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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Jeremiah 46:9

 

 

Go up, you horses, and drive madly, you chariots, That the mighty men may march forward: Ethiopia and Put, that handle the shield, And the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow.

Adam Clarke Commentary

The Ethiopians - Hebrews Cush, Phut, and the Ludim. This army was composed of many nations. Cush. which we translate Ethiopians, almost invariably means the Arabians; and here, those Arabs that bordered on Egypt near the Red Sea. Phut probably means the Libyans; for Phut settled in Libya, according to Josephus. Phut and Cush were two of the sons of Ham, and brothers to Mitsraim, the father of the Egyptians, Genesis 10:6; and the Ludim were descended from Mitsraim; see Genesis 10:13. Bochart contends that the Ludim were Ethiopians, and that they were famous for the use of the bow. Phaleg, lib. 4:26.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/jeremiah-46.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Rather, Go up, advance, ye horses; and drive furiously, ye chariots; and let the mighty men go forth. They march out of Egypt, arranged in three divisions, cavalry, chariots, and infantry, to begin the campaign. The armies of Egypt were composed chiefly of mercenaries. Cush (see the margin), the Nubian negro, and Phut, the Libyans of Mauritania, supplied the heavy-armed soldiers Jeremiah 46:3; and Ludim, the Hamite Lydians of North Africa (see Genesis 10:13 note), a weaker race, served as light-armed troops.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/jeremiah-46.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots,.... These are either the words of Pharaoh, giving orders to his cavalry and charioteers to make haste and come up to battle, not doubting of victory: or rather of the Lord by the prophet, ironically calling upon the horsemen in the Egyptian army to come on and engage with the enemy, and behave gallantly; and those in the chariots to drive, Jehu like, 2 Kings 9:20, with great swiftness, force, and fury, to make their chariots rattle again, and run about here and there like madmen, as the wordF21התהללו "insanite", Pagninus, Montanus, Cocceius, Schmidt; "insano impetu agitamini", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator. signifies, to throw the enemy into confusion and disorder if they could:

and let the mighty men come forth: out of the land of Egypt, as Abarbinel; or let them come forth, and appear in the field of battle with courage and greatness of mind, and do all their might and skill can furnish them with, or enable them to do:

the Ethiopians and the Lybians, that handle the shield; or Cush and Phut, both sons of Ham, and brethren of Mizraim, from whence Egypt had its name, Genesis 10:6; the posterity of these are meant. The Cushites or Ethiopians were near neighbours of the Egyptians, and their allies and confederates. The Lybians or Phuteans, as the Targum, were the posterity of Phut, who dwelt to the westward of Egypt, and were the auxiliaries of that nation, and with the Ethiopians and Lydians are mentioned as such in Ezekiel 30:4; as here. The shield was a weapon they much used in war, and were famous for their skill in it, and are described by it. The Egyptians were remarkable for their shields: XenophonF23Cyropaedia, l. 6. c. 14. & l. 7. c. 9. describes them as having shields reaching down to their feet; and which covered their bodies more than the breast plates and targets of the Persians did; which helped them to push forward, having them on their shoulders, so that the enemy could not withstand them:

and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow; these were the posterity of Ludim the son of Mizraim, Genesis 10:13; and were the Lydians in Africa, and not in Asia, who sprung from Lud the son of Shem, Genesis 10:22; they were famous for their skilfulness in the use of bows and arrows; see Isaiah 66:19; now these are called together to use their military skill, and show all the courage they were masters of; and yet all would be in vain. BochartF24Phaleg. l. 4. c. 26. col. 266. endeavours to prove, by various arguments, that these Lydians were Ethiopians; and, among the rest, because they are here, and in Isaiah 66:19; described as expert in handling, bending, and drawing the bow; which he proves, by the testimonies of several writers, the Ethiopians were famous for; that bows were their armour; and that theirs were larger than others, even than the Persians, being four cubits long; that they were very dexterous in shooting their arrows; took sure aim, and seldom missed.


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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/jeremiah-46.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; g the Cushites and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle [and] bend the bow.

(g) For these nations took part with the Egyptians.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/jeremiah-46.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Ironical exhortation, as in Jeremiah 46:3. The Egyptians, owing to the heat of their climate and abstinence from animal food, were physically weak, and therefore employed mercenary soldiers.

EthiopiansHebrew, Cush: Abyssinia and Nubia.

LibyansPhut, Mauritania, west of Egypt (compare Genesis 10:6).

shield — The Libyans borrowed from Egypt the use of the long shield extending to the feet [Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6 and 7].

Lydians — not the Lydians west of Asia Minor (Genesis 10:22; Ezekiel 30:5), but the Ludim, an African nation descended from Egypt (Mizraim) (Genesis 10:13; Ezekiel 30:5; Nahum 3:9).

handle and bend the bow — The employment of two verbs expresses the manner of bending the bow, namely, the foot being pressed on the center, and the hands holding the ends of it.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/jeremiah-46.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow.

And the Lydians — They were all auxiliaries to the Egyptians in this expedition.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/jeremiah-46.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

He goes on with the same subject, and enumerates whatever might discredit his prophecy. For when the faithful saw that the Egyptians went on that expedition not only with immense forces, but had also, as foreign aids, the Ethiopians and the Libyans, and even transmarine soldiers from Lydia, — when they saw hired soldiers from all parts joined to the Egyptians, it was hardly credible that such an army could be put to flight. Then the Prophet says here, that though Pharaoh hired the Ethiopians, the Libyans, and the Lydians, yet with all these forces he would perish.

He again speaks in the name of Pharaoh, Ascend, ye horses; toss, ye chariots, and let the valiant come forth This coming forth may refer to the lands whence they came. He mentions first the Ethiopians, who were near the Egyptians, though separated from them. Then he adds the people of Libya, who were Africans, or who were in the middle between Egypt and Africa. Then he says, that they laid hold on the shield. He points out their principal armor, not that they were without a helmet and sword and other arms, but they mainly trusted in their shields. As we know that the Macedonians wore the pelta, and were remarkable for that piece of armor, so the Prophet says that the Ethiopians and Libyans were furnished with bucklers or shields. He mentions also the Lydians, who were from another part, even from the opposite shore of the sea; for we know that the Lydians were in Asia Minor, while the Egyptians were in the middle between Africa and Judea. The Mediterranean Sea was therefore between them. It hence appears, that auxiliaries from a distance, and with great expense, were procured by Pharaoh when he undertook this war. And it is also probable that other nations were hired; but the Prophet mentions only the Ethiopians, Libyans, and Lydians: and he says, that those named last laid hold on the bow, because they were the best archers. It now follows, —


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/jeremiah-46.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Jeremiah 46:9 Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle [and] bend the bow.

Ver. 9. Come up, ye horses,] i.e., Ye horsemen, all the cavalry of Egypt. {as Exodus 14:7}

And rage.] Or, Bestir yourselves as if ye were wild or mad: instar furiarum discurrite per campos.

The Ethiopians and the Lybians.] The Africans that were confederates and auxiliaries to the Egyptians.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/jeremiah-46.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Their ancient way of fighting was with chariots and bows; the prophet calls, in the name of the commanders of the Egyptian armies, to the horses and chariots to come on, and engage in the fight. The

Ethiopians were the Cushites, who were neighbours to the Egyptians, so were the Libyans; both of them it should seem were famous for handling the shield: the

Libyans were descended from Phut; both the Cushites and the Phutites or Libyans were descended from Ham, Genesis 10:6. The

Lydians were as famous for the use of the bow in war; they were descended from Mizraim or Shem, Genesis 10:13,22: the Lydians here meant are thought to be those descended from Mizraim, and some think these were Ethiopians. They were all auxiliaries to the Egyptians in this expedition.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/jeremiah-46.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

9. Ethiopians… Libyans… Lydians — Auxiliaries or mercenaries, because the Egyptians were not themselves of such physical vigour as to make a nation of soldiers. There is a similar description of the Egyptian army in Ezekiel 30:5.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/jeremiah-46.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The Egyptians and their allies-the Ethiopians, Libyans (or possibly residents of modern Somalia), and Lydians (cf. Isaiah 66:19; or North Africans, cf. Genesis 10:13; Nahum 3:9)-pressed the battle (cf. Ezekiel 30:5). Modern Somalia is east and south of Ethiopia. Libya was Egypt"s neighbor to the west, and the Lydian Kingdom was in Anatolia (modern western Turkey).


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/jeremiah-46.html. 2012.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Men. Soldiers formed one of the principal classes among the Egyptians. (Herodotus ii. 164.) --- Ethiopians. Hebrew, "Cush," in Lower Egypt, on the Red Sea. --- Lybians. Hebrew, "Phut, another son of Cham, inhabiting the Nome Phtenethu," Ezechiel xxx. 5., and Nahum iii. 2. --- Lydians. Their situation is not known.


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/jeremiah-46.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Come up, &c. Figure of speech Eironeia. Compare Jeremiah 46:11.

the Ethiopians = Cush. Mercenaries, forming the chief part of the Egyptian forces.

the Libyans. Hebrew Phut. Compare Ezekiel 27:10; Ezekiel 30:5; and Acts 2:10.

the Lydians. Not those in Western Asia (Genesis 10:22). All belonging to Africa.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/jeremiah-46.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow.

Come up, ye horses ... let the mighty men come forth - ironical exhortation, as in Jeremiah 46:3. The Egyptians, owing to the heat of their climate and abstinence from animal food, were physically weak, and therefore employed mercenary soldiers.

Ethiopians - Hebrew, Cush: Abyssinia and Nubia.

Libyans - Phut, Mauritania, west of Egypt (cf. Genesis 10:6).

Shield. The Libyans borrowed from Egypt the use of the long shield extending to the feet (Xenophon, 'Cyropaedia,' 6: and 7:)

Lydians - not the Lydians west of Asia Minor (Genesis 10:22, "Lud"), but the Ludim, an African nation descended from Egypt (Mitsraim) (Genesis 10:13; Ezekiel 30:5. "Ethiopia, Libya, Lydia;" Nahum 3:9).

Handle and bend the bow. The employment of two verbs expresses the manner of bonding the bow-namely, the foot being pressed on the center, and the hands holding the ends of it.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/jeremiah-46.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(9) The Ethiopians and the Libyans.—In the Hebrew, Cush and Put. The verse describes the prominent elements in the composition of the Egyptian army. The “chariots and horses” had long been proverbial (1 Kings 10:28-29; 2 Chronicles 1:16; Exodus 15:19). The Cushites were the Ethiopians of the Upper Valley of the Nile, sometimes, as under Zerah (2 Chronicles 14:9) and Tirhakah (2 Kings 19:9), asserting their independence, but at this time subject to Necho. The name Phut meets us, with Cush and Mizraim, in the list of the sons of Ham in Genesis 10:6; and presumably, therefore, belongs to an African people. Wherever it is mentioned by the prophets it is as an ally or tributary of Egypt (Nahum 3:9; Ezekiel 27:10; Ezekiel 30:5; Ezekiel 38:5). The LXX. version renders it by Libyan, and is followed by the Vulgate and the English. In Nahum 3:9, however, Phut is distinguished from the Libyans (= Lubim); and the LXX. has but one word for both. The word PET is found on Egyptian inscriptions, both as meaning a “bow”and as the name of a people, and this may correspond to the Put of the Hebrew text. The Lydians, or Ludim, are named in the list of Hamite nations as descended from Mizraim (Genesis 10:13); the name is joined with Phut in Ezekiel 27:10, with Cush and Phut in Ezekiel 30:4-5. This would seem to point to an African rather than an Asiatic people like the Lydians. On the other hand, we learn from Herodotus (ii. 153) that, some thirty or forty years before the time of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, Psammetichus I. had settled a large colony of Ionian and Carian emigrants on both banks of the Nile, between Bubastis and the Pelusiac mouth of that river, and that Amasis afterwards formed them into a bodyguard at Memphis. It is obvious that the fame of the monarchy which had its capital at Sardis might easily lead to these Greeks being classed as Lydians, and that thus the name (without entering into its earlier ethnological significance) would acquire a new prominence at the time when the prophets wrote in connexion with Egypt.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/jeremiah-46.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow.
rage
Nahum 2:3,4
Ethiopians
Heb. Cush and Put.
Genesis 10:6
Phut
1 Corinthians 1:8; Ezekiel 27:10
Phut
Nahum 3:9
Lubim
Acts 2:10
Lydians
Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11
Ludim
Isaiah 66:19; Ezekiel 27:10
Lud
30:5

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Jeremiah 46:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/jeremiah-46.html.

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