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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Jeremiah 21:12

 

 

O house of David, thus says the LORD: "Administer justice every morning; And deliver the person who has been robbed from the power of his oppressor, That My wrath may not go forth like fire And burn with none to extinguish it, Because of the evil of their deeds.

Adam Clarke Commentary

Execute judgment in the morning - Probably the time for dispensing judgment was the morning, when the people were going to their work; but the words may mean, Do justice promptly, do not delay. Let justice be administered as soon as required.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/jeremiah-21.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Execute judgment - As the administration of justice was performed in old time in person, the weal of the people depended to a great degree upon the personal qualities of the king (see 2 Samuel 15:4). And as “the oppressor” was generally some powerful noble, it was especially the king‘s duty to see that the weaker members of the community were not wronged.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/jeremiah-21.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

Jeremiah 21:12

Execute Judgment ill the morning.

Justice must be prompt

“Execute judgment in the morning,” as David your progenitor and pattern did (Psalms 101:8). Be up and be at it bedtime, and make quick despatch of causes, that poor men may go home about their business, who have other things to do besides going to law. It is a lamentable thing that a suit should depend ten or twenty years in some courts through the avarice of some pleaders, to the utter undoing of their poor clients. This made one such (when he was persuaded to patience by the example of Job) to reply, “What do you tell me of Job? Job never had suits in chancery.” Jethro adviseth Moses (Exodus 18:1-27) to dismiss those timely, whom he cannot despatch presently. (John Trapp.)
.


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Bibliography
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Jeremiah 21:12". The Biblical Illustrator. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/jeremiah-21.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

O house of David, thus saith the Lord,.... This appellation is made use of to put them in mind of their descent, and to observe to them how much it became them to follow the example of so illustrious an ancestor, from whom they had the honour to descend; by doing judgment and justice as he did, 2 Samuel 8:15; or, otherwise, their being his seed would not secure them from ruin and destruction:

execute judgment in the morning; be at it early, and dispatch it speedily; show a hearty regard for it; prefer it to eating and drinking; and do not delay it to the prejudice of persons concerned. The power of judgment with the Jews belonged to the king; he was supreme judge in their courts; they judged, and were judged, the Jews sayF17T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 19. 1. ; by whom judgment was executed in a morning, and not in any other part of the day; and the case judged ought, as they say, to be as clear as the morningF18Ib. fol. 7. 2. :

and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor; that had anything taken from him by force or fraud; that was either robbed or cheated of his substance; or was refused what he had lent to or entrusted another with; or was by any ways and means wronged and injured by another in his person or property. This suggests that things of this kind were not done, and were the reason why the Lord would deliver them up into the hands of their enemies, or cause his judgments to fall upon them:

lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it; or put a stop to it, by all their prayers and entreaties, or by all that they can say or do:

because of the evil of your doings; it is a sad thing when princes set bad examples; it is highly provoking to God, whose deputies they are; and it becomes them to begin a reformation, and lead it on, or they cannot expect safety for themselves and their people.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/jeremiah-21.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

O house of David, thus saith the LORD; Execute judgment f in the morning, and deliver [him that is] made desolate out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench [it], because of the evil of your doings.

(f) Be diligent to do justice.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/jeremiah-21.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

house of David — the royal family and all in office about the king. He calls them so, because it was the greater disgrace that they had so degenerated from the piety of their forefather, David; and to repress their glorying in their descent from him, as if they were therefore inviolable; but God will not spare them as apostates.

in the morning — alluding to the time of dispensing justice (Job 24:17; Psalm 101:8); but the sense is mainly proverbial, for “with promptness” (Psalm 90:14; Psalm 143:8). Maurer translates, “every morning.”

lest my fury … like fire — Already it was kindled, and the decree of God gone forth against the city (Jeremiah 21:4, Jeremiah 21:5), but the king and his house may yet be preserved by repentance and reformation. God urges to righteousness, not as if they can thereby escape punishment wholly, but as the condition of a mitigation of it.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/jeremiah-21.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

O house of David, thus saith the LORD; Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.

Execute judgment — That is, justice, without partiality, and do it quickly.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/jeremiah-21.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Thus saith Jehovah, he adds, Judege ye judgment There was no doubt a great liberty taken by the king and his courtiers in committing plunder, for the Prophet would not have here recommended justice to them had they not wholly neglected what was just and right. As, then, there was no care to administer justice, the Prophet bade them to recognize what was due to God and to his people. But it was a most grievous trial to all the godly to see that the sacred house, in which the living image of God ought to have shone forth brightly, was become a house of spoils, where robbers dwelt, who with impunity plundered all around them. When, therefore, the state of things is in such a disorder that the very judges, whom God has set over his Church, are like robbers, let us know that such a thing happened formerly; nor is there a doubt but that God thus took vengeance on the impiety and wickedness of the people, for he would have never suffered that house to be so contaminated and so filled with so many crimes, had not the people been unworthy of a good and faithful king and of upright counsellors. Let us, then, know that the Prophet exhorted the king and his counsellors to execute justice, because they had forgotten their office, and were become like rapacious wolves. (27)

He specifies one act, Free ye the spoiled from the hand of his oppressor Some read, “from the hand of the fraudulent,” as though עשק, oshek, should mean to oppress by calumny and malice, or by fraudulent means; but it is to be taken otherwise here. Some distinguish between the two words עשק, oshek, and גזל, gesal, and say that the first means to retain a deposit or wages, or anything that belongs to another, and that the latter signifies to take a thing by force, to plunder. But this difference, as it appears, is not observed by the Prophet, for he says, “Free ye the plundered or the spoiled.” From whose hand? from “the hand of the oppressor.” As, then, these two words correspond, I doubt not but that גזל, gesal, means both to take by force and to plunder; and that though עשק, oshek, means often fraudulently to oppress, yet not always. However this may be, God intimates that neither the king nor his counsellors had any care for the poor, so as to repress violence, and robbery, and plunder. Then the very judges themselves were the associates of robbers, for they allowed them with impunity to rob and plunder without affording any aid to helpless men when they were thus wickedly harassed. There is, however, no doubt but that God would have them to perform their duties towards all, both rich and poor, without exception; but as injustice in this particular was especially seen, this is the reason why by stating a part for the whole he specified only one thing. (28)

He then adds, Lest my indignation go forth like fire, and burn, and there be none to extinguish it Here the Prophet intimates, that except the king and his courtiers repented, it was all over with them. There is then a contrast to be understood here between that paternal correction of which he had spoken, and the destruction of which the Prophet now speaks. God’s indignation had been already kindled, nor could it be immediately extinguished; and though they had to suffer, yet the issue would have been happy and according to their wishes: but he here declares that there would be an irreconcilable war with God, except they labored to return to his favor. He adds, On account of the wickedness of their doings There is here a change of person, except we read כם, cam, “you;” but this sort of change often occurs in Scripture. The Prophet, after having addressed them, says now, “on account of the wickedness of their doings,” as though having finished his discourse, he spoke of them as being absent, or as though God, after having given orders to his Prophet, then added, “I denounce this on them, because they have so deserved.”


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/jeremiah-21.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Jeremiah 21:12 O house of David, thus saith the LORD Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver [him that is] spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench [it], because of the evil of your doings.

Ver. 12. O house of David.] But much degenerated from the piety of David. So Micah 2:7, "O thou that art named the house of Jacob - are these his doings," &c. {See Trapp on "Micah 2:7"} To be a degenerate plant of so noble a vine is no small discommendation.

Thus saith the Lord.] After that the court had sent to him, he is sent to the court with these instructions.

Execute justice in the morning.] As David your progenitor and pattern did. [Psalms 101:8] Be up and at it early, and make quick despatch of causes that poor men may go home about their businesses who have other things to do besides going to law. It is a lamentable thing that a suit should depend ten or twenty years in some courts, Quo saturentur avarissimi rabulae, omnia bona pauperum exugentes, (a) through the avarice of some pleaders, to the utter undoing of their poor clients. This made one such (when he was persuaded to patience by the example of Job) to reply, What do ye tell me of Job? Job never had any suits in chancery. Jethro adviseth Moses [Exodus 18:14-23] to dismiss those timely, (b) whom he cannot despatch presently.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/jeremiah-21.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

He calls these the

house of David, either checking them, who were indeed so in a lineal descent, or minding them what they ought to be in imitation of their father, David. The only way they had to keep off those Divine judgments which now hanged over their heads was to

execute judgment, that is, justice, without partiality; the prophet’s advice to them

to execute judgment in the morning either lets them know they must do it quickly, or else it hath respect to the time when the courts of justice sat. One species of justice was the deliverance of the oppressed from the hands, that is, from the power and malice, of the oppressors; which if it were not done, God threateneth certain ruin and destruction to them, which none should be able to hinder or avoid. The cause of which was, their wicked doings; for that God who doth people good, and showeth them favour, not for their sake, but for his own name’s sake, yet never punisheth them but for a cause found in them.


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/jeremiah-21.html. 1685.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

house of David. Occurs only here in Jeremiah.

in the morning = betimes.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

your. Some codices, with seven early printed editions, read "their".


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/jeremiah-21.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

O house of David, thus saith the LORD Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.

O house of David - the royal family, and all in office about the king. He calls them so, because it was the greater disgrace that they had so degenerated from the piety of their forefather David: and to repress their glorying in their descent from him, as if they were therefore inviolable; but God will not spare them as apostates.

Execute judgment in the morning - alluding to line of dispensing justice (Job 24:17; Psalms 101:8); but the sense is mainly proverbial for 'with promptness' (Psalms 90:14; Psalms 143:8). Maurer translates, 'every morning.' Lest my fury go out like fire - already it was kindled, and the decree of God gone forth against the city (Jeremiah 21:4-5); but the king and his house may yet be preserved by repentance and reformation. God urges to righteousness, not as if they can thereby escape punishment wholly, but as the condition of a mitigation of it.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/jeremiah-21.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(12) Execute judgment in the morning.—The words point to one of the chief duties of the ideal Eastern king. To rise at dawn of day, to sit in the gate and listen to the complaints of those who had been wronged, was the surest way to gain the affection of his people. It was David’s neglect of this that gave an opening for the rebellion of Absalom (2 Samuel 15:2). Solomon’s early fame for wisdom rested on his discharge of this duty (1 Kings 3:28). If the king remained slothfully in his palace in those golden hours of morning, the noon-tide heat made it impossible for him to retrieve the lost opportunity. (Comp. 2 Samuel 4:5.) Still worse was it when, as with luxurious and sensual kings, the morning hours were given to revelry and feasting (Ecclesiastes 10:16-17).


Copyright Statement
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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/jeremiah-21.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

O house of David, thus saith the LORD; Execute judgment in the morning, and deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.
house
Isaiah 7:2,13; Luke 1:69
Execute
Heb. Judge.
5:28; 22:2,3,15-17; 23:5; 2 Samuel 8:15; Psalms 72:1-4,12-14; 82:2-4; Isaiah 1:17; 16:3-5; 31:1,2; Zechariah 7:9-11
morning
Exodus 18:13; Psalms 101:8; Ecclesiastes 10:16,17; Zephaniah 3:5
deliver
Job 29:17; Psalms 82:4; Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9; Isaiah 1:17; Luke 18:3-5; Romans 13:4
lest
5; 4:4; 5:14; 17:4; 23:19; 36:7; Leviticus 26:28; Deuteronomy 32:22; Lamentations 2:3,4; 4:11; Ezekiel 20:47,48; 22:18-22,31; 24:8-14; Nahum 1:6; Zephaniah 1:18
none
7:20; Isaiah 1:31; Mark 9:43-48

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Jeremiah 21:12". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/jeremiah-21.html.

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