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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Jonah 1:16

 

 

Then the men feared the LORD greatly, and they offered a sacrifice to the LORD and made vows.

Adam Clarke Commentary

Offered a sacrifice - The first perhaps ever offered on board a vessel since the ark floated on the waters of the great deluge; and it is most probable that these heathens, witnessing what was done, became sincere converts to the true God.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/jonah-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And the men feared the Lord with a great fear - because, from the tranquility of the sea and the ceasing of the tempest, they saw that the prophet‘s words were true. This great miracle completed the conversion of the mariners. God had removed all human cause of fear; and yet, in the same words as before, he says, “they feared a great fear;” but he adds, “the Lord.” It was the great fear, with which even the disciples of Jesus feared, when they saw the miracles which He did, which made even Peter say, Luke 5:8. “Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord.” Events full of wonder had thronged upon them; things beyond nature, and contrary to nature; tidings which betokened His presence, Who had all things in His hands. They had seen “wind and storm fulfilling His word” Psalm 148:8, and, forerunners of the fishermen of Galilee, knowing full well from their own experience that this was above nature, they felt a great awe of God. So He commanded His people, “Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God Deuteronomy 6:13, for thy good always” Deuteronomy 6:24.

And offered a sacrifice - Doubtless, as it was a large decked vessel and bound on a long voyage, they had live creatures on board, which they could offer in sacrifice. But this was not enough for their thankfulness; “they vowed vows.” They promised that they would do thereafter what they could not do then; “that they would never depart from Him whom they had begun to worship.” This was true love, not to be content with aught which they could do, but to stretch forward in thought to an abiding and enlarged obedience, as God should enable them. And so they were doubtless enrolled among the people of God, firstfruits from among the pagan, won to God Who overrules all things, through the disobedience and repentance of His prophet. Perhaps, they were the first preachers among the pagan, and their account of their own wonderful deliverance prepared the way for Jonah‘s mission to Nineveh.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/jonah-1.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

"Then the men feared Jehovah exceedingly; and they offered a sacrifice unto Jehovah, and made vows."

"The men feared Jehovah exceedingly ..." The old versions have, "They feared the Lord with a great fear." Why?

They had seen things contrary to nature; they had confronted the knowledge of the true God; they had seen his just judgment upon one of his disobedient servants; and they were aware of their own sins and accountability before the God of heaven and earth. "Events full of wonder had thronged upon them, things beyond nature and contrary to nature, things which betokened HIS PRESENCE, who holds all things in his hands!"[35]

"A sacrifice unto Jehovah ..." This shows that not everything on the ship had been cast overboard, some of the animals, no doubt, which were used for food, were still available for the sacrifice mentioned.

"And made vows ..." indicates that whatever sacrifice they made was deemed by them to be insufficient, hence their intention of doing a more thorough and acceptable service of worshipping and sacrificing to the true God, as soon as circumstances would permit it.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/jonah-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Then the men feared the Lord exceedingly,.... This was not a natural fear, as before, but a religious one; and not a servile fear, or a fear of punishment, but a reverential godly fear; for they feared him, not only because they saw his power in raising and stilling the tempest, but his goodness to them in saving them:

and offered a sacrifice unto the Lord; a spiritual sacrifice; the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving for a safe deliverance from the storm; for other sort of sacrifice they seemed not to have materials for; since they had thrown overboard what they had in the ship to lighten it, unless there might be anything left fit for this purpose; but rather, if it is to be understood of a ceremonial sacrifice, it was offered when they went out of the ship, according to the gloss of Aben Ezra; or they solemnly declared they would, as soon as they came to land; to which sense is the Targum,

"and they said, they would offer a sacrifice:'

and agreeably to this the words may be rendered, with what follows, thus, "and offered a sacrifice unto the Lord", that is,

and made vows; they vowed that they would offer a sacrificeF14So Drusius. when arrived in their own country, or should return to Judea, and come to Jerusalem. So the Hebrew ו, "vau", is often usedF15Vid. Nold. Ebr. Part. Concord. p. 280. , as exegetical and explanative; though many interpreters understand the vows as distinct from the sacrifice; and that they vowed that the God of the Hebrews should be their God, and that they would for the future serve and worship him only; that they would become proselytes, as Jarchi; or give alms to the poor, as Kimchi; as an evidence of their sense of gratitude to God, the author of their mercies. If these men were truly converted, as it seems as if they were, they were great gainers by this providence; for though they lost their worldly goods, they found what was infinitely better, God to be their God and portion, and all spiritual good thing a with him; and it may be observed of the wise and wonderful providence of God, that though Jonah refused to go and preach to the Gentiles at Nineveh, for which he was corrected; yet God made this dispensation a means of converting other Gentiles.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/jonah-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Then the men l feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows.

(l) They were touched with a certain repentance of their past life, and began to worship the true God by whom they saw themselves as wonderfully delivered. But this was done for fear, and not from a pure heart and affection, neither according to God's word.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/jonah-1.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

offered a sacrifice — They offered some sacrifice of thanksgiving at once, and vowed more when they should land. Glassius thinks it means only, “They promised to offer a sacrifice.”


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/jonah-1.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows.

Feared the Lord — Perhaps as Jonah's casting over-board was a type of Christ's death, so the effect it had upon the mariners might be a type of the conversion of the Heathen from idols unto God.

Made vows — Probably they vowed, they would ever worship him whom Jonah preached, the Creator of heaven and earth.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/jonah-1.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Jonah now declares what fruit followed; and first, he says, that the sailors feared the true God. He uses here the proper name of God, Jehovah; for, as we have already seen, they were addicted to their own superstitions, as each of them cried to his own god: but it was a false notion; for they went astray after their own superstitions. The Prophet now points out the difference, — that they began to fear the true God. At the same time it may have been, that they afterwards relapsed into their own errors; yet it ought not to be overlooked that the Lord constrained them to entertain such a fear. The Hebrews, as it has been already said, sometimes take fear in a general sense, as meaning worship. It is said in 2 Kings 17:32, of the new inhabitants of the land of Canaan, who had been removed from Persia, that they “feared God,” that is, that they imitated the legal rite in sacrifices while worshipping God. But there is an addition in this place, which shows that the meaning is more restricted, for it is said to have been a great fear. Then Jonah means that the sailors and the passengers were not only touched with the fear of God, but that they also had the impression that the God of Israel was the supreme King of heaven and earth, that he held all things under his hand and government. This fear no doubt led them to true knowledge so as to know that they were previously deluded, and that whatever the world had invented was mere delusion, and that the gods devised by the fancies of men were nothing else but mere idols. We now then perceive what Jonah means.

But we must here say somewhat more at large of the fear of God. When the Scripture speaks of the fear of God, it sometimes means the outward worship, and sometimes true piety. When it designates the outward worship, it is no great thing; for hypocrites usually perform their ceremonies, and thus testify that they worship God: but yet, as they obey not God with sincerity of heart, nor bring faith and repentance, they do nothing but trifle. But the fear of God is often taken for true piety; and then it is called the beginning or the chief point of wisdom, or even wisdom itself, as it is in Job 28:28. The fear of God, then, or that pious regard (reventia ) by which the faithful willingly submit themselves to God, is the chief part of wisdom.

But it also often happens that men are touched by servile fear, so as to have a desire to satisfy God, while, at the same time, they have even a wish to draw him down from his throne. This servile fear is full of perverseness; for they, at the same time, champ the bridle, as they cannot exempt themselves from his power and authority. Such was this fear of which Jonah speaks; for all those whom he mentions were not suddenly so changed as to devote themselves to the true God: they had not indeed made such a progress as this; it was not such real and thorough conversion of the soul as changed them into new men. How, then, is it said that they feared? even because the Lord extorted from them a confession at the time: it may have been that some of them afterwards made a greater progress; but I speak now generally of the whole. Because then it is said that they feared God, we are not hence to conclude that they really repented, so as to become wholly devoted to the God of Israel. But yet they were constrained to know and to confess that the God of Israel was the only and the true God. How so? because that dreadful judgment filled them with terror, so that they perceived that he alone was God who had heaven and earth under his command.

We now then see how that fear is to be viewed, of which Jonah speaks. If they afterwards made no farther progress, it only served to condemn them, that these sailors, having perceived by a sure evidence who the only true God was, mingled with the worship of him their wicked and ungodly superstitions, as many do even in our day. The Papists hold this truth in common with us, — that there is one true God, the framer of heaven and earth, yea, they come still nearer, and say that the only-begotten Son of God is our Redeemer; but yet we see how they contaminate the whole worship of God, and turn his truth to a lie; for they blend the worship of God with that of idols, so that there is nothing pure among them. But this main truth is however of great service, when the Lord stretches forth his hand to miserable men; for if there was no conviction of this under the Papacy that the word of God is to be believed, and that Christ the Son of God is the King and Head of the Church, we must have had to employ against them a long circuitous argument; but now an access to them is easy: when we bring against them the Law, and the Prophets, and the Gospel, they are restrained by some measure of reverence, and dare not to reject the authority of the Supreme God. We then see, that this fear is in itself of no great value, if men remain fixed in their own mire; but when it is the Lords purpose afterwards to call them, this fear opens for them the door to true godliness. So it may have been, as I have said, that some of these sailors and passengers had afterwards made better progress. But this fear of itself could have done nothing more than to convict them, so that no excuse could avail them before God’s tribunal; for a proof had been given them, by which they might know that there was no other God than He who was then worshipped by the chosen people.

He afterwards adds that they sacrificed a sacrifice to Jehovah (33) They were accustomed before to offer sacrifices to their idols; but now they testified that they worshipped the God of Israel; for this is what sacrifices signify. But it must at the same time be observed that they thereby expressed this confession, that God confirmed the truth of his word. When, therefore, they perceived that this whole affair was ordered by the will of God, they were constrained to bear witness that he was the true God: this was the end and design of sacrifices.

It may, however, be inquired, whether that sacrifice pleased God. It is certain that whenever men bring forward their own devices, whatever is otherwise worthy of approbation in what they do, it cannot but be corrupted and vitiated by such a mixture; for God, as it is well known, allows of no associate. And we must remember that which is said in Ezekiel, ‘Go ye, sacrifice to the devil, and not to me!’ God there repudiates all the sacrifices which were wont to be offered by the people of Israel, because superstitions were blended with them. God then shows that such a mixture is so disapproved by him, that he chooses rather that the superstitious should wholly give themselves up to the devils than that his holy name should be thus profaned. Hence this sacrifice of itself was not lawful, nor could it have pleased God; but it was, so to speak, by accident and extrinsically that this sacrifice pleased God, — because he designed thus to make known his glory. Though, then, he repudiated the sailors themselves, yet it was his will that this act should bear a testimony to his glory: as, for instance, a deed is often vicious with regard to men, and yet in an accidental way it tends to set forth the glory of God.

And this ought to be carefully borne in mind: there is at this day a dispute, yea a fierce contest, about good works: and the Sophists ever deceive themselves by false reasoning; ( παραλογισμῶ — sophistry) for they suppose that works morally good are either preparatory to the obtaining of grace, or meritorious towards attaining eternal life. When they speak of works morally good, they refer only to the outward deeds; they regard not the fountain or motive, nor even the end. When the heart of man is impure, unquestionably the work which thence flows is also ever impure, and is an abomination before God. When the end also is wrong, when it is not man’s purpose to worship God in sincerity of heart, the deed, however splendid it may appear, is filth in the presence of God. Hence the Sophists are greatly deceived, and are very childish, when they say, that works morally good please God, and are preparatory to grace and meritorious of salvation. But can this be, that a work does not please God, and yet avails to set forth his glory? I answer, that these two things are perfectly consistent, and are in no way so contrary that they cannot be easily reconciled. For God by accident, as I have said, accommodates to his own glory what is in itself vicious; I say, in itself, that is, with respect to men. Thus even under the Papacy the Christian name serves to the glory of God, for there ever remains some remnant. And how has it happened, that at this time the light of the Gospel has shone forth, and that true religion has been restored at least in many places? Even because the Lord has never suffered true religion to be extinguished, though it has been corrupted: for baptism under the Papacy, the very name of Christ as well as of the Church, and the very form of religion — all these have become wholly useless; but they have accidentally, as I have said, been of great service. When, therefore, we regard the priests (sacrificos — the sacrificers) as well as the people, we find nothing but a perverted worship of God; they presumptuously and indiscriminately add their own superstitions and devices to the word of God, and there is nothing pure among them. Since then they thus blend together heaven and earth, they do nothing but provoke God’s wrath against themselves.

We now then understand why Jonah says that the sailors and passengers offered sacrifices. We must, at the same time, remember what I have lately said, that sacrifice was, as it were, a symbol of Divine worship: for even from the beginning this notion prevailed among all, that sacrifices were to be offered to none but to God; and heathens in all ages had no other opinion of sacrifices, but that they thus manifested their piety towards their gods. Since then sacrifices have been from the beginning offered to God alone, it follows, that they at this day are wholly inexcusable who join associates to God, and offer their sacrifices to mortals or to angels. How can this be borne in Christians, since heathens have ever confessed that they regarded those as gods to whom they were wont to offer their sacrifices? Now then, since God declares that the chief sacrifice to him is invocations as we read in Psalms 1:1, the whole of religion under the Papacy must be perverted, as they pray not only to God but even to creatures: for they hesitate not to flee to Peter or to Paul, yea, to their own saints, real and fictitious, in the same manner as to the only true God. Inasmuch, then, as they rob God of this chief right, we see that they tread under foot the whole of religion by this sacrilege. Since, then, heathen men testified that they worshipped Jehovah, the God of Israel, by their external sacrifice, let us learn at this day not to transfer the rightful honor of God to creatures; but let this honor of being alone prayed to, be wholly and entirely reserved for him; for this, as we have said is the chief and the most valuable sacrifice which he demands and approves.

But Jonah also adds, that the sailors vowed vows to God This is a part of thanksgiving; for we know that the object, not only of the holy fathers, but also of the superstitious, in making vows, has ever been this — to bind themselves to God, and also to express their gratitude, and to make it evident, that they owed to him both their life and every favor bestowed on them. This then has in all ages been the reason for making, vows. When, therefore the sailors vowed a vow to God, they renounced their own idols. They cried before to their gods; but now they understand that they had cried in vain, and without any benefit, as they had to no purpose uttered their cries in the air. Now then they made their vows to the only true God; for they knew that their lives were in his hand.

And here we may easily learn how foolishly the Sophists of our day heap together all passages of Scripture which make any mention of vows; for they think that we are to be overwhelmed by that term alone, when we condemn their false vows. But no one of us has ever denied or does deny, that it is lawful to vows provided it be done according to what the Law and the Gospel prescribes. What we hold is, — that men are not thoughtlessly to obtrude on God what comes uppermost, but that they are to vow what he approves, and also, that they regard a right and just end in vowing, even to testify their gratitude to God. But in common vows which are made, there are the grossest errors, as also in the whole of the Papal worship; for they vow this and that to God indiscriminately, and regard not what the Lord requires or approves: one, on certain days, abstains from meat; another combs not his head: and a third trots away on some pilgrimage. All these things, we know, are rejected by God. And further, when they vow nothing but what God approves, it is yet done for a wrong purpose: for they seek in this way to bind God to themselves, and the diabolical conceit of merits ever possesses their minds. And, lastly, they consider not what they can do; they vow perpetual celibacy when at the same time incontinence burns them; and thus we see that, like the giants, they fight with God himself; and, in the meantime, they allow themselves an unbridled liberty as to whatever they vow.

Let us then know, that whenever the Scripture speaks of vows, we are to take for granted these two principles, — that vows as they appertain to the worship of God, ought not to be taken without any discretion, according to men’s fancy, but ought to be regulated and guided by God’s rule, so that men may bring nothing to God, except what they know to be approved by his word, — and then, that they are to keep in view the right end, even to show by this symbol their gratitude to God, to testify that they are preserved by his kindness, as was the case with these sailors, who made a vow because they thought that none but God was their deliverer; and so they testified, that when they came safe to shore, they would make it known that the God of Israel had showed mercy to them. It follows —

How uselessly have learned men often employed their talents, trying to improve what is simply and plainly related. Jerome allegorizes this act of the mariners, and says that their sacrifice was that of praise. A Jewish Rabbi, Jonathan, makes an addition to the sentence — that they said that they would sacrifice to Jehovah; and Grotius adopts his addition. Another Rabbi, Elieser, has fabricated a fine tale, that they returned immediately to Joppa, went up to Jerusalem, and were circumcised! The fact alone is stated here, as to when and where we know nothing, and it signifies nothing to us; only that the most obvious import of the narrative is, that they did offer a sacrifice on board the vessel, immediately after the storm ceased. — Ed.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/jonah-1.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

feared

(See Scofield "Psalms 19:9").


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These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.

Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Jonah 1:16". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/jonah-1.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Jonah 1:16 Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows.

Ver. 16. Then the men feared the Lord exceedingly] Heb. with a great fear. They feared before, Jonah 1:10, with a natural fear; but now they feared Jehovah. They began to bear all awful respect to the Divine majesty, of whose power and goodness they were by this miracle clearly convinced, and, as it may seem, to the true faith effectually converted.

For they offered a sacrifice to the Lord] They sacrificed spiritual sacrifices presently (that holocaust of themselves, Romans 12:1, that broken heart that lieth low and heareth all that God saith, giving thanks to his name, Hebrews 13:15), and resolved to cover God’s altar at Jerusalem upon their safe arrival, as the Chaldee here paraphraseth.

And made vows] That the true God should be their God (as Jacob, the father of vows, promised, Genesis 28:21), and that they would bestow cost on the temple, on the poor saints, to feed and clothe them, as Isaiah 23:18.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/jonah-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Jonah 1:16. And offered a sacrifice, &c.— Houbigant, following the Hebrew, Vulgate, &c. ends the chapter with this verb.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/jonah-1.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Then, when they saw God approved the thing, and confirmed Jonah’s word, as of a true prophet, and had spared them, the men, the seamen, and all others, if any others were in the ship,

feared the Lord; with a deep reverence of his power, wisdom, and justice against Jonah, and of his mercy towards them. What was the final effect of this, and whether they were by it thoroughly turned to God, I inquire not now; it may best become our charity, that as Jonah’s casting overboard was type of Christ’s death, so the effect it had upon the mariners might be a type of the conversion of the heathen from idols to God.

Exceedingly; their fear before was exceeding great, but that was a fear of the danger, and for themselves a natural fear; but now they do fear the Lord and his majesty and mercy, it is a religious fear.

Offered a sacrifice; what they had in the ship to offer to God, or how they could offer there, appears not to us, but the Scripture affirms they did sacrifice, not to idols, but to the true God: some suppose the words are to be interpreted that they would sacrifice at Jerusalem, where they now know that the God of Jonah was worshipped.

Made vows: vows are a part of natural religion, and here these persons bind themselves by vows to recognize God’s goodness in their deliverance. It is not improbable that here is a trajection, as many times in Scripture, that placed last which in construction is to be first. They vowed vows and sacrificed, i.e. vowed they would do it, would be proselytes, and ever worship him Jonah preached to them, Creator of heaven and earth.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/jonah-1.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘Then the men feared YHWH greatly, and they offered a sacrifice to YHWH, and made vows.’

And the result was that the men recognised in YHWH a God Who had to be taken into account, and they paid Him due awed reverence, and offered a sacrifice to Him, and made vows, presumably vowing to continue to honour Him in the future. This would no doubt be done once they had landed, possibly by a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Thus Jonah, who had fled because he did not want to take the message of YHWH to foreigners, had by his actions done precisely that. Whether the men continued in the fear of YHWH we do not know. But at least they had had their opportunity.


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Bibliography
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/jonah-1.html. 2013.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Jonah 1:16. Then the men feared the Lord exceedingly — They were convinced of the power and greatness of that God whom Jonah worshipped: which appeared both in raising this storm, and in so suddenly laying it. And offered sacrifice unto the Lord — Or JEHOVAH and made vows — As it is not probable that they offered a sacrifice on shipboard, this seems to be spoken of what they did when they came safe to the port for which they were bound; namely that they made a public acknowledgment, by sacrifice and other religious acts, of the mercy they had received of God, and of his wonderful power, the effects of which they had witnessed.


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/jonah-1.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Lord. They were converted by this prodigy, and offered sacrifice immediately, or (Calmet) when they came to port. (Menochius) --- All know by the light of reason that sacrifice and vows are acceptable to the Lord. (Worthington)


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/jonah-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

offered, &c. = sacrificed: i.e. they vowed that they would offer [when they landed]. Hebrew. zebach. App-43.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/jonah-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows.

Then the men feared the Lord exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the Lord, and made vows - they offered some sacrifice of thanksgiving at once, and vowed more when they should land. Glassius thinks it means only, 'they promised to offer a sacrifice.'


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/jonah-1.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(16) Offered.—There may have been some live-stock on board suitable for sacrifice; but the offering could only be completed on landing, wherefore they made vows.


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/jonah-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows.
feared
10; Isaiah 26:9; Daniel 4:34-37; 6:26; Mark 4:31; Acts 5:11
offered, etc
Heb. sacrificed a sacrifice unto the Lord, and vowed vows.
Genesis 8:20; Judges 13:16; 2 Kings 5:17; Psalms 107:22; Isaiah 60:5-7
made
Genesis 28:20; Psalms 50:14; 66:13-16; 116:14; Ecclesiastes 5:4

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Jonah 1:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/jonah-1.html.

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