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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Psalms 82:1

 

 

God takes His stand in His own congregation; He judges in the midst of the rulers.

Adam Clarke Commentary

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty - The Hebrew should be translated, "God standeth in the assembly of God." God is among his people; and he presides especially in those courts of justice which himself has established. The Court of King's Bench is properly the place where the king presides, and where he is supposed to be always present. But the kings of England seldom make their appearance there. King James I sometimes attended: at such times it might be said, "The king is in the king's court." I believe the case above to be similar. Judges! beware what you do! God is in his court, and in the midst (of the assembly) God will judge. See Parkhurst under אלה .


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/psalms-82.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty - In the assembly of the rulers and judges; among those of most exalted rank and station. He is there to observe them; to give them law; to direct their decisions; to judge them. He is supreme over them; and he holds them responsible to himself The word rendered congregation is that which is commonly applied to the assembly of the people of Israel, considered as an organized body, or as a body politic. It here, however, refers to magistrates considered as a body or class of people; as those who have assemblages or meetings, with special reference to their duties as magistrates. The word rendered “mighty” - אל 'Êl - is in the singular number, and is one of the names which are given to God; hence, the literal rendering is, “God standeth in the assembly of God.” The Septuagint renders it, In the synagogue of the gods. So also the Latin Vulgate. The reference, however, is undoubtedly to magistrates, and the idea is, that they were to be regarded as representatives of God; as acting in his name; and as those, therefore, to whom, in a subordinate sense, the name gods might be given. Compare Psalm 82:6. In Exodus 21:6; Exodus 22:8-9, Exodus 22:28, also, the same word in the plural is applied to magistrates, and is properly translated judges in our common version. Compare the notes at John 10:34-35. The idea is, that they were the representatives of the divine sovereignty in the administration of justice. Compare Romans 13:1-2, Romans 13:6. They were, in a sense, gods to other people; but they were not to forget that God stood among them as their God; that if they were exalted to a high rank in respect to their fellowmen, they were, nevertheless, subject to One to whom the name of God belonged in the highest sense.

He judgeth among the gods - As they to whom the name gods is thus given as the representatives of the divine sovereignty judged among people, so God would judge among them. If they were, in some sense (in consequence of their representing the divine majesty, and deriving their power and appointment from God), independent of people, they were in no sense independent of God himself.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/psalms-82.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

PSALM 82

A DENUNCIATION OF ISRAEL'S EVIL JUDGES

This psalm is misunderstood by some to be, "A denunciation of the angels whom God had put in charge of the earth,"[1] a position that was advocated by Professor Cheyne, who cited Daniel 10:13-21 and Daniel 12:1 as supporting the notion that angels have charge of earthly affairs. However, in the first reference, Michael the archangel is called, not a ruler, but "a helper"; and Daniel 12:1 says nothing that is inconsistent with the statement in Hebrews that all of God's angels are "ministering spirits," that is, serving spirits, "Sent forth to do service for them that shall inherit salvation" (Hebrews 1:14).

All authority in heaven and upon earth belongs to Jesus Christ (Matthew 28:18-20); and that leaves none at all for angels, except in a very limited and secondary sense, as they are assigned to do many things for the benefit of God's children. Our commentaries on Daniel and Hebrews, Under the references cited here, carry full discussions of all the questions raised by these passages.

The verse within this psalm which triggers such speculations as that of Cheyne is Psalms 82:6:

"I said, Ye are gods,

And all of you sons of the Most High." (Psalms 82:6)

The incorrect notion that "sons of God" is a reference to angels is based upon a misinterpretation of Genesis 6:2; but there are no less than seven reasons why the "sons of God," mentioned in Genesis 6:2 cannot possibly be "angels." An enumeration of these reasons is given in our commentary on Genesis (Vol. I of the Pentateuchal Series), pp. 98,99.

Could we be wrong about this? Absolutely not! For Christ himself told us who the "gods" and "sons of God" in Psalms 82:6 really were.

Jesus answered them, Is it not written ... I said, Ye are gods? If he called them gods unto whom the Word of God came (and the scripture cannot be broken), how say ye of him ... whom the Father sent into the world, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God? (John 10:34-36)

Christ in this passage quoted the 6th verse of this psalm (Psalms 82:6), identifying the "gods" and "sons of God" (the Most High) in our passage here as the persons who had received God's law. They were not angels, but human judges, whose wickedness is so severely denounced in this psalm.

Like Maclaren, we accept our Lord's reference to Psalms 82:6 in John 10:34ff "As authoritatively settling both the meaning and the ground of the remarkable name `gods' for human judges."[2] As McCaw stated it, "`Gods' here means, `you sit in God's place, exercising judgment.'"[3]

The gross error of some scholars in not catching on to what "gods" in Psalms 82:6 really means is due to only one thing, namely, their lack of knowledge of the New Testament. As we have frequently noted, nobody can really understand the Old Testament without a thorough knowledge of the New Testament. An apostle said as much in 2 Corinthians 3:12-16.

There are, to be sure, many suggestions as to the date; but Rawlinson's conclusion is as dependable as any that we know.

The writer of this psalm may well have been the Asaph of David's time. It consists of an exordium (Psalms 82:1), denunciations (Psalms 82:2-7), and a conclusion (Psalms 82:8).

Psalms 82:1

THE EXORDIUM

"God standeth in the congregation of God;

He judgeth among the gods."

"The gods" of this verse are the same as those of Psalms 82:6, below; and "God's standing in the congregation of God" is a reference to God's presence among his people on earth, that is, the Israelites, the special purpose of his presence among them being that of warning and denouncing the evil judges, upon whom so much of the blame for the tragedy of Israel rested.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/psalms-82.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty,.... The Syriac version renders it, "in the congregation of angels"; they are mighty, and excel in strength, and there is a large company of them, even an innumerable one, and who surround the throne of the Majesty on high. Christ, who is God over all, was among those on Mount Sinai, and when he ascended to heaven; and with these he will descend when he comes a second time, Psalm 68:17. The Targum interprets it of the righteous thus,

"God, whose majesty (or Shechinah) dwells in the congregation of the righteous that are strong in the law.'

It may be better understood of such as are strong in the Lord, in the grace that is in Christ, and in the exercise of grace upon him; who are gathered out of the world unto him, and unto distinct societies and congregations; in the midst of which God is, where he grants his presence, bestows the blessings of his grace, and affords his divine aid and protection; and where Christ the Son of God is, and will be to the end of the world. The words may be rendered, "God standeth in the congregation of God"F1בעדת אל "in congregatione Dei", Pagninus, Cocceius, Gejerus, Michaelis; so Vatablus, Junius & Tremellius, Piscator, Ainsworth. : that is, in his own congregation, his church and people; but it seems best of all to understand the words of rulers and civil magistrates, of the cabinet councils of princes, of benches of judges, and courts of judicature; in all which God is present, and observes what is said and done; perhaps reference may be had to the Jewish sanhedrim, the chief court of judicature with the Jews, consisting of seventy one persons; in the midst of which Christ, God manifest in the flesh, God in our nature, stood, and was ill used, and most unjustly judged by them, of whose unjust judgment complaint is made in the next verse:

he judgeth among the gods: which the Syriac version renders "angels" again; and so Aben Ezra interprets it of them, who are so called, Psalm 8:5, but rather civil magistrates are meant, the rulers and judges of the people, who go by this name of "elohim", or gods, in Exodus 21:6, and are so called because they are the powers ordained of God, are representatives of him, are his vicegerents and deputies under him; should act in his name, according to his law, and for his glory, and are clothed with great power and authority from and under him; and therefore are before styled the "mighty". Among these Christ, the Son of God, judges, to whom all judgment is committed; he qualifies these for the discharge of their office, he directs them how to judge, and all the right judgment they make and do is from him, "by" whom "kings"

reign, and princes decree justice; by whom princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth; and to whom they are all accountable, and will be themselves judged by him another day, Proverbs 8:15 so the Targum,

"in the midst of the judges of truth he judges.'


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/psalms-82.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

"A Psalm of Asaph." God standeth in the congregation of the a mighty; he judgeth among the gods.

(a) The prophet shows that if princes and judges do not do their duty, God whose authority is above them will take vengeance on them.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/psalms-82.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Psalm 82:1-8. Before the great Judge, the judges of the earth are rebuked, exhorted, and threatened.

congregation — (Compare Exodus 12:3; Exodus 16:1).

of the mighty — that is, of God, of His appointment.

the gods — or, “judges” (Exodus 21:6; Exodus 22:9), God‘s representatives.


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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/psalms-82.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods.

Standeth — To observe all that is said or done there.

Mighty — Kings or chief rulers. By their congregation he understands all persons whatsoever of this high and sacred order.

Judgeth — Passes sentence upon them.

The gods — Judges and magistrates are called gods, because they have their commission from God, and act as his deputies.


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Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/psalms-82.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

1God sitteth in the assembly of God. (424) It is unquestionably a very unbecoming thing for those whom God has been pleased to invest with the government of mankind for the common good, not to acknowledge the end for which they have been exalted above others, nor yet by whose blessing they have been placed in so elevated a station; but instead of doing this, contemning every principle of equity, to rule just as their own unbridled passions dictate. So infatuated are they by their own splendor and magnificence, as to imagine that the whole world was made only for them. Besides, they think that it would derogate from their elevated rank were they to be governed by moderate counsels; and although their own folly is more than enough to urge them on in their reckless career, they, notwithstanding, seek for flatterers to soothe and applaud them in their vices. To correct this arrogance, the psalm opens by asserting, that although men occupy thrones and judgment-seats, God nevertheless continues to hold the office of supreme ruler. God has made even a heathen and licentious poet bear testimony to this truth in the following lines: —

Regum timendorum in proprios greges,
Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis,
Clari giganteo triumpho,
Cuncta supercilio moventis
.”
Horatii, Carm. Liber in Ode i.

Kings rule their subject flocks; great Jove
O’er kings themselves his reign extends,
Who hurl’d the rebel giants from above;
At whose majestic nod all nature bends.”
Boscawen’s Translation.

That the potentates of this world may not arrogate to themselves more than belongs to them, the prophet here erects a throne for God, from which he judges them all, and represses their pride; a thing which is highly necessary. They may, indeed, admit that they owe their elevation to royal power to the favor of God, and they may worship him by outward ceremonies, but their greatness so infatuates them that they are chargeable with expelling and casting him to a distance from their assembly, by their vain imaginations; for they cannot bear to be subject to reason and laws. Thus the design of the prophet was to deride the madness by which the princes of this world are bewitched, in leaving God no place in their assembly. The more effectually to overthrow this irrational self-confidence with which they are intoxicated, civil order is termed the assembly of God; for although the divine glory shines forth in every part of the world, yet when lawful government flourishes among men, it is reflected therefrom with pre-eminent lustre. I indeed grant that it is quite common for the Hebrews to adorn with the title of God whatever is rare and excellent. But here it would appear, from the scope of the passage, that this name of the Divine Being is applied to those who occupy the exalted station of princes, in which there is afforded a peculiar manifestation of the majesty of God; even as Solomon, in Proverbs 2:17, calls marriage “the covenant of God,” from the peculiar sanctity by which that relation is distinguished.

In the second clause of the verse, it is not material whether we read, He will judge in the midst of the gods, or, He will judge the gods in the midst. The first construction, however, is the most easy and natural, That however much the rulers of the world may exalt themselves, they cannot in the least impair the authority of God, by divesting him of his sovereignty over them and of the government of all things, which he will ever retain as his inalienable prerogative. But here, as also a little after, the name gods is to be understood of judges, on whom God has impressed special marks of his glory. To apply it to angels is a fancy too strained to admit of serious consideration.

“God standeth in the assembly;
God, in the midst of the gods, giveth sentence.”

On which he has the following note: — “In what assembly? The assembly of his holy angels. The Psalmist, I think, poetically imagines the celestial court assembled for the business of this review of the proceedings of the earth’s judges, and God, in the midst of his angels, taxing their iniquity, and awarding their punishment.”


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/psalms-82.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Psalms 82:1 « A Psalm of Asaph. » God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods.

Ver. 1. God standeth in the congregation of the mighty] There God is present and president by a particular providence, as Lord paramount, Ut praeses Synodi, and chief magistrate, higher than the highest, Ecclesiastes 5:8, Job 31:14, Ephesians 6:9. The Ethiopian judges, they say, do ever leave the chief seat of judicature empty for him, Locus praesidis est medius locus in ccetibus; and Solomon, for like reason, calleth that seat the holy place, Ecclesiastes 8:10. There Elohim (that is, the judge and avenger) standeth, or setteth himself, to behold the actions and affections of judges, and to pass a censure upon their sentences. Good, therefore, was the counsel of Jehoshaphat to his judges when to ride circuit, 2 Chronicles 19:6, "Take heed what ye do: for ye judge not for man, but for the Lord, who is with you in the judgment. Wherefore now let the fear of the Lord your God be upon you; take heed and do it," &c. Judges should sit in as great, though not so slavish, a fear of offending as Olanes, in the history, did upon the flayed skin of his father Silannes, nailed by Cambyses on the tribunal; or as a Russian judge, that feareth the boiling caldron or open battocking; or the Turkish Senate, when they think the Great Turk to stand behind the arras at the dangerous door.

He judgeth among the gods] i.e. Among the magistrates (as our Saviour interpreteth it, John 10:34-35), who are called gods. First, By analogy, tanquam Deum imitantes, saith Theodoret, as resembling God, by having the power of life and death. Secondly, By participation, tanquam lumina illuminata, saith Austin; as stars participate their light from the sun, so do rulers their authority from the supreme Majesty. Thirdly, By deputation from God, whose viceregents they are, and to whom they must be accountable for their mal-administration.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/psalms-82.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Psalms 82.

The Psalmist, having exhorted the judges, and reproved their negligence, prayeth God to judge.

A Psalm of Asaph.

Title. ףּלאס מזמור mizmor leasaph This psalm is an admonition to justice, and an upbraiding reproof against the injustice of the Jewish tribunals; with an appeal to God, the supreme and just judge. The courts of justice in Hezekiah's reign were very corrupt: see Isaiah 1:23 where the judges and magistrates are called princes, in respect of their superiority over the common people; and here they are called gods, in respect to the fountain of their power, which was from the Most High. In this view the psalm conveys an useful admonition to all ministers of justice; from the supreme judge of the highest earthly tribunal, down to the most inferior and petty magistrate.

Psalms 82:1. God standeth in the congregation of the mighty God presideth in his courts of justice. Hebrew, In the court of justice of God. But the singular seems to be used here collectively for all the courts of justice in the land. See Psalms 82:5. The courts of justice were God's, as the judges were his vice-gerents; the charge given them being, Take heed what ye do; for ye judge not for man, but for the Lord; who is present with you in the judgment. 2 Chronicles 19:6. It is plain from Numbers 15:33 that the word עדה eidah, rendered congregation, signifies, properly, a court of justice; to which sense the turn and drift of the psalm immediately leads. Respecting the word אלהים elohim, or gods, which signifies judges, in this place, see Green, and Exodus 21:6.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/psalms-82.html. 1801-1803.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

The sacred writer is here addressing himself to princes and magistrates, by way of reminding them that when they sit in judgment the eye of Jehovah is upon them. But the most interesting part of this Psalm is that which points to Christ.

A Psalm of Asaph.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/psalms-82.html. 1828.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

PSALM 82

THE ARGUMENT

This Psalm contains an admonition, either,

1. To the chief rulers of Israel, whether judges or kings, or their great council called the Sanhedrim. Or rather,

2. To all the rulers of the several nations of the world, to whom this word might come; as may be gathered, partly from the expressions here used, which are general, and not peculiar to the governors of Israel, and therefore not rashly and unnecessarily to be restrained; and partly from the last verse, where he mentions the whole earth and all nations as concerned in the contents of this Psalm.

The psalmist, exhorting and expostulating with the judges, Psalms 82:1-4, reproveth their want of judgment and negligence, Psalms 82:5-7, and prayeth the Lord to judge, Psalms 82:8.

Standeth, as a judge, diligently to observe all that is said or done there; and to give sentence accordingly. The judge sits when he heareth causes, but standeth up when he giveth sentence. Or standing doth not note the posture, but only the being or presence of a person, as Isaiah 11:10 Daniel 11:20 John 3:29; whence this Hebrew word is by some learned interpreters rendered is present, and by others, presideth, as this word is used, 1 Samuel 19:20 22:9.

Of the mighty; or, of the gods, as it is explained and expressed in the next clause; the singular number being here, as it is frequently elsewhere, put for the plural. By gods, or the mighty, he understands kings, or other chief rulers, who are so called, because they have their power and commission from God, and act as his deputies, in his name and stead, and must give an account to him of all their actions. And by their congregation he understands not a convention or assembly of such persons which seldom meet together, but either,

1. All congregations or assemblies of people in which magistrates sit to execute justice. Or,

2. All persons whatsoever of this high and sacred order or number; for the Hebrew word here rendered

congregation doth not always signify an assembly of persons met together in one place, but sometimes notes all the particular persons of or belonging to such a sort and body of men, though dispersed in divers places, as Psalms 26:5, I have hated the congregation of evil-doers, i.e. all evil-doers; Proverbs 21:16, he shall remain in the congregation of the dead, i.e. shall be one of that number and state. See also Joshua 22:20 Psalms 74:19. Some render it as it is in the Hebrew, in the congregation of God, in his own congregation, the noun being put for the pronoun, as is usual in the Hebrew text, i.e. in the conventions or tribunals of princes or rulers, which he rightly calls his, because their authority is wholly derived from him. But the former exposition seems more agreeable, both to the following words, and to the scope and whole body of the Psalm. Judgeth; accurately observeth all their carriages, and passeth sentence upon them accordingly. Gods, i.e. judges and magistrates, who are called gods, below, Psalms 82:6 Exodus 12:12 12:28, compared with Acts 23:5 Psalms 138:1, and of whom this is expounded, John 10:34,35.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/psalms-82.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1. God standeth in the congregation of the mighty—Literally, God is standing in the congregation of God, not only in the midst of the whole commonwealth of his people, (as Numbers 27:16-17,) but especially in the assizes, the assemblies he has commanded for justice. This presence of God is the central idea of this profoundly theocratic psalm, and a favourite doctrine of the Asaphic compositions. (Psalms 50:1.)

He judgeth among the gods—That is, among the judges, or ruling magistrates. See Psalms 82:6


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/psalms-82.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

1. The Judge of the Judges 82:1

The writer envisioned God sitting as Judge over a gathering of human Judges , the judges that lived in every town in Israel. The human judges in Israel served as God"s judicial representatives among His people. The Hebrew word translated "rulers" (NASB) or "gods" (NIV) is elohim (lit. strong ones). This word usually describes God in the Old Testament, but sometimes it refers to the strong ones in Israel, namely, the human rulers or authorities (cf. Psalm 45:6; Exodus 21:6; Exodus 22:8-9). It does not refer to angels here (cf. Ephesians 6:12) as the Syriac translators thought. This is clear from the context. It does not refer to the gods of the heathen either (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:20).


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/psalms-82.html. 2012.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Psalms 82:1. God standeth in the congregation — As a judge, diligently to observe all that is said or done there, and to give sentence accordingly. The judge sits when he hears causes, but stands up when he gives sentence. Or standing may here be intended, not to denote the posture of the person, but only his being present. Whence this Hebrew word נצב, nitzab, is by some learned interpreters rendered, is present, and by others, presideth, as this word is used, 1 Samuel 19:20; 1 Samuel 22:9. Of the mighty — Or, of the gods, as it is expressed and explained in the next clause, the singular number, אל, eel, being here, as it is frequently elsewhere, put for the plural. He judgeth among the gods — Accurately observeth all their conduct, and passes sentence upon them accordingly. By gods or, the mighty, he understands kings, or other chief rulers, judges, and magistrates, called gods below, Psalms 82:6; Exodus 12:12; Exodus 22:28. compared with Psalms 138:1, and John 10:35. They are called gods, because they have their power and commission from God, and act as his deputies, in his name and stead, and must give an account to him of their conduct in their high office and station. And by their congregation he means not a convention or assembly of such persons who seldom meet together, but either, 1st, All congregations or assemblies of people in which magistrates sit to execute justice. Or, 2d, All persons whatsoever of this high and sacred order or number; for the word here rendered congregation, doth not always signify an assembly of persons met together in one place, but sometimes denotes all the particular persons of, or belonging to, such a sort or body of men, though dispersed in divers places: see Psalms 26:5; Proverbs 21:16. Some render it as it is in the Hebrew, in the congregation of God; in his own congregation, that is, in the conventions or tribunals of princes or rulers, which he rightly calls his, because their authority is wholly derived from him. But the former exposition seems more agreeable, both to the following words, and to the scope and whole body of the Psalm.


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/psalms-82.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Asaph. This psalm alludes to the wars of David, (2 Kings viii.; Berthier) against Ammon, (Bossuet) or of the Jews returned from captivity, (2 Esdras iv., and Ezechiel xxxviii.; Theodoret) or of the Machabees; (1 Machabees v., and 2 Machabees x.; Bellarmine) or rather of Josaphat, 2 Paralipomenon xx. (Kimchi) (Hammond) (Calmet) --- All in danger are taught to have recourse to God. (Berthier)


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/psalms-82.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew. mizm6r. App-65.

of Asaph. The eleventh of the twelve Asaph Psalms.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

standeth: i.e. officially.

the congregation of the mighty = GOD"S (Hebrew El. App-4. IV) assembly (in its civil aspect).

gods. Elohim: used of earthly judges as representing Him. Compare Exodus 21:6; Exodus 22:8, Exodus 22:9, Exodus 22:28 (quoted in Acts 23:5). Hence, Moses is so spoken of (Exodus 7:1). (It is used also of idols as representing even a false god.) See John 10:34, John 10:35.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/psalms-82.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods.

Psalms 82:1-8.-God stands as Judge in the congregation where princes, His representatives, preside (Psalms 82:1); He reproves them for partiality to the wicked, and urges them to right the afflicted (Psalms 82:2-4); but they will not understand (Psalms 82:5); therefore sentences is passed upon them, the more terrible as they were once "gods," as His representatives (Psalms 82:6-7); prayer for the judgment (Psalms 82:8). The "congregation" is Israel; and now, professing Christendom. 'Elohiym (Hebrew #430) - "gods" - is a term not for pagan potentates, but for God's vicegerents in His visible kingdom. The ground of His judgment is their responsibility as persons "unto whom the word of God came" (John 10:34-35). None else could be called "children of the Most High" (Psalms 82:6; Isaiah 1:17; Isaiah 3:13-15; Jeremiah 22:3; Mac. 3:1-4; especially Deuteronomy 1:16-17; also 2 Chronicles 19:5-10). God's representatives bear His name (Exodus 22:28). Israel's throne was 'the throne of Yahweh' (1 Chronicles 29:23). Thus there was designed to be in the people reverence for rulers and judges as God's vicegerents, and in the judges a sense of solemn responsibility, so as to act as would God the Supreme Judge (Job 34:19). But the judges thought only of the rights, not of the duties of their divine office. Asaph, the Seer, shows them what the eye of sense could not see-`God standing as Judge in the congregation,' which is His, not theirs and "judging among" the judges, or "gods" (cf. Exodus 4:16; Exodus 7:1).

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty - `standeth up;' cometh forward, as Isaiah 3:13-14, "The Lord standeth up [the same Hebrew verb as here, nitsaab (Hebrew #5324)] to plead, and standeth to judge the people," etc. Similarly the 50th Psalm, which is also of Asaph's composition, begins with the appearing of God for judgment.

In this congregation of the mighty - rather, 'in the congregation of God' [ 'Eel (Hebrew #410)] corresponding to 'Elohiym (Hebrew #430), "the gods," which follow. It is because the congregation is His specially (Psalms 74:2, "Thy congregation which thou hast purchased of old") the God can suffer no unrighteousness or abuse of power on the part of those who are His representatives, bearing His name ( 'Elohiym (Hebrew #430), "the gods") as His vicegerents in His congregation. The "congregation" [ `


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/psalms-82.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(1) Standeth.—In the Hebrew a participle, with an official ring about it. (See Isaiah 3:13.) It is used to designate departmental officers (1 Kings 4:5; 1 Kings 4:7; 1 Kings 4:27; 1 Kings 9:23. Comp. 1 Samuel 22:9; Ruth 2:5-6). Thus the psalm opens with the solemn statement that God had taken His official place as president of the bench of judges.

Congregation of the mighty.—Rather, assembly of God, or divine assembly; elsewhere, “the congregation of Jehovah” (Numbers 27:17; Numbers 31:16; Joshua 22:16-18), i.e., “Israel in its religious character.”

He judgeth among the gods—i.e., He is among the judges as presiding judge. For “gods,” applied to men delegated with office from God, see Exodus 21:6, and, possibly, Exodus 22:8-9. (See also Note, Psalms 8:5, and comp. Exodus 4:16; Exodus 7:1.) The custom of designating God’s vicegerents by the Divine name was a very natural one. The whole point of Psalms 82:6 lies in the double meaning the word can bear. (See Note.)


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/psalms-82.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods.
A. M. 3108. B.C. 896. (Title.) A Psalm. Some refer this psalm to the time of David, and others to that of Hezekiah; but it is more probable that it was composed when Jehoshaphat reformed the courts throughout his kingdom
2 Chronicles 19:6,7
of Asaph
or, for Asaph.
God, etc
Or, "God standeth in the assembly of God, ail, he judgeth among the judges." Elohim: God is among His own people; and presides especially in those courts of justice which Himself has established.
Exodus 18:21; 2 Chronicles 19:6,7; Ecclesiastes 5:8
the gods
6,7; 138:1; Exodus 21:6; 22:28; John 10:35

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Psalms 82:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/psalms-82.html.

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