so that they are one with him, it frequently happens that what belongs to him is attributed to

“the Church, which is his body and fullness.”
(
Ephesians 1:23.)

In this sense also government is ascribed to the Church, not so as to obscure by haughty rule the glory of her Head, or even to claim the authority which belongs to him, or, in a word, so as to have anything separate from her Head; but because the preaching of the gospel, which is committed to her, is the spiritual scepter of Christ, by which he displays his power. In this respect no man can bow down submissively before Christ, without also obeying the Church, so far as the obedience of faith is joined to the ministry of doctrine, yet so that Christ their Head alone reigns, and alone exercises his authority.

Surely (202) God is in thee. He relates what will be said by those who shall make respectful entrearies to the Church. They will acknowledge that “God is in her.” Some translate אך (ach) only, which I do not object to, and even acknowledge to be well adapted to express the Prophet’s meaning; yet it will not be inappropriate to explain it affirmatively, Surely God is in thee

And there is none besides God. (203) He explains the manner in which foreign nations shall be subject to the Jews; that is, by acknowledging that there is no other God than He whom the Jews worshipped. If it be objected, that this has nothing to do with the Jews, who are now alienated from the Church, I reply, The gospel nevertheless proceeded from them, and was diffused throughout the whole world; and thus we acknowledge Jerusalem to be the fountain from which pure doctrine flowed. (Psalms 76:2; Luke 24:47.) In ancient times there undoubtedly were none but the Jews who understood who is God, and what is the proper manner of worshipping him; the rest were devoted to trifles and delusions, and worshipped their own inventions. Hence also Christ, addressing the Samaritan woman, says, “We know what we worship.” (John 4:22.) Justly, therefore, is it here said, “God is in thee,” because other nations were ignorant of God. Yet as there is an implied contrast, I cheerfully admit the adverb only, so as to be a testimony of the repentance of the Gentiles, when they are satisfied with the one God and forsake their idols.

The meaning may be thus summed up, “They who formerly were haughty, and with lofty brow despised the Church, shall submit to her, when it shall be known that she is the sanctuary of the true God,” for, as we have said, when God extols his Church, he does not relinquish his own authority. And this is a Sign of true conversion, that we do not worship a God whom we have imagined, but him who is acknowledged in the Church. We ought also to observe this encomium pronounced on the Church, “God is in thee;” for, as we formerly quoted, “God is in the midst of her,” because he hath chosen her to be his habitation. (Psalms 46:5.) If we are the people of God, and are subject to his doctrine which bringeth salvation, it follows that he will assist, us; because he does not wish to forsake his people; for this promise is perpetual, and ought not to be viewed as referring solely to that time.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/isaiah-45.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Isaiah 45:14 Thus saith the LORD, The labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, [saying], Surely God [is] in thee; and [there is] none else, [there is] no God.

Ver. 14. Thus saith the Lord, The labour of Egypt.] Here he turneth his speech to Cyrus, promising him that he should be no loser by his generous carriage toward the poor people of God, his captives, whom he freely dismissed without ransom. [Isaiah 45:13] God’s retributions are more than bountiful.

Men of stature.] (a) The Arabians are reported to have been goodly personable men by Agatharchides, (b) an ancient writer, from whom Plutarch and Pliny borrowed much.

They shall come over unto thee.] Commodissime dicemus promissionem hanc referendum ad tempus revelati Evangelii. This was fulfilled chiefly when the gospel was preached, and nations thereby converted. (c) See Psalms 45:8; Psalms 149:6-8. The bonds of the Holy Spirit are stronger than adamant, salth Ambrose.

Surely God is in thee.] Or, With thee; and hence thou, O Cyrus, so prevailest and prosperest. Thus these conquered kings shall supplicate and say to Cyrus.

And there is none else, there is no God.] Hence Mohammedans seem to have taken that which, out of their Alchoran, they daily proclaim in their mosques or meeting houses, "There is no god but God, and Mohammed his counsellor." Thus those kings; but what saith the prophet?


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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/isaiah-45.html. 1865-1868.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

As the former verse contains the proclamation of Jehovah concerning the person and work of his dear Son, God-man Mediator; so in this, he as graciously proclaims the blessed consequences of his offices and labours. And we have lived to see in part, and to partake also in the blessings of this grace, when, as Gentiles, we have been brought by sovereign grace to call Jesus our Lord. And the hour is hastening, when the kingdoms of the world shall become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever. Revelation 11:15; Malachi 1:11; Psalms 72:1-20 etc.


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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/isaiah-45.html. 1828.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Isaiah 45:14. Thus saith the Lord, &c.— This illustrious prophesy contains an apostrophe to Jerusalem, or to the company of returning exiles, and without all doubt relates some joyful consequence of the deliverance foretold; which consequence immediately respects religion; and the meaning of the sentence is, that it should come to pass, that in time, after the return from Babylon, proselytes of various nations, and among these particularly Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Sabeans, should be joined to the Jewish church, and be convinced by the reasons demonstrating the truth of the Jewish religion. They should come, suppliant and adoring God, to Jerusalem, and, confessing their faith, humbly entreat to be admitted into the communion of that church. Which accession of proselytes from these and other nations should be fulfilled under the oeconomy of Gospel grace, when not only individuals, but whole nations, chained and bound, that is, bound in the spirit (Acts 20:22.), should submissively receive the doctrine of this holy religion. The prophet, in chap. Isaiah 14:1-2 speaks of the proselytes to religion in terms which fully explain the phrase, In chains they shall come over. See 1 Corinthians 14:24-25 and Vitringa.


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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/isaiah-45.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The labour of Egypt; the wealth gotten by their labour. Men of stature; a tall and strong people, who yet shall use their strength not to oppose thee, but to serve thee, and to bring their labour to thee.

Shall come over unto thee; either,

1. To thee, O Cyrus: because thou wast so generous as to dismiss my people freely, I will give thee another and a better recompence, even the labour of Egypt, &c. Or,

2. To thee, O my city, or my captivity or captive people. For it is not to be neglected, that there are no less than six pronouns in this verse, all which are of the feminine gender; which seems not to agree to Cyrus. It is true which is objected by the most learned author of this part of the English Annotations, that the Scripture oft speaks of states and kingdoms in the feminine gender; but when it speaks of any particular king or emperor, it constantly speaks of him in the masculine gender, as it doth of Cyrus in this very chapter, Isaiah 45:1, and elsewhere. And thus the sense of the place seems to be this, Jerusalem shall not only be rebuilt, but the wealth and glory of other countries shall be brought to it again, as it was in former times; which although it was in part verified in Jerusalem, yet it was much more fully accomplished in the church of the gospel, which is oft expressed in Scripture under the name of Jerusalem; and in the accession of the Gentiles to that church, which began in Jerusalem, and from thence spread itself into all the parts of the world. And this sense seems best to agree with the latter part of this and with the following verse, as we shall see.

In chains they shall come over; they shall be taken captive by thee, and willingly submit themselves to thee; which was accomplished in the conversion of the Gentiles, whose subjection to God’s church is oft expressed in Scripture under such metaphors as this; as Psalms 45:5 149:8, &c.; Psalms 68:18, compared with Ephesians 4:8.

They shall make supplication, unto thee; to obtain thy favour and society.

Surely God is in thee, or, with thee. We plainly discern that God is on thy side, or in the midst of thee; and therefore we desire to join ourselves with thee.

There is none else, there is no God; we are now convinced that thou art the only true God, and that idols are vain and empty nothings; which was but very obscurely fulfilled in Cyrus’s time, but was most evidently and eminently accomplished in the days of the Messiah, of whom Cyrus was a type; as also this deliverance of the Jews from Babylon by Cyrus was a type of the redemption of God’s people by Christ.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/isaiah-45.html. 1685.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Yahweh affirmed (cf. Isaiah 45:1) that because of what He would do in redeeming Israel from Babylonian captivity, Gentiles from the ends of the earth would submit to Israel, having learned of Israel"s great God (cf. Isaiah 43:3). The Sabeans probably lived in Upper Egypt between Egypt and Sudan. [Note: See Young, 3:207.] Perhaps one evidence of this happening was the Ethiopian eunuch"s reverence for Yahweh (cf. Acts 8:26-40). No matter how remote, wealthy, or regal they may be, Gentiles will voluntarily acknowledge Yahweh"s deity (cf. 1 Corinthians 14:24-25). One writer argued for the historic evangelical doctrine of exclusivism in salvation, and used it to argue against religious inclusivism (pluralism). He commented on many verses in Isaiah that support this belief. [Note: Wayne G. Strickland, " Isaiah ,, Jonah , and Religious Pluralism," Bibliotheca Sacra153:609 (January-March1996):31-32.]


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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/isaiah-45.html. 2012.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Isaiah 45:14. Thus saith the Lord, &c. — Here the prophet turns to Jerusalem, or to the company of returning exiles, and relates some joyful consequence of the deliverance foretold, which probably chiefly respects the future admission of the Gentiles into the church of God. The labour of Egypt — The wealth gotten by their labour; and merchandise of Ethiopia — The gains of their merchandise; and of the Sabeans, men of stature — A tall and strong people; shall come over unto thee — O my city, or church. The sense is, Jerusalem shall not only be rebuilt, but the wealth and glory of other countries shall be brought to it again, as in former times. “The words,” says Lowth, “may be supposed, in some degree, verified in Cyrus’s devoting the tribute coming out of those rich provinces of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba, to the building and service of the temple.” To which may be added, that some of the succeeding Persian monarchs settled revenues upon the temple for the offering of sacrifices for themselves and their families, Ezra 6:10. And the same was done, in after times, by Alexander the Great, and several of the Syrian and Egyptian kings, 2 Maccabees 3:2-3; 2 Maccabees 5:16.” But “the place is principally meant of the flourishing state of the church, (often described under the figure of a city,) when the Gentile world should come into it, bring in their riches to the support of it, and submit themselves to its government, as being the only seat and temple of truth.” In chains they shall come over — Subdued by the rod of the Messiah’s strength, (Psalms 110:2,) the power of his word, and led captive thereby: they shall confess themselves to be conquered, and shall willingly submit themselves to thee. The subjection of the Gentiles to God’s church is often expressed in Scripture by such metaphors as this; as Psalms 45:5; and Psalms 149:8; and Psalms 68:18, compared with Ephesians 4:8. They shall make supplication unto thee — To obtain thy favour and society; saying, Surely God is in thee — Or, with thee. We plainly discern that God is on thy side, or in the midst of thee; and therefore we desire to join ourselves with thee; and there is none else — We are now convinced that Jehovah, thy God, is the only true God, and that idols are vain and empty nothings.


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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/isaiah-45.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Stature: the people of Saba were the tallest and best proportioned in Arabia. (Agathar. v. 50.) --- Cyrus possessed all these countries. He sent the Egyptians home in the third year of his reign, at Babylon, the year of the world 3470, Ezechiel xxix. 11. They never became subject to the Jews; but embraced the religion of Christ, acknowledging him for God, ver. 15. (Calmet) --- Besides thee. Protestants, "Surely God is in thee, and there is none else, there is no God." Those whom we have hitherto adored, deserved not the name. Vulgate and Septuagint make the people address Christ, the God-man. (Haydock)


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/isaiah-45.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

labour. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for that which is produced by it.

men. Hebrew, plural of enosh. App-14.

shall come over. Some codices, with five early printed editions (one Rabbinic, in margin), Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and they shall", &c.

GOD. Hebrew El. App-4.


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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/isaiah-45.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Thus saith the LORD, The labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God.

The labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans ... shall come over unto thee. The language literally and primarily alludes to Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba being given to Cyrus as a ransom in lieu of Israel, whom he restored (Isaiah 43:3), but mainly and fully describes the gathering in of the Gentiles to Israel (Acts 2:10-11; Acts 8:27-38), especially at Israel's future restoration (Isaiah 2:2; Isaiah 14:1-2; Isaiah 19:18-22; Isaiah 60:3-14; Isaiah 49:23; Psalms 68:31; Psalms 72:10-11).

Labour - wealth acquired by labour (Jeremiah 3:24).

Sabeans, men of stature - the men of Meroe, in Upper Egypt. Herodotus (3: 20) calls the Ethiopians 'the tallest of men' (note, Isaiah 18:2; 1 Chronicles 11:23).

Thee - Jerusalem, ("my city," Isaiah 45:13).

In chains - (Psalms 149:8; Zechariah 14:12-19; "the saints shall judge the world," 1 Corinthians 6:2; and 'rule the nations with a rod of iron,' Revelation 2:26-27). The "chains," in the case of the obedient, shall be the easy yoke of Messiah; as "the sword of the Spirit" also is saving to the believer, condemnatory to the unbeliever (John 12:48; Hebrews 4:12; Revelation 19:15).

They shall make supplication unto thee (saying) Surely God (is) in thee (Jeremiah 3:17; Jeremiah 3:19) They shall make supplication unto thee, (saying), Surely God (is) in thee - (Jeremiah 3:17-19).


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/isaiah-45.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(14) Thus saith the Lord . . .—A new section opens. In Isaiah 43:3, Egypt, Ethiopia, Seba, had been given to Cyrus, as a reward, or ransom, for the deliverance of Israel. Here the prophet goes a step farther, and contemplates them as coming, in the spirit of a voluntary surrender, as proselytes to the faith of Israel, in self-imposed bondage, offering to Israel, as one with God, the “supplication” which, elsewhere, is offered to Jehovah. The promise reminds us of Psalms 68:31; Psalms 72:10, and yet more of Isaiah 19:23; Isaiah 9:5-7. A partial fulfilment may have been found in the command given by Cyrus, that these and other nations should assist in the work of rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 1:4). Egypt and Ethiopia send the products of their labour. The Sabæans (sc. the people of Meroe), strong, but not wealthy, come freely to offer their own labour.


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/isaiah-45.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Thus saith the LORD, The labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God.
The labour
18:7; 19:23-25; 23:18; 49:23; 60:5-16; 61:5,6; 66:19,20; Psalms 68:30,31; Psalms 72:10-15; Zechariah 8:22,23
the Sabeans
That the Sabeans were of a most majestic appearance is particularly remarked by Agatharchides, an ancient Greek historian quoted by Bochart.
Job 1:15; Ezekiel 23:42; Joel 3:8
men of stature
10:33; Numbers 13:32; 2 Samuel 21:20; Ezekiel 31:3
in chains
14:2; 49:23; Psalms 149:6,8
they shall fall
60:14; 61:5,9; Exodus 11:8; Esther 8:17; Acts 10:25,26; Revelation 3:9
Surely
24; Jeremiah 16:19; Zechariah 8:20-23; 1 Corinthians 8:4-6; 14:25; 1 Thessalonians 1:9
and there
5,6; 44:8

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 45:14". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/isaiah-45.html.

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