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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Jeremiah 46:1

 

 

That which came as the word of the LORD to Jeremiah the prophet concerning the nations.

Adam Clarke Commentary

The word of the Lord - against the Gentiles - This is a general title to the following collection of prophecies, written concerning different nations, which had less or more connection with the Jews, either as enemies, neighbors, or allies.

They were not written at the same time; and though some of them bear dates, yet it would be difficult to give them any chronological arrangement. Dahler's mode of ascertaining the times of their delivery may be seen in the table in the introduction.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/jeremiah-46.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Against the Gentiles - Or, concerning the nations Jeremiah 4649:33.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/jeremiah-46.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

Beginning here and through Jeremiah 51, we have a collection of Jeremiah's prophecies against various Gentile nations, "Arranged geographically, beginning with Egypt, and then moving to Philistia, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Syria, Elam, and Babylon."[1]

The Septuagint (LXX) has a different arrangement, but that cannot possibly raise any question about the arrangement here. The Septuagint (LXX) is notoriously undependable in many particulars, nor is the question of "which is the original?" a valid inquiry. Jeremiah wrote the prophecies here; and the arrangement of them was either that of Jeremiah himself, or that of his dependable secretary Baruch. The arbitrary, unscientific, and subjective changes found in the LXX, often cited in the works of Keil, require no particular attention.

Many critics debate the Jeremiahic authorship of these prophecies; but, "There is no substantive evidence"[2] whatever to support a denial of Jeremiah's authorship. As Keil expressed it, regarding some of the adverse arguments, "They can have weight only with those who a priori deny that the prophet could have made any prediction."[3] As we approach the end of the century, the death of the whole system of radical criticism of the Bible is inevitably approaching. As Thompson (writing in the eighth decade of this century) stated it, "Nineteenth and early twentieth century critical scholars were prepared to reject much of these final chapters of Jeremiah; but such a position is no longer possible." [4] Indeed it is not. This writer has encountered no argument whatever against the integrity and authenticity of this final section of Jeremiah that is worthy of any special attention whatever.

What went wrong with radical criticism? We do not question the sincerity of some of the critics, nor do we deny that they have, in certain instances, contributed to Biblical knowledge; but, in spite of this, the great corpus of radical criticism is totally worthless, not because of the critics' lack of skill in following their rules of criticism, but because the rules and axioms which they have adopted are not merely unscientific but absolutely false. We shall not discuss this here.

See pages 264-272 in Vol. 11 of the New Testament Series for a study of the false rules of New Testament critics; and to those mentioned there, we must add the a priori denial of radical critics that predictive prophecy is even a possibility. Such a rule announces the outcome before the study even starts! Who could allow a referee of a sports contest to announce the score before the game started?

Nevertheless, that is the stock in trade used by radical critics, allowing one of them to describe the prophecy of Micah that the Messiah, "whose goings forth are known from of old, even from everlasting" would be born in Bethlehem, eight centuries before it happened (Micah 5:2), as a reference, "To the time when David was being called to the kingship." (Note that a radical critic here applied this prophecy to an event that had already happened centuries earlier). See pp. 341-346, in Vol. 2, of the Minor Prophets Series for a full discussion of the critical rule regarding predictive prophecy, and for many specific reasons why it is impossible to believe such a rule.

The chapter division in this chapter are: (1) the two superscriptions (Jeremiah 46:1-2); (2) the advance of the magnificent Egyptian army (Jeremiah 46:3-4); (3) the route of that army (Jeremiah 46:5-12); (4) Babylon to punish Egypt (Jeremiah 46:13-17); (5) a leader like Tabor and Cannel (Jeremiah 46:18-19); (6) gliding away like a snake (Jeremiah 46:20-24); (7) No-Amon to be destroyed (Jeremiah 46:25-26); (8) prophecy for Israel (Jeremiah 46:27,28).

Jeremiah 46:1-2

"The word of Jehovah which came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning the nations. Of Egypt: concerning the army of Pharaoh-necho king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates in Carchemish, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon smote in the fourth year of the Jehoiachim the son of Josiah, king of Judah."

There are two superscriptions here, the first pertaining to the subsequent chapters through Jeremiah 51, and the second pertaining to Egypt. We should have expected these prophecies against the Gentile nations, because in God's call of Jeremiah, God placed him "over the nations" as the official prophet who would declare their fate (Jeremiah 1:10). Several of God's prophets pronounced doom against the nations, as did Isaiah, Amos, and others.

"By the river Euphrates in Carchemish ..." (Jeremiah 46:2). The battle fought here about 605 B.C.[5] was one of the decisive battles of history, for it spelled the end of Egyptian domination and heralded the arrival of Babylon as the new world power. It was fought at a strategic location several miles north of the Chebar's junction with the Euphrates. The word "Carchemish" means "Fort of Chemosh," the god of the Moabites (2 Kings 23:13).[6]

"In the fourth year of Jehoiachim ..." (Jeremiah 46:2). A number of very significant names and dates cluster around this event.

Jeremiah was contemporary with the five final kings of Judah, from Josiah to the ruin of the nation, and with Nebuchadnezzar the greatest monarch of the neo-Chaldean empire, and with these four kings of Egypt: Psammetik I (664-609B.C.), Pharaoh-necho II (609-594 B.C.), Psammetik II (694-588 B.C.), and Pharaoh-Hophra (588-568 B.C.).[7]

The king of Egypt in this battle of Carchemish was Pharaoh-necho who had killed Josiah at Megiddo in 609 B.C.; and, in a sense, the Jews would have considered this victory over Necho at Carchemish some four years later as a proper vengeance for the death of Josiah.

"The Babylonian Chronicle stated that Nebuchadnezzar marched against Egypt again in 601 B.C., with both sides suffering very heavy losses. This was probably the event that tempted Jehoiachim to revolt against Babylon (2 Kings 24:1)[8]


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/jeremiah-46.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

The word of the Lord which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles. Or "nations"; distinguished from the Jews; not all the nations of the world, but some hereafter mentioned, as the Egyptians, Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Syrians, Arabians, Persians, and Chaldeans: or "concerning the nations"F16על גוים "super gentes", Montanus; "de gentibus", Cocceius. ; the above mentioned; though the prophecies delivered out concerning them are all against them, and not in their favour. Mention is made of Jeremiah's prophesying against all the nations in Jeremiah 25:13; after which follow the several prophecies contained in the next chapters in the Septuagint and Arabic versions, as they stand in the Polyglot Bible.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/jeremiah-46.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the a Gentiles;

(a) That is, nine nations which are around the land of Egypt.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/jeremiah-46.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Jeremiah 46:1-28. The prophecies, forty-sixth through fifty-second chapters, refer to foreign peoples.

He begins with Egypt, being the country to which he had been removed. The forty-sixth chapter contains two prophecies concerning it: the discomfiture of Pharaoh-necho at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, and the long subsequent conquest of Egypt by the same king; also the preservation of the Jews (Jeremiah 46:27, Jeremiah 46:28).

General heading of the next six chapters of prophecies concerning the Gentiles; the prophecies are arranged according to nations, not by the dates.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/jeremiah-46.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles;

The word — This verse contains the title of all the ensuing discourses; for, tho' there be some verses in these chapters that relate to the Jews, yet they are all concerning their restoration. The prophecies of judgments from the beginning of this chapter to the fifty-second, are all against foreign nations, which are called Gentiles.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/jeremiah-46.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Jeremiah begins here to prophesy against foreign nations, and continues to do so to the last chapter but one, not that he then for the first time began to announce these oracles, but as I have already said, a volume was at length formed, including his prophecies, the order of time being not everywhere observed; for we see in the 25th chapter that he threatened heathen nations with the punishments they had deserved before Jehoiakim was made king. But as I have said, the prophecies respecting heathen nations have been separated, though as to time Jeremiah had predicted what afterwards happened.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/jeremiah-46.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

Gentiles

A near and a far fulfilment of these prophecies against Gentile powers are to be distinguished. In Chapter 46, the near vision is of a Babylonian invasion of Egypt, but verses Jeremiah 46:27; Jeremiah 46:28 look forward to the judgment of the nations. (See Scofield "Matthew 25:32"), after Armageddon Revelation 16:14, See Scofield "Revelation 19:17" and the deliverance of Israel ("Israel," Genesis 12:2; Genesis 12:3 See Scofield "Romans 11:26"). Jeremiah 50:4-7 also looks forward to the last days.


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Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Jeremiah 46:1". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/jeremiah-46.html. 1917.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

Egypt is here threatened, and Babylon is pointed to as her conqueror. In the close of the Chapter the Lord comforts his people.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/jeremiah-46.html. 1828.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Jeremiah 46:1 The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles;

Ver. 1. The word of the Lord which came to Jeremiah against the Gentiles.] God had at first set him over the nations and over the kingdoms - as a plenipotentiary - "to root out and to pull down, and to destroy and to throw down, to build and to plant." [Jeremiah 1:10] This power of his the prophet had put forth and exercised against his own nation of the Jews, whom he had doomed to destruction, and lived to see execution done accordtngly. Now he takes their enemies, the neighbour nations, to do, telling them individually what they shall trust to. And this indeed the prophet had done before in part, and in fewer words, under the type of a cup of wine to be divided among and drunk up by the nations, [Jeremiah 25:15-33] but here to the end of Jeremiah 51:1-64. more plainly and plentifully. Isaiah had done the same in effect (Isaiah 13:1-22; Isaiah 14:1-32; Isaiah 15:1-9; Isaiah 16:1-14; Isaiah 17:1-14; Isaiah 18:1-7; Isaiah 19:1-25; Isaiah 20:1-6; Isaiah 21:1-17; Isaiah 22:1-25; Isaiah 23:1-18; Isaiah 24:1-23), Ezekiel also, from Ezekiel 25:1-17; Ezekiel 26:1-21; Ezekiel 27:1-36; Ezekiel 28:1-26; Ezekiel 29:1-21; Ezekiel 30:1-26; Ezekiel 31:1-18; Ezekiel 32:1-32; Ezekiel 33:1-33, that by the mouth of three such witnesses every word might stand, and this burden of the nations might be confirmed. Jeremiah beginneth fitly with the Egyptians, who besides the old enmity, had lately slain good King Josiah, with whom died all the prosperity of the Jewish people, who were thenceforth known, as the Thebans also were after the death of their Epaminondas, only by their overthrows and calamities.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/jeremiah-46.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Jeremiah 46:1. The word, &c.— This title belongs to the five following chapters, and refers to the general denunciation of God's judgments upon the countries round about Judaea. These prophesies are evidently arranged out of the order of time; but those who collected the writings of Jeremiah judged proper, as it seems, without confining themselves to order of time, to join together those prophesies which were not so immediately connected with the affairs of the Jews. See Calmet, and Grotius.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/jeremiah-46.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

JEREMIAH CHAPTER 46

The overthrow of Pharaoh’s army, Jeremiah 46:1-12. The conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadrezzar, Jeremiah 46:13-26. God’s people comforted, Jeremiah 46:27,28.

This verse contains the title to all the ensuing discourses of this prophet; for though there be some particular verses in these chapters that relate to the Jews, yet they are all concerning their restoration. The prophecies of judgments from the beginning of this chapter to the 52nd chapter are all against foreign nations, which are called Gentiles; as to whom God revealed his will for the punishment of them, for the relief and satisfaction of his people, to whom the most of them had been bitter enemies. The 52nd chapter is by most concluded not to have been wrote by Jeremiah, who it is not probable would have repeated what he had related before, Jer 39, but it was wrote (as it is supposed) by some of the captives in Babylon, as a preface to the Book of Lamentations. This particular chapter containeth the revelation of the will of God concerning Egypt, whither some of the Jews fled for refuge after this time, and which had been a great occasion of sin to the Jews before, not only through the Jews’ too many leagues with them, and confidence in them, but from their communicating in their idolatry with them: Jeremiah 2:16, The children of Noph and Tahpanhes brake the crown of their head.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/jeremiah-46.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

THE CAPTION — GENERAL AND PARTICULAR, Jeremiah 46:1-2.

1. Against the Gentiles — This is a general caption, embracing the following four chapters.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/jeremiah-46.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

General Heading.

‘The word of YHWH which came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning the nations.’

Here we have an indication of what this final main section is all about. It deals with YHWH’s ‘powerful word’ (dbr YHWH) against all the nations which were affecting Judah/Israel at that time. It indicated that YHWH’s judgment would be active against such nations. It must be remembered that during the time of Jeremiah’s prophecies following Josiah’s death in 609 BC, Babylon was the dominant nation in the ancient Near Eastern world, and we therefore learn from these prophecies how their tentacles would embrace all the nations round about, bringing YHWH’s judgment on them. None would escape their attention. But the final important point is that in the end Babylon itself would succumb, overtaken by judgment from the north. In contrast God’s people would arise triumphantly from the ashes. Jeremiah’s message was thus that against all appearances it was to be recognised that God was still in control.

Oracles Concerning Egypt.

There are two oracles concerning Egypt. The first deals with the rout of the Egyptian armies at Carchemish as Nebuchadrezzar began to take over that part of the world (c 605 BC) after a lull following the final defeat of the Assyrians. At that stage, after a further rout at Hamath, Egypt were driven back to their own borders. The second deals with Nebuchadrezzar’s ‘invasion’ of Egypt in a punitive expedition which occurred decades later. Both are confirmed archaeologically, although the latter only in a fragmentary inscription.

In the second millennium BC Egypt had seen Palestine and beyond as its own special province and had mainly exercised control over it. But Egyptian power had waned and to a certain extent in the first part of the 1st millennium BC Palestine had been left to itself prior to its becoming subservient to Assyria. But at the time to which this prophecy refers Egypt under Pharaoh Necho had sought once again to exercise its authority outside its own borders and to extend its control over this and other territory, engaging in wars of belligerence, and it was his attempt to assist a weakened Assyria against the Babylonians that had resulted in his advance to the Euphrates and the death of Josiah, and the loss of Judean independence.


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Bibliography
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/jeremiah-46.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

This verse serves as a title for the whole section to follow (i.e, chs46-51; cf. Jeremiah 1:2; Jeremiah 14:1; Jeremiah 40:1; Jeremiah 47:1; Jeremiah 49:34), as well as for this prophecy.


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/jeremiah-46.html. 2012.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Jeremiah 46:1. The word of the Lord which came to Jeremiah against the Gentiles — This is a general title to the collection of prophecies contained in this and the five following chapters, and refers to the denunciation of God’s judgments upon the countries round about Judea, namely, those of whom all enumeration is made Jeremiah 25:19-25. To some of these prophecies the date is annexed; in others it is left uncertain. It is evident they were not all delivered at the same time, and they seem to be here out of their proper place. In the Vatican and Alexandrian copies of the Septuagint, they follow immediately after Jeremiah 25:13, where express mention is made of the book which Jeremiah had prophesied against all the nations; which book is contained in this and the following chapters. It seems those who collected Jeremiah’s writings judged proper, without confining themselves to the order of time, to join together all those prophecies which respected the Gentile nations, and were not immediately connected with the affairs of the Jews.


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/jeremiah-46.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Gentiles, to whom Jeremias was sent, chap. i. 5. What follows regards them, (Calmet) if we except the last chapter. (Haydock) --- It was thought proper to place these predictions here, though out of their chronological order, to which the Septuagint have more adhered, placing them after chap. xxv. (Calmet) --- The punishment of the chief enemies of the Jews is foretold. (Worthington)


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/jeremiah-46.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

The Forty-First Prophecy of Jeremiah (see book comments for Jeremiah).

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

which came. For the most part in the fourth year of Jehoiakim (see App-86), and may have been included in the roll of Jer 36. This section may be compared with Isaiah"s "burdens" and "woes" (compare p. 930), and Ezekiel (Jeremiah 25:32), and Amos (Jeremiah 1:1, Jeremiah 1:2).

against = concerning. Compare Jeremiah 49:1.

the. Some codices, with six early printed editions (one Rabbinic), read "all the".

Gentiles = nations.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/jeremiah-46.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles;

He begins with Egypt, being the country to which he had been removed. Jeremiah 46:1-28 contains two prophecies concerning it-the discomfiture of Pharaoh-necho at Carchemish, by Nebuchadnezzar, and the long subsequent conquest of Egypt by the same king; also the preservation of the Jews (Jeremiah 46:27-28).

General heading of the next six chapters of prophecies concerning the Gentiles. The prophecies are arranged according to nations, not by the dates.


Copyright Statement
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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/jeremiah-46.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

XLVI.

(1) The word of the Lord . . .—We come here upon something like the traces of a plan in the arrangement of Jeremiah’s prophecies. Those that were concerned exclusively with the outside nations of the heathen were collected together, and attached as an appendix to those which were addressed directly to his own people. Most of those that follow were connected historically with Jeremiah 25:15-26, and may be regarded as the development of what is there given in outline, and belong accordingly to the reign of Jehoiakim (circ. B.C. 607).


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/jeremiah-46.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles;
The word
This is a general title to the prophecies contained in this and the following chapters, concerning different nations which had less or more connexion with the Jews, either as enemies, neighbours, or allies. They were not delivered at the same time: to some the date is annexed; in others it is left uncertain.
against
1:10; 4:7; 25:15-29; Genesis 10:5; Numbers 23:9; Zechariah 2:8; Romans 3:29

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/jeremiah-46.html.

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