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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Jeremiah 37:1

 

 

Now Zedekiah the son of Josiah whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had made king in the land of Judah, reigned as king in place of Coniah the son of Jehoiakim.

Adam Clarke Commentary

And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah - Of the siege and taking of Jerusalem referred to here, and the making of Zedekiah king instead of Jeconiah, see 2 Kings 24:1; (note), etc., and the notes there.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/jeremiah-37.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

It is evident that Zedekiah was well affected toward Jeremiah. In Jeremiah 3738, dealing with events during the siege of Jerusalem, we have an account of his relations with Jeremiah and of the prophet‘s personal history up to the capture of the city.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/jeremiah-37.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

JEREMIAH 37

JEREMIAH SCOURGED AND IMPRISONED

This chapter and the next, record events in the life of Jeremiah during the final days of the siege of Jerusalem in the closing period of the reign of Zedekiah (circa 589 B.C.), which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem and the deportation of many of its inhabitants to Babylon.

In fact, "From this chapter to Jeremiah 44 (inclusive), we have little else than an account of events relating to the personal history of Jeremiah."[1]

During this final siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, Zedekiah had evidently requested help from Pharaoh-Hophra who had come to the throne of Egypt that very year. He made a move as if to help Zedekiah and his Jerusalem defenders against the Babylonians, with the result that, for a short time only, Nebuchadnezzar lifted the siege and devoted his full attention to the forces of Pharaoh-Hophra. Some say that the Egyptian force was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar, and others suppose that Pharaoh-Hophra withdrew without a battle. Either way, the result was an unqualified disaster for Zedekiah and Jerusalem.

During that short interval, while the siege had been lifted, the events of this chapter occurred. We have already studied Jeremiah 34 which gives an account of the Jewish reaction to this temporary respite from the siege. They thought, "Hallelujah! The war is over"; and so they enslaved the servants whom they had just manumitted!

Jeremiah 37:1-2

"And Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned as king instead of Coniah the son of Jehoiachim, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon made king in the land of Judah. But neither he, nor his servants, nor the people of the land, did hearken unto the words of Jehovah, which he spake by the prophet Jeremiah."

This is a brief recapitulation of the history of the past eleven years. In the first capture of Jerusalem, the Babylonians had taken Coniah and carried him away to Babylon along with many other captives. Nebuchadnezzar placed Coniah's uncle Zedekiah on the throne as a sworn vassal of the king of Babylon. He reigned eleven years, and the events of this chapter were very near the end of that period. Zedekiah rebelled against Babylon, and Nebuchadnezzar returned for the final siege which is under way in this chapter.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/jeremiah-37.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And King Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned,.... The brother of Jehoiakim, whose untimely death, and want of burial, are prophesied of in the preceding chapter. The name of Zedekiah was Mattaniah before he was king; his name was changed by the king of Babylon, who made him king, 2 Kings 24:17;

instead of Coniah the son of Jehoiakim: the same with Jehoiakim, or jeconiah, called Coniah by way of contempt; he reigned but three months, and so was not reckoned as a king, not being confirmed by the king of Babylon, but was carried captive by him, and his uncle placed in his stead:

whom Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon made king in the land of Judah; to whom he became tributary, and swore homage and fealty, 2 Chronicles 36:13.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/jeremiah-37.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned instead of a Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon b made king in the land of Judah.

(a) Who was called Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah.

(b) And called him Zedekiah, while before his name was Mattaniah, (2 Kings 24:17).


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/jeremiah-37.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Jeremiah 37:1-21. Historical sections, thirty-seventh through forty-fourth chapters. The Chaldeans raise the siege to go and meet Pharaoh-Hophra. Zedekiah sends to Jeremiah to pray to god in behalf of the Jews: in vain, Jeremiah tries to escape to his native place, but is arrested. Zedekiah abates the rigor of his imprisonment.

Coniah — curtailed from Jeconiah by way of reproach.

whom — referring to Zedekiah, not to Coniah (2 Kings 24:17).


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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/jeremiah-37.html. 1871-8.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

The Prophet tells us here, that after Jeconiah the king had been led into exile, the Jews had not on that account repented, though God had as it were forced them to return to him; for it was so severe a chastisement, that to become worse was an evidence of monstrous stupidity. Jeremiah, however, says that they were not reformed by that punishment; for Zedekiah, who had succeeded Jeconiah, rejected sound doctrine, and did not obey the counsel of the Prophet.

But we must bear in mind the history of that time, that we may understand the meaning of the Prophet: the Jews made Jeconiah king in the place of his father, but in the third month the army of the king of Babylon came. Then Jeconiah surrendered himself to them of his own accord. Now the Prophet had said, that there would be no legitimate successor to Jehoiakim; and this was fulfilled, though his son was set on the throne, for a three months’ reign was so unimportant that it was deemed as nothing. And when Nebuchadnezzar saw that the people could hardly be kept in order without a king, he made Mattaniah king, whom he called Zedekiah. And he immediately revolted to the Egyptians and made a treaty with them, in order that he might shake off the yoke of the king of Babylon. Hence the Prophet says, that though Zedekiah had been taught by the example of Jehoiakim and of his nephew Jeconiah, he yet became nothing the better, he does not shnply blame his ingratitude: it is indeed certain that he had been severely reproved by the Prophet for having acted perfidiously towards the King Nebuchadnezzar, for he ought to have kept faith with him to the last. He feigned a reason of his own for revolting from him; no new cause had occurred; but it was only that he might be exempt from tribute, and also lest the malevolent should object to him that he reigned by permission, and that. he was the slave of another king. As, then, he saw that his reign would be exposed to many reproaches, except he revolted from the king of Babylon, he made a treaty with the Egyptians. This deserved reproof: but the Prophet speaks here generally of his obstinate wickedness, and also of that of the whole people.

King Zedekiah, he says, the son of Josiah, reigned instead of Coniah Here the word, Jeconiah, is curtailed, as it is probable, for the sake of degrading him; and we have seen that this has been the common opinion. He is then called Coniah by way of reproach, when yet his full name was Jeconiah. He says that Zedekiah was made king by Nebuchadnezzar: hence his perfidy and ingratitude became manifest. It is added, that he hearkened not to the word of Jehovah, nor his servants, nor his people I have said that Zedekiah was condemned, not simply because he obeyed not the Prophet by keeping faith with the King Nebuchadnezzar, but also because he retained the superstitions of his fathers, and corrupted the true worship of God, and would not be called back to the doctrine of the Law.

The disobedience then, mentioned here, extended to the whole Law of God, or to the two tables; for the Jews had then become degenerate together with their king; they did not purely worship God, but polluted themselves and the Temple by impious and filthy superstitious, and they were also libidinous, avaricious, cruel, violent, and dishonest, and had thus cast off the whole teaching of the Law. And this was a proof of strange blindness, as they had before their eyes the calamities of the city and the reproach to which their king had been subjected; for as we have already said, his sons had been slain in his presence, his own eyes had been pulled out, and he was bound with chains, after having been judged guilty of a capital offense. Such an example ought surely to have terrified Zedekiah and all the rest, so as to make thenl at length wise, and to seek reconciliation with God. But the Prophet says, that they did not hearken to the word of Jehovah

He mentions the king, then his counsellors, and in the third place, the whole people; as though he had said, that this madness was found not only in the king, but also in his counsellors and in the whole community, so that no one was excusable. He then begins with the head, even the king himself, and shews also that his counsellots were nothing better, and afterwards adds the common people, in whom the fault seems to have been less; for we know that the lower orders go astray through want of wisdom and ignorance. But the Prophet here shews that even the lowest of the people were disobedient to God.

We ought to notice especially the words, that they hearkened not to the word of Jehovah which he had spoken by Jeremiah For he intimates, that though God did not appear from heaven, it was sufficient to condemn the unbelieving, that he spoke by his Prophets. There was, then, no reason why the wicked should make evasions and say, that it was not their purpose to reject God and his doctrine, but that they only refused deference to mortals, and would not regard the words of men as heavenly oracles. This evasion availed them nothing, for God would have them to hearken to his servants. Though he did not shew himself from heaven, nor addressed them in a visible form, it was yet enough that he had once for all testified, that after the promulgation of the Law, there would always be Prophets among the people, and had commanded them to be reverently attended to. Nor could the Jews avail themselves of that evasion, which the ungodly commonly resorted to, that they could not distinguish between true and false Prophets; for if they had examined the doctrine of Jeremiah, they would have found that it had certain marks by which they could have easily seen that it was altogether consistent with the Law. That they then rejected the Prophet and his heavenly doctrine, was a proof of their obstinacy and contempt, but not through ignorance. It follows, —


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/jeremiah-37.html. 1840-57.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

The history of the siege by the Chaldeans, is related in part in this Chapter. At the report of Pharaoh's army, the siege is raised. Jeremiah going to the land of Benjamin, is smitten and cast into prison, but after many days is taken out. He still prophesieth evil to the land.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/jeremiah-37.html. 1828.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Jeremiah 37:1 And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned instead of Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, whom Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon made king in the land of Judah.

Ver. 1. And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah.] This also and the next chapter are, as the former, historical, and so easily understood, that to set long notes upon them were, saith one, (a) rather to obscure them than to explain them.


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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/jeremiah-37.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Jeremiah 37:1. Made king Zedekiah was but a tributary king, having taken an oath of homage to the king of Babylon. He was not so bad as many of his predecessors, though he was feeble, irresolute, and had but little credit and little religion.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/jeremiah-37.html. 1801-1803.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Jeremiah

ZEDEKIAH

Jeremiah 37:1.

Zedekiah was a small man on a great stage, a weakling set to face circumstances that would have taxed the strongest. He was a youth at his accession to the throne of a distracted kingdom, and if he had had any political insight he would have seen that his only chance was to adhere firmly to Babylon, and to repress the foolish aristocracy who hankered after alliance with the rival power of Egypt. He was mad enough to form an alliance with the latter, which was constructive rebellion against the former, and was strongly reprobated by Jeremiah. Swift vengeance followed; the country was ravaged, Zedekiah in his fright implored Jeremiah’s prayers and made faint efforts to follow his counsels. The pressure of invasion was lifted, and immediately he forgot his terrors and forsook the prophet. The Babylonian army was back next year, and the final investment of Jerusalem began. The siege lasted sixteen months, and during it, Zedekiah miserably vacillated between listening to the prophet’s counsels of surrender and the truculent nobles’ advice to resist to the last gasp. The miseries of the siege live for ever in the Book of Lamentations. Mothers boiled their children, nobles hunted on dunghills for food. Their delicate complexions were burned black, and famine turned them into living skeletons. Then, on a long summer day in July came the end. The king tried to skulk out by a covered way between the walls, his few attendants deserted him in his flight, he was caught at last down by the fords of the Jordan, carried prisoner to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah away up in the north beyond Baalbec, and there saw his sons slain before his eyes, and, as soon as he had seen that last sight, was blinded, fettered, and carried off to Babylon, where he died. His career teaches us lessons which I may now seek to bring out.

I. A weak character is sure to become a wicked one.

Moral weakness and inability to resist strong pressure was the keynote of Zedekiah’s character. There were good things in him; he had kindly impulses, as was shown in his emancipation of the slaves at a crisis of Jerusalem’s fate. Left to himself, he would at least have treated Jeremiah kindly, and did rescue him from lingering death in the foul dungeon to which the ruffian nobility had consigned him, and he provided for his being at least saved from dying of starvation during the siege. He listened to him secretly, and would have accepted his counsel if he had dared. But he yielded to the stronger wills of the nobles, though he sometimes bitterly resented their domination, and complained that ‘the king is not he that can do anything against you.’

Like most weak men, he found that temptations to do wrong abounded more than visible inducements to do right, and he was afraid to do right, and fancied that he was compelled by the force of circumstances to do wrong. So he drifted and drifted, and at last was smashed to fragments on the rocks, as all men are who do not keep a strong hand on the helm and a steady eye on the compass. The winds are good servants but bad masters. If we do not coerce circumstances to carry us on the course which conscience has pricked out on the chart, they will wreck us.

II. A man may have a good deal of religion and yet not enough to mould his life.

Zedekiah listened to the prophet by fits and starts. He was eager to have the benefit of the prophet’s prayers. He liberated the slaves in Jerusalem. He came secretly to Jeremiah more than once to know if there were any message from God for him. Yet he had not faith enough nor submission enough to let the known will of God rule his conduct, whatever the nobles might say.

Are there not many of us who have a belief in God and a general acquiescence in Christ’s precepts, who order our lives now and then by these, and yet have not come up to the point of full and final surrender? Alas, alas, for the multitudes who are ‘not far from the kingdom,’ but who never come near enough to be actually in it! To be not far from is to be out of, and to be out of is to be, like Zedekiah, blinded and captived and dead in prison at last.

III. God’s love is wonderfully patient.

Jeremiah was to Zedekiah the incarnation of God’s unwearied pleadings. During his whole reign, the prophet’s voice sounded in his ears, through all the clamours and cries of factions, and mingled at last with the shouts of the besiegers and the groans of the wounded, like the sustained note of some great organ, persisting through a babel of discordant noises. It was met with indifference, and it sounded on. It provoked angry antagonism and still it spoke. Violence was used to stifle it in vain. And it was not only Jeremiah’s courageous pertinacity that spoke through that persistent voice, but God’s unwearied love, which being rejected is not driven away, being neglected becomes more beseeching, ‘is not easily provoked ‘to cease its efforts, but ‘beareth all’ despite, and hopeth for softened hearts till the last moment before doom falls.

That patient love pleads with each of us as persistently as Jeremiah did with Zedekiah.

IV. The long-delayed judgment falls at last.

With infinite reluctance the divine love had to do what God Himself has called ‘His strange work.’ Divine Justice travels slowly, but arrives at last. Her foot is ‘leaden’ both in regard to its tardiness and its weight. There is no ground in the long postponement of retribution for the fond dream that it will never come, though men lull themselves to sleep with that lie. ‘Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is thoroughly set in them to do evil.’ But the sentence will be executed. The pleading love, which has for many returning autumns spared the barren tree and sought to make it fit to bear fruit, does not prevent the owner saying at last to his servant with the axe in his hand, ‘Now! thou shalt cut it down.’


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Bibliography
MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/jeremiah-37.html.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

JEREMIAH CHAPTER 37

The Egyptians raise the siege of the Chaldeans; and king Zedekiah sendeth to Jeremiah, to pray and inquire of the Lord for them, Jeremiah 37:1-5. He prophesieth the Chaldeans’ return and victory, Jeremiah 37:6-10. He is apprehended for a fugitive, beaten, and put into prison, Jeremiah 37:11-15. He assureth Zedekiah of the captivity; and, entreating for liberty, obtaineth some favour, Jeremiah 37:16-21.

The history of this succession we have 2 Kings 24:17 2 Chronicles 36:10. Zedekiah’s name was Mattaniah, the king of Babylon changed his name to Zedekiah. He reigned instead of Jehoiachin, the son of Jehoiakim, who reigned but three months, 2 Kings 24:8; his name was Jeconiah, 1 Chronicles 3:16, and, in a way of derision or contempt, is here called

Coniah. The king of Babylon made this Zedekiah king, who is here called the son of Josiah, and, 2 Kings 24:17, Jehoiachin’s father’s brother, to distinguish him from another Zedekiah, son of Jehoiakim, as appears from 1 Chronicles 3:16.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/jeremiah-37.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

JEREMIAH’S PERSONAL EXPERIENCES WITH THE KING, Jeremiah 37:1-10.

1. Coniah — Jeconiah.

Whom Nebuchadrezzar… made king — “Whom,” that is, Zedekiah.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/jeremiah-37.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Nebuchadnezzar, sovereign over Judah since Jehoiakim"s unsuccessful rebellion against him in598 B.C, set up Zedekiah, Jehoiakim"s brother, as Judah"s king in597 B.C. (cf. 2 Kings 24:17). Jehoiakim"s Song of Solomon , Jehoiachin (Coniah), had reigned for three months following his father"s deposition, but then Nebuchadnezzar deported him to Babylon ( 2 Kings 24:12). Jehoiachin was never the authorized king of Judah. Thus Jeremiah"s prophecy about Jehoiakim"s end had come to pass (cf. Jeremiah 36:30).


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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/jeremiah-37.html. 2012.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Sedecias. He was less impious than his two predecessors; but too weak to do good.


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/jeremiah-37.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Coniah: i.e. Jeconiah, called also Jehoiachin. whom: i.e. Zedekiah.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/jeremiah-37.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned instead of Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, whom Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon made king in the land of Judah.

Coniah - curtailed from Jeconiah by way of reproach.

Whom - referring to Zedekiah, not to Coniah (2 Kings 24:17).


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/jeremiah-37.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

XXXVII.

(1) And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah . . .—The eight chapters that follow form a continuous narrative of the later work and fortunes of the prophet. They open with recording the accession of Zedekiah, following on the deposition of Coniah or Jeconiah. Here, as in Jeremiah 22:24, we have the shortened form of the name of the latter. The relative pronoun “whom Nebuchadrezzar . . . made king” refers to Zedekiah.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/jeremiah-37.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And king Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned instead of Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, whom Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon made king in the land of Judah.
A. M. 3406-3416. B.C. 598-588. Zedekiah
2 Kings 24:17; 1 Chronicles 3:15; 2 Chronicles 36:10
Coniah
22:24,28; 24:1
Jeconiah
52:31; 2 Kings 24:12; 1 Chronicles 3:16; 2 Chronicles 36:9
Jehoiachin
made.
Ezekiel 17:12-21

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Jeremiah 37:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/jeremiah-37.html.

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