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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Jeremiah 51:27

 

 

Lift up a signal in the land, Blow a trumpet among the nations! Consecrate the nations against her, Summon against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz; Appoint a marshal against her, Bring up the horses like bristly locusts.

Adam Clarke Commentary

Set ye up a standard - Another summons to the Medes and Persians to attack Babylon.

Ararat, Minni - The Greater and Lesser Armenia.

And Ashchenaz - A part of Phrygia, near the Hellespont. So Bochart, Phaleg, lib. 1 c. 3, lib. 3 c. 9. Concerning Ashchenaz Homer seems to speak, Il. 2:370, 371: -

Φορκυς αυ Φρυγας ηγε, και Ασκανιος θεοειδης,��<-144 �Τηλ ' εξ Ασκανιης.

"Ascanius, godlike youth, and Phorcys led

The Phrygians from Ascania's distant land."

Calmet thinks that the Ascantes, who dwelt in the vicinity of the Tanais, are meant.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/jeremiah-51.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Ararat, see the Genesis 8:4 note. Minni, probably the western portion of Armenia, as Ararat was that in the center and to the east. Armenia was at this time subject to Media. Ashchenaz was between the Euxine and the Caspian Seas.

A captain - Some prefer the Septuagint rendering in Nahum 3:17: “a mingled mass of people.” (Others, a “scribe,” an Assyrian term.)

The rough caterpillers - i. e., locusts in their third stage, when their wings are still enveloped in rough horny cases, which stick up upon their backs. It is in this stage that they are so destructive.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/jeremiah-51.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

Jeremiah 51:27

Thus saith the Lord: Set ye up a standard in the land.

The standard of the Cross, a rallying-point for the people

“Set ye up a standard,” plain, obvious to be seen; a standard, high, on a mountain top, so as to be a rallying-point for the people in the battle of the Lord. A message, this, to fire the hearts of men, to steep them to the full in the sense of life s solemnity. The appeal of the prophet had reference, in the first instance, to the assault of the Persian armies upon the fortress city of Babylon. Cyrus was employed (to use the language of the prophet elsewhere) as the very “battle-axe” of God; who was to do God’s work in delivering the Jews from their captivity, and rebuilding for their use His Temple at Jerusalem. It is the commission of the Lord God to His Church in every age; to lift up the ensign of the Cross, the banner of Christian conflict, the talisman of victory, the rallying-point of all true hearts in the battle of the Lord, against the power of evil that is abroad in our midst. If there is one lesson more emphatically taught than any other by the facts of our present-day experience, it is the lesson that in Christianity alone lies, after all, the true and ultimate hope of the world; that the standard of the Gospel is the only true measure of our social reforms and of our personal or political ideals.

1. There is a power in our midst to-day--a power so imperious that a man may well be excused for holding it to be well-nigh irresistible--the power of public opinion. Are we not apt to forget that this potent engine of our modern life is one whose motive force may, and should be, in a Christian country, spent always in the cause of God, and of His Christ? It is an engine which, if it be informed by hearts aglow with the Spirit of Christ, and guided by hands that are exercised in deeds of truth and love, may well work miracles before our eyes. Then, may not our Church expect of all her sons that each one of them should realise his personal responsibility in this respect?

2. What a motto is this for our national and imperial politics! What a “programme” is here set forth for any Government, under whatever accidents of political party! “Set ye up a standard in the land”; a standard of righteousness and of good faith in matters of international law, or the observance of international treaties.

3. May not this be taken, again, as a potent watchword at our parliamentary elections? Can we not, each one of us, deal at any rate with our own vote as with a serious trust? Can we not raise over our polling-booths a standard of principle rather than party? Can we not muster courage to demand fair play for all; to denounce the use of unworthy weapons in the process of electioneering--the weapons of declamation and mob-flattery, of slander and personal abuse, of mere brute force, obstruction, and of secret bribery, boycotting, or cowardly intimidation? “Set up a standard in the land.” What nobler principle for our legislation itself? A standard of mercy and unselfishness, of wise and intelligent sympathy in dealing with the needs of the many; a standard of absolute impartiality, strict and entire justice, in legislating for the uneducated and the helpless classes of our population.

4. So, too, with respect to other matters of less distinctly political interest. There is room, surely, for a higher standard in questions of pressing social gravity, such as, for example, the subject of national education. Here, at any rate, the Church is pre-eminently bound to hold aloft the ideal of that which alone is worthy of the name of education. Or, turning again to such facts as are revealed by our criminal statistics, in view of the open sore of our national intemperance; or of the not less terrible though secret cancer of our national impurity, can we not, as carrying the Cross of our dear Lord’s self-denial on our foreheads, can we not do something towards setting up a standard in our homes, in our streets, in our business, and in our amusements,--a standard of sobriety and of purity?

5. So, again, in our very amusements. It rests with you, of the English Church laity, to “set up a standard in the land.” It is for you, who are the patrons of the English stage, to pronounce with no faltering accent that the drama--whether grave or gay--no more necessitates the stimulus of an immoral plot, or the adjuncts of a vicious art, than the pen of a Macaulay, a Tennyson, or a Browning, need defile itself with the innuendoes of a Wycherley or the coarseness of a Congreve.

6. And once again, in reference to those forum of sin to which as a great commercial people we arc especially prone. Have we not enough knowledge of a sound political economy to see that all the remedies which Parliament can propose will never touch the root of the evil we deplore? that what is wanted is not so much the mere readjustment of taxation, still less the forcible redistribution of our wealth, as the introduction of a higher standard into our commercial transactions; the standard of a fairer co-operation between the capitalist and the workman--of a more just and upright dealing between tradesman and customer--of a closer sympathy between master and servant, between producer and consumer: a standard of hard, but not slavish, honest, and conscientious work--a standard of fair working hours and fair working profits; a standard of just prices and honest weights and measures; a standard of thrift and temperance and industry, that will condemn idleness and dishonesty in the workman, the producer, but which will not excuse indolence and selfishness and unbridled luxury in the consumer; a standard which denounces all trade adulterations, all lying labels, all imitation brands, all false advertisements, and other similar forms of commercial ostentation and inequity; a standard, moreover, which declares such sins to be as sinful among the warehouses of the city as in the village shop, and pronounces the vices of the west to be at least as criminal as the crimes of the east. Lift up your hearts, then, comrades in the sacred battlefield of right and wrong! Look to that warrior Christ who leads us on. (H. B. Ottley, M. A.)


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Bibliography
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Jeremiah 51:27". The Biblical Illustrator. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/jeremiah-51.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

"Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz: appoint a marshal against her; cause the horse to come up as the rough canker-worm. Prepare against her the nations, the kings of the Medes, the governors thereof, and all the deputies thereof, and all the land of their dominion. And the land trembleth and is in pain; for the purposes of Jehovah against Babylon do stand, to make the land of Babylon a desolation, without inhabitant. The mighty men of Babylon have forborne to fight, they remain in their strongholds; their might hath failed; they are become as women: her dwelling places are set on fire; her bars are broken. One post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to show the king of Babylon that his city is taken on every quarter: and the passages are seized, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted. For thus saith Jehovah of hosts, the God of Israel: The daughter of Babylon is like a threshing-floor at the time when it is trodden; yet a little while, and the time of harvest shall come for her."

"Ararat ..." (Jeremiah 51:27). "This is an ancient name for part of Armenia, including the mountains where the ark rested. It was where the sons of Sennacherib went after they murdered him; and Jeremiah mentioned it here, along with the neighboring districts of Mini and Ashkenaz."[13]

"Ashkenaz ..." (Jeremiah 51:27). "These people were the ancient equivalent of barbarians. Their neighbors were Ararat and Minni. They were located southeast of Lake Van."[14]

"Minni ..." (Jeremiah 51:27). "This is the same as Mannai of the Assyrian inscriptions. They were located in the vicinity of the lakes Van and Urmia and seem to have been a very capable people in warfare. They aided the destruction of Nineveh (612 B.C.) and also participated in the capture of Babylon in 539 B.C.)."[15] They were vassals of Babylon in the fall of Nineveh, and of the Medes in the fall of Babylon.

"The rough canker-worm ..." (Jeremiah 51:27). This was the name of the locust in its most devastating phase. See under Jeremiah 51:14, above.

"One post shall run to meet another ... one messenger to meet another ..." (Jeremiah 51:31). The famed courier system of Babylon brought the drunken king (Daniel 5) the news of the city's capture "from every quarter."

"The men of war were affrighted ..." (Jeremiah 51:32). This is no wonder. The enemy were all over the city in total control of it; they had already burned the marshes, destroying any place of hiding or of ambush; the king was hopelessly drunk; and the mighty Babylon was as helpless as a woman untrained in war, with no protection, no armor, no weapons, and no hope. Let it be remembered, however, that this was a prophecy of "what would happen," not a history of what did happen. The prophecy was so accurate, however, that some have mistaken it for history. The mention of the Medes and their allies both here and in Jeremiah 51:11 are all the proof that is needed that here we have predictive prophecy, not history. No writer, writing afterward would have mentioned the Medes without bringing in the Persians.

"Yet a little while, and the time of her harvest shall come for her ..." (Jeremiah 51:33). Note the future verb. We have prophecy, not history. Also, the focus upon Israel here, along with the mention of the fall of Babylon follows the pattern already mentioned, namely, (1) the fall of Babylon, followed by (2) the God of Israel's care for his children.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/jeremiah-51.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Set ye up a standard in the land,.... Not in Chaldea, but rather in any land; or in all the countries which belonged to Media and Persia; where Cyrus's standard is ordered to be set up, to gather soldiers together, and enlist in his service, in order to go with him in his expedition against Babylon:

blow the trumpet among the nations; for the same purpose, to call them to arms, to join the forces of Cyrus, and go with him into the land of Chaldea:

prepare the nations against her: animate them, stir up their spirits against her, and furnish them with armour to engage with her: or, "sanctify"F24קדשו "sanctificate", Piscator, Schmidt. them; select a certain number out of them fit for such work:

call together the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; the two former are generally thought to intend Armenia the greater, and the lesser; and the latter Ascania, a country in Phrygia; and certain it is that Cyrus first conquered these countries, and had many Armenians, Phrygians, and Cappadocians, in his army he brought against Babylon, as XenophonF25Cyropaedia, l. 5. c. 15. & l. 7. c. 21. relates. The Targum is, declare

"against her to the kingdoms of the land of Kardu, the army of Armenia and Hadeb,'

or Adiabene:

appoint a captain against her; over all these forces thus collected: Cyrus seems to be intended; unless the singular is put for the plural, and so intends a sufficient number of general officers of the army:

cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillars; or "locusts"F26כילק "sicut bruchum", Montanus, Schmidt. ; which though generally smooth, yet some fire hairy and rough; to which the horses in Cyrus's army are compared, for their multitude, the shape of their heads, long manes, and manner of going, leaping, and prancing. So the Targum,

"they shall cause the horses to come up, leaping like the shining locust;'

that is of a yellow colour, and shines like gold. So the word the Targum here uses is used by Jonathan in Leviticus 13:32; of hair yellow as gold, and here to be understood of hairy locusts: and, as AelianusF1De Animal. l. 10. c. 13. says, there were locusts of a golden colour in Arabia. And such may be meant here by the Chaldee paraphrase, which well expresses their motion by leaping; see Joel 2:5; and which agrees with that of horses. The word rendered "rough" has the signification of horror in it, such as makes the hair to stand upright; see Job 4:15; and so someF2סמר "horripilantem", Montanus; "qui horret", Piscator, Cocceius. render it here. And BochartF3Hierozoic. par. 2. l. 4. c. 2. col. 456. , from Alcamus, an Arabic writer, observes, that there is a sort of locusts which have two hairs upon their head, which are called their horn, which when erected may answer to this sense of the word; and he brings in the poet ClaudianF4"Horret apex capitis, medio fera lumina surgunt Vertice", &c. Epigram. 13. , as describing the locust by the top of its head, as very horrible and terrible; and that some locusts? have hair upon their heads seems manifest from Revelation 9:8; though it may be, the reason why they are here represented as so dreadful and frightful may not be so much on account of their form, as for the terror they strike men with, when they come in great numbers, and make such terrible havoc of the fruits of the earth as they do; wherefore the above learned writer proposes to render the words, "as the horrible locusts"F5"Non tam horrentem, quam horrendum sonat". .


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A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/jeremiah-51.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of q Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.

(q) By these three nations he means Armenia the higher, Armenia the lower and Scythia; for Cyrus had gathered an army of various nations.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/jeremiah-51.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

(Jeremiah 50:29). As in Jeremiah 51:12 the Babylonians were told to “set up the standard,” so here her foes are told to do so: the latter, to good purpose; the former, in vain.

Ararat — Upper or Major Armenia, the regions about Mount Ararat.

Minni — Lower or Lesser Armenia. Rawlinson says that Van was the capital of Minni. It was conquered by Tettarrassa, the general of Tetembar II, the Assyrian king whose wars are recorded on the black obelisk now in the British Museum.

Ashchenaz — a descendant of Japheth (Genesis 10:3), who gave his name to the sea now called the Black Sea; the region bordering on it is probably here meant, namely, Asia Minor, including places named Ascania in Phrygia and Bithynia. Cyrus had subdued Asia Minor and the neighboring regions, and from these he drew levies in proceeding against Babylon.

rough caterpillars — The horsemen in multitude, and in appearance bristling with javelins and with crests, resemble “rough caterpillars,” or locusts of the hairy-crested kind (Nahum 3:15).


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/jeremiah-51.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.

As caterpillars — The Median horses are compared to their insects, either with respect to their numbers, or in regard of the terror caused by them when they came, being a great plague to the places which they infected.


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Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/jeremiah-51.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

The Prophet here confirms what he had before taught, even that Babylon, however proud on account of its strongholds, would not yet escape God’s hand. Had he used a simple mode of speaking, hardly any one would have ventured to look for what the Prophet said. It was then necessary to introduce figurative expressions, of which we have before spoken. Here, then, with the highest authority, he commands the nations to raise up war against Babylon.

We must observe, as I have before reminded you, that by such modes of speaking, the effect of prophetic doctrine is set forth. For the unbelieving deride whatever they hear, because the voice of God is the same to them as though it were a sound flowing through the air. Hence the Prophet shows that he was endued with the power of God, and that the hand of God was connected with his mouth, so that he fulfills whatever he predicts. Raise, he says, a standard. This might have appeared ludicrous, for we know that the Prophet was despised, not only at Jerusalem, but also in his own town where he had been born: by what right, then, or on what ground does he now boldly command all nations, and bid the banners to be raised? But as I have said, he shows that a false judgment would be formed of what he said, except the people thought that God himself spoke.

Sound with the trumpet, he says, among all nations, and then, sanctify against her the nations; and further, assemble, literally, “make to hear,” but it means, in Piel, to collect, to assemble. As to the word Ararat, it may be taken for Armenia. I know not why some have taken Minni to be the lower Armenia, for there is no creditable author for such an opinion. Nor is it certain what country the Prophet designates by Ashchenaz. But it is evident from histories, that the great army which Darius, or Cyrus under the authority of Darius, led with him, had been collected from various and even remote nations. For he brought with him the Hyrcanians and the Armenians, and some from many unknown places. As, then, heathen authors declare that this army was collected indiscriminately from many nations and almost unknown, it is nothing strange that the Hebrew names are at this day unknown. And there is no doubt but that the Prophet here indirectly intimates some great shaking of the world, as though he had said, that even barbarous nations, The name of whom hath not hitherto been heard of, would come like all overwhelming flood to destroy Babylon. He will hereafter speak of the Medes; but here he treats the subject in a different way, as though he had said, that so great would be the multitude of enemies, that Babylon, notwithstanding its largeness, would be easily overthrown. We now perceive the Prophet’s design as to these obscure words.

He says afterwards, Set up a leader against her This is to be understood of Cyrus, whose vigor was especially apparent in that war. Nor is there a doubt but that he led his uncle and father-in-law to undertake the war. For those historians fable, who say that Cyrus was cast away by his grandfather, and that he was brought up privately by Astyages, and that he afterwards made war with his grandfather. All these things have been invented. For it is quite evident that Darius, the king of the Medes, was the chief in that war, and Daniel is our best witness on this point. Heathen writers imagine that there was no king of the Medes except under the authority of Cyrus. But Cyrus did not rule until after the death of his father-in-law, or his uncle, whose daughter he had married. It then follows, that he was the general, so that he carried on the war under the authority of Darius. Cyrus then was, as it were, the hired soldier of his uncle and father-in-law, but at length he obtained the kingdom of the Medes and the whole empire of the East. Of this leader, then, I understand this passage, when the Prophet says, Set up or appoint a leader against Babylon: (90) he adds, Bring forth, or make to ascend, the horse as the locust This refers to their number; as though he had said, Bring forth against Babylon horses without number, who shall be as locusts. He compares them to locusts, not for strength or skill in war, but only with regard to their number. But as the locusts are frightful, he applies to them the word סמר, samer, “dreadful,” as though he had said, They are, indeed, locusts as to their abundance, but they are at the same time dreadful, as though they had on them frightful hairs. It afterwards follows, —


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/jeremiah-51.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Jeremiah 51:27 Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.

Ver. 27. Set up a standard.] Thus God the great Induperator bespeaketh the Medes and Persians as his field officers.

Prepare the nations against her.] Heb., Sanctify, call them together to wage this sacred war against Babylon.

Call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz,] i.e., Of both the Armenias and of Aseania, subdued by Cyrus before he marched against Babylon. (a) Vatablus will have Ashchenaz to be Gothland; the Jews, Germany; but these were too far remote.


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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/jeremiah-51.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Jeremiah 51:27. Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz See Isaiah 13:4-5. Instead of rough caterpillars, Bochart reads bristled locusts.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/jeremiah-51.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The former words of this verse are expounded by those that follow; setting up of standards and blowings of trumpets are preparatory to bring armies together. The setting up of standards, and blowing of trumpets, are military signs of the will of those princes or captains-general whose those standards are, and to whom those trumpets belong, that those soldiers who are under their command should gather themselves together to the places where those standards are set up, and those trumpets blown. What this

kingdom of Ararat was, and those of

Minni and

Ashchenaz, is very hard to determine. We read of a mountain called Ararat, where the ark rested after the flood, Genesis 8:4. Of Minni we read no where else: most writers think these were two kingdoms within Armenia. Ashchenaz descended from Noah by Japheth, Genesis 10:3, Certain it is that the emperor of the Medes had the dominion of these places, from whence it is very probable that either Cyrus or Darius, or both, drew out soldiers to help them to conquer the Chaldeans.

Appoint a captain against her: after people are gathered together for war, the first thing to be done is to put them into military order, constituting a captain-general.

Cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillars. Others read it, like the wasting caterpillar, or like the horrible affrighting caterpillar. Great disputes there are amongst critical interpreters what caterpillars are here meant, the caterpillars being generally smooth; but as we know not the complexion of insects over all the world, so even amongst us we see some caterpillars that look a little rough: that which alone we are here to attend is wily the Median horses are compared to these insects: undoubtedly it is either,

1 With respect to their numbers, for caterpillars in those countries used to come in vast numbers.

2. Or in regard of the horror and trembling caused by them in people when they came, being a great plague to the places which they infested.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/jeremiah-51.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

THE NATIONS SUMMONED AGAINST BABYLON, Jeremiah 51:27-37.

27. Set ye up a standard — Another call to war. This whole passage is a parallelism of that which commences at Jeremiah 51:12, but descends more into particulars.

In the land — Better, earth.

Prepare — Literally, consecrate; alluding to the religions solemnities with which war is begun. The kingdoms here mentioned, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz, were located in or near Armenia.

Captain — This word occurs besides only in Nahum 3:17, and its precise import is doubtful. In both passages the habits of locusts are probably had in view.

Rough caterpillars — Rather, as the bristly locust; spoken “of the locust after its third skin, when the wings are still covered with the rough, horny hide.” — Furst.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/jeremiah-51.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Jeremiah called for an assembling of nations to go to war against Babylon. The kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz-all referred to in Assyrian inscriptions-were in eastern Anatolia (modern Armenia) north of Babylon. This united armed force would descend on Babylon like an army of locusts at a very destructive stage in their lifecycle (cf. Jeremiah 51:14). [Note: Harrison, Jeremiah and . . ., p188.]


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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/jeremiah-51.html. 2012.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Prepare. Literally, "sanctify." (Haydock) --- Call together all nations to fight against Babylon. (Worthington) --- Many religious ceremonies were used. --- Ararat, where the ark rested, (Genesis viii. 4.) near the Araxes, (St. Jerome, in Isaias xxxvii.) or in the Gordyean mountains, in Armenia, where the Menni dwelt. --- Ascenez, or Ascantes, (Calmet) near the Tanais. (Pliny, [Natural History?] vi. 7.) --- Taphsar, "the prince," Nahum iii. 17. (Pagnin) "Warriors." (Chaldean) "Machines" (Septuagint) --- Caterpillar, or "locust," (bruchum. Haydock) which resembles more a body of cavalry. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "Push forward the cavalry against her, as a multitude of locusts." (Haydock)


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/jeremiah-51.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

prepare = set apart, or sanctify.

Minni. Frequently mentioned in the inscriptions, the Assyrians having been compelled to quell revolts there.

captain = muster-master or marshal, like the Assyrian dupsarru, or tablet-writer. Hebrew. tiphsar. Occurs only here and Nahum 3:17.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/jeremiah-51.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.

Set ye up a standard ... prepare the nations against her - (Jeremiah 50:29). As in Jeremiah 51:12 the Babylonians were told to "set up a standard," so here her foes are told to do so; the latter to good purpose, the former in vain.

Ararat - Upper or Major Armenia, the regions about mount Ararat.

Minni - Lower or Lesser Armenia. Rawlinson says that Van was the capital of Minni. It was conquered by Tettarrassa, the general of Tetembar II, the Assyrian king whose wars are recorded on the black obelisk now in the British Museum.

Ashchenaz - a descendant of Japhet (Genesis 10:3), who gave his name to the sea, the Euxine, which perhaps is the Greek corruption of the name Ashkenaz, first made in Greek inflection into Axeinos, now called the Black Sea; the region bordering on it is probably here meant-namely, Asia Minor, including places named Ascania, in Phrygia and Bithynia. Cyrus had subdued Asia Minor and the neighbouring regions, and from these drew levies in proceeding against Babylon.

Cause the horses to come up as ... rough caterpillars - the horsemen, in multitude and in appearance, bristling with javelins and with crests, resemble "rough caterpillars," or locusts of the hairy-crested kind (Nahum 3:15).


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/jeremiah-51.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(27) Prepare the nations.—The word here and in Jeremiah 51:29 conveys, as in Jeremiah 22:7, the idea of consecration.

Call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz.—The first of these names was unknown to Greek and Roman geographers, and though here rendered Arareth by the LXX., is elsewhere translated by Armenia, as in the English version of Isaiah 37:38. The name Ararat is Sanscrit, and means “the holy land.” The site of Minni has not been identified, and the name does not occur elsewhere, unless, with some scholars, we find it in Psalms 45:9, and translate “out of the ivory palaces of Minni.” The name “Minyes” is found in Josephus (Antt. i. 3, p. 6), and Minnai in the Assyrian inscriptions. Rawlinson (Herod. i. p. 464) places them above Lake Urumiyeh. It is clear from the context that their country formed part of Armenia. Ashchenaz appears in Genesis 10:3 as connected with Gomer, i.e., with the Scythians. The first syllable has been supposed to contain the root of the name Asia, which has been gradually extended to the continent. The modern Jews apply the name Ashkenazim to those of their race that are settled in Germany and Eastern Europe, the name Sephardim being applied to those of Spain and the West.

Appoint a captain against her.—The word for “captain” is found only here and in Nahum 3:17. It was probably an Assyrian word, meaning either “captain” or “host.”

Cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.—Better, as the bristly locusts. The word describes the insect in its third stage of growth, when the wings are not yet unfolded from their cases, and when they are most destructive in their ravages.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/jeremiah-51.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.
ye up
12; 6:1; 50:2,41; Isaiah 13:2-5; 18:3; Amos 3:6; Zechariah 14:2
prepare
25:14
Ararat
Bochart reasonably concludes Ararat and Minni to be the greater and lesser Armenia; and Ashchenaz he thinks formed part of Phrygia near the Hellespont, part of that country being called Ascania by Homer. Cyrus had conquered Armenia, defeated Croesus king of Lydia, (B.C. 548,) and subdued several nations from the Egean sea to the Euphrates, before he marched against Babylon; and Xenophon also informs us that there were not only Armenians, but both Phrygians and Cappadocians in the army of Cyrus.
Genesis 8:4
Ashchenaz
Genesis 10:3
Ashkenaz
1 Chronicles 1:6
cause
14; 46:23; 50:41,42; Judges 6:5; Joel 2:2,3; Nahum 3:15-17; Revelation 9:7-11; After Cyrus had been the instrument in the hands of God of taking Babylon, he marched against Tomyris, queen of the Massagetæ, a Scythian nation, and was totally defeated, (B.C. 530.) The victorious queen, who had lost her son in a previous battle, was so incensed against Cyrus, that she cut off his head, and threw it into a vessel filled with human blood, exclaiming, "Sattia te sanguine, quem sitisti."

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Jeremiah 51:27". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/jeremiah-51.html.

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