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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Romans 1:29

 

 

being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips,

Adam Clarke Commentary

Being filled with all unrighteousness - αδικια, every vice contrary to justice and righteousness.

Fornication - Πορνειᾳ, all commerce between the sexes out of the bounds of lawful marriage. Some of the best MSS. omit this reading; and others have ακαθαρσιᾳ, uncleanness.

Wickedness - Πονηριᾳ, malignity, that which is oppressive to its possessor and to its object; from πονος, labor, toil, etc.

Covetousness - Πλεονεξιᾳ, from πλειον, more, and ἑξω, I will have; the intense love or lust of gain; the determination to be rich; the principle of a dissatisfied and discontented soul.

Maliciousness - Κακιᾳ, malice, ill-will; what is radically and essentially vicious.

Full of envy - Φθονου, from φθινω, to wither, decay, consume, pine away, etc.; "pain felt and malignity conceived at the sight of excellence or happiness in another." A fine personification of this vice is found in Ovid Metam. lib. ii. ver. 768-781, which I shall here insert, with Mr. Addison's elegant and nervous translation.

- Videt intus edentem

Vipereas carnes, vitiorum alimenta suorum

Invidiam: visaque oculos avertit. At illa

Surgit humo pigra: semesarumque relinquit

Corpora serpentum, passuque incedit inerti.

Utgue deam vidit formaque armisque decoram,

Ingemuit: vultumque ima ad suspiria duxit.

Pallor in Ore sedet: macies in Corpore toto:

Nusquam recta acies: livent rubigine dentes:

Pectora felle virent: lingua est suffusa veneno.

Risus abest, nisi quem visi movere dolores:

Nec fruitur somno, vigilacibus excita curis:

Sed videt ingratos, intabescitque videndo

Successus hominum; carpitgue et carpitur una;

Suppliciumque suum est.

- A poisonous morsel in her teeth she chewed,

And gorged the flesh of vipers for her food.

Minerva loathing, turned away her eye.

The hideous monster, rising heavily,

Came stalking forward with a sullen pace,

And left her mangled offals on the place.

Soon as she saw the goddess gay and bright,

She fetched a groan at such a cheerful sight.

Livid and meagre were her looks, her eye

In foul distorted glances turned awry;

A hoard of gall her inward parts possessed,

And spread a greenness o'er her canker'd breast;

Her teeth were brown with rust, and from her tongue

In dangling drops the stringy poison hung.

She never smiles but when the wretched weep;

Nor lulls her malice with a moment's sleep:

Restless in spite while watchful to destroy,

She pines and sickens at another's joy;

Foe to herself, distressing and distressed,

She bears her own tormentor in her breast.

Murder - Φονου, taking away the life of another by any means; mortal hatred; for he that hates his brother in his heart is a murderer.

Debate - Εριδος, contention, discord, etc. Of this vile passion the Greeks made a goddess.

Deceit - Δολου, lying, falsity, prevarication, imposition, etc.; from δελω, to take with a bait.

Malignity - Κακοηθειας, from κακος, evil, and ηθος, a custom; bad customs, founded in corrupt sentiment, producing evil habits, supported by general usage. It is generally interpreted, a malignity of mind, which leads its possessor to put the worst construction on every action; ascribing to the best deeds the worst motives.

Whisperers - ψιθυριστος, secret detractors; those who, under pretended secrecy, carry about accusations against their neighbors, whether true or false; blasting their reputation by clandestine tittle-tattle. This word should be joined to the succeeding verse.

The whispering is well expressed by the Greek word Ψιθυριστας, psithuristas .


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/romans-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Being filled - That is, the things which he specifies were common or abounded among them. This is a strong phrase, denoting that these things were so often practiced as that it might be said they were full of them. We have a phrase like this still, when we say of one that he is full of mischief, etc.

Unrighteousness - ἀδικία adikiaThis is a word denoting injustice, or iniquity in general. The particular specifications of the iniquity follow.

Fornication - This was a common and almost universal sin among the ancients, as it is among the moderns. The word denotes all illicit sexual intercourse. That this was a common crime among the ancient pagan, it would be easy to show, were it proper, even in relation to their wisest and most learned men. They who wish to see ample evidence of this charge may find it in Tholuck‘s “Nature and Moral Influence of Heathenism,” in the Biblical Repository, vol. ii. p. 441-464.

Wickedness - The word used here denotes a desire of injuring others; or, as we should express it, malice. It is that depravity and obliquity of mind which strives to produce injury on others. (Calvin.)

Covetousness - Avarice, or the desire of obtaining what belongs to others. This vice is common in the world; but it would be particularly so where the other vices enumerated here abounded, and people were desirous of luxury, and the gratification of their senses. Rome was particularly desirous of the wealth of other nations, and hence, its extended wars, and the various evils of rapine and conquest.

Licentiousness - κακία kakiaThis word denotes evil in general; rather the act of doing wrong than the desire which was expressed before by the word “wickedness.”

Full of envy - “Pain, uneasiness, mortification, or discontent, excited by another‘s prosperity, accompanied with some degree of hatred or malignity, and often with a desire or an effort to depreciate the person, and with pleasure in seeing him depressed” (Webster). This passion is so common still, that it is not necessary to attempt to prove that it was common among the ancients. It seems to be natural to the human heart. It is one of the most common manifestations of wickedness, and shows clearly the deep depravity of man. Benevolence rejoices at the happiness of others, and seeks to promote it. But envy exists almost everywhere, and in almost every human bosom:

“All human virtue, to its latest breath,

Finds envy never conquered but by death.”

Pope.

Murder - “The taking of human life with premeditated malice by a person of a sane mind.” This is necessary to constitute murder now, but the word used here denotes all manslaughter, or taking human life, except what occurs as the punishment of crime. It is scarcely necessary to show that this was common among the Gentiles. It has prevailed in all communities, but it was particularly prevalent in Rome. It is necessary only to refer the reader to the common events in the Roman history of assassinations, deaths by poison, and the destruction of slaves. But in a special manner the charge was properly alleged against them, on account of the inhuman contests of the gladiators in the amphitheaters. These were common at Rome, and constituted a favorite amusement with the people. Originally captives, slaves, and criminals were trained up for combat; but it afterward became common for even Roman citizens to engage in these bloody combats, and Nero at one show exhibited no less than four hundred senators and six hundred knights as gladiators.

The fondness for this bloody spectacle continued until the reign of Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, by whom they were abolished about six hundred years after the original institution. “Several hundred, perhaps several thousand, victims were annually slaughtered in the great cities of the empire.” Gibbon‘s Decline and Fall, chapter xxx. 404 a.d. As an instance of what might occur in this inhuman spectacle, we may refer to what took place on such an occasion in the reign of Probus (281 a.d.). During his triumph, near 700 gladiators were reserved to shed each other‘s blood for the amusement of the Roman people. But “disdaining to shed their blood for the amusement of the populace, they killed their keepers, broke from their place of confinement, and filled the streets of Rome with blood and confusion.” Gibbon‘s Decline and Fall, chapter 12. With such views and with such spectacles before them, it is not wonderful that murder was regarded as a matter of little consequence, and hence, this crime prevailed throughout the world.

Debate - Our word debate does not commonly imply evil. It denotes commonly discussion for elucidating truth; or for maintaining a proposition, as the debates in Parliament, etc. But the word in the original meant also contention, strife, altercation, connected with anger and heated zeal; Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 1:11; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20; Galatians 5:20; Philemon 1:15; 1 Timothy 6:4; Titus 3:9. This contention and strife would, of course, follow from malice and covetousness, etc.

Deceit - This denotes fraud, falsehood, etc. That this was common is also plain. The Cretans are testified by one of the Greek poets to have been always liars. Titus 1:12. Juvenal charges the same thing on the Romans. (Sat. iii. 41.) “What,” says he, “should I do at Rome? I cannot lie.” Intimating that if he were there, it would follow, of course, that he would be expected to be false. The same thing is still true. Writers on India tell us that the word of a Hindu even under oath is not to be regarded; and the same thing occurs in most pagan countries.

Malignity - This word signifies here, not malignity in general, but that particular species of it which consists in misinterpreting the words or actions of others, or putting the worst construction on their conduct.

Whisperers - Those who secretly, and in a sly manner, by hints and inuendoes, detract from others, or excite suspicion of them. It does not mean those who openly calumniate, but that more dangerous class who give hints of evil in others, who affect great knowledge, and communicate the evil report under an injunction of secrecy, knowing that it will be divulged. This class of people abounds everywhere, and there is scarcely any one more dangerous to the peace or happiness of society.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/romans-1.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

Being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness, full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity; whisperers, backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, unmerciful: who, knowing the ordinance of God, that they that practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also consent with them that practice them.

There are several such lists of sins in Paul's writings, 2 Timothy 3:1-8 and Galatians 5:19-21 being two others. In one of these, Paul attributes such conduct to the "corrupted in mind," and in the other to those practicing the "works of the flesh"; therefore, the same type of sinner is in view in all these. The lists are by no means identical, although touching in a number of places. The effort of scholars to organize or classify these lists has been rewarded with little or no success. This writer agrees with Fritsche who recommended that the student:

Not spend his time and ingenuity in arranging into distinct classes words whose meanings, and vices whose characteristics, differ only by a shade from each other.[54]

Griffith Thomas presented as one acceptable classification of these 21 words the following fourfold division of them:

The first four comprehend general descriptions of evil, but with special reference to property; (2) then come eight words which speak of a disregard of proper relationships; (3) these in turn are followed by three words descriptive of general depravity of character; and (4) last of all, there are six words expressive of unprincipled worthlessness of life.[55]

However, after making the above classification, Thomas added:

In any case, the list refers to sins of inward disposition and outward act, to sins of thought, word, and deed, to wrong against self, and against neighbor, as well as against God.

Regarding the last verse of this portion, it was Godet's opinion that "DEATH here denotes death as only God can inflict it";[56] but it is not clear why some believe capital punishment, as inflicted by man, is excluded. The outrageous nature of the evil deeds Paul mentioned is underscored by the fact that certain people not only practiced such things but encouraged and applauded that type of conduct. John Murray probably had the correct view in the following:

The death referred to cannot be reasonably restricted to temporal death. The Greeks themselves taught a doctrine of retribution for the wicked after death, and the apostle must have taken this into account in the statement of that which he credited the nations with knowing. Furthermore, he is here defining that in which the ordinance of God consists, and he cannot, in terms of his own teaching elsewhere, confine it to the judgment of temporal death. Knowledge of God's penal judgment as it issues in the torments of the life to come is recognized, therefore, by the apostle, as belonging to those with whom he is now concerned.[57]

Tellingly, this final verse of Romans 1 makes it clear that a certain minimal knowledge of God remains in the most depraved. The wicked persons who were Paul's subject here were surely at the bottom of the moral totem pole; but Paul here credits them with the inward recognition that God's righteous ordinance against their sins was just, or "righteous." This shows that the most outrageously wicked are aware of the moral contradiction in their deeds and that they inwardly acknowledge them to be deserving of death; and it is a fair conclusion that such people can have only contempt for a society that tries to explain all criminality as "sickness," and excuses the basest of human criminality on the basis that the perpetrator needed "help." Reference is here made to that man who walked into the Houston, Texas, police station, confessed the cold-blooded murder of twin brothers enrolled at Rice University, at the same time commending himself to the tolerance and forgiveness of society upon the premise that he was a man who needed help![58]

Sin is not sickness, at least in the ordinary meaning of either word. The type of sin under view here, by the apostle, is an arrogant and murderous rebellion against God and all righteousness, perpetrated by a bold and vicious enemy of all truth and goodness, who is properly judged only when such a one is recognized as a malignant parasite upon the body of mankind, amply deserving capital punishment in the present life and the suffering of eternal death in the life to come - only with this provision, that if, in the prospect of his deserved earthly punishment, the criminal truly seeks forgiveness in Christ through repentance and obedient faith, the latter and greater of the two penalties might, through God's grace and mercy, be averted. And precisely here is one of the benefits of capital punishment, that the shock of it, as the grim prospect of it is realized by the sinner, may lead to his repentance where all other measures failed.

The whole paragraph of wicked deeds should be understood as characteristic of the type of character Paul had in mind, that is, in a composite sense, the hardened sinner deserving death, being understood as manifesting all these evil qualities, and not merely some of them. The life-cycle of such a man is here presented in its aggregate, beginning with disobedience of parents in his childhood, running the full gamut of evil, and producing at last a man hated by God himself! To be sure, no chronological or other order was observed in this depiction of the death-deserving sinner, the glowing words seeming to tumble over each other in swift succession, like hot boulders out of a volcano.

WHY PEOPLE DO NOT BELIEVE

There is in the world today a vicious and unreasoning disbelief in the word of God, not merely a disbelief of specific doctrines such as the virgin birth or the resurrection, but a rejection of all truth, a kind of unbelief in capital letters, which infidelity is widely subscribed to and advocated, and which categorically refuses to believe in the supernatural, or in the reality of a personal God. Why is this? It is devoutly believed that the answer lies in Romans 1:21, where Paul declared that "Their senseless heart was darkened." An investigation of this subject reveals the essential bias of the unbeliever and startling evidence to the effect that such a one suffers from the punitive blindness inflicted by the Creator. A wealth of material on this subject is found in the scriptures; and it is to those sacred passages that one must go to understand the mystery of unbelief; for, as might have been suspected, the darkened intellect itself would never have fashioned any kind of knife with which to explore surgically the perversity of the fallen intellect. Such a surgical tool is found only in the Bible itself.

"Knowing God, they glorified him not as God, neither gave thanks; but became vain in their reasonings, and their senseless heart was darkened" (Romans 1:21). The plain meaning of this is that in such cases, the mind itself is reduced in capacity, and that truths plainly discernible to the righteous are to the wicked man invisible, not because they cannot be seen, but because he is incapable of seeing them. The agency of Satan has primacy in causing such a condition, but the victim himself must lend his own will to the rejection of God before the punitive hardening takes place; and, without such voluntary acceptance of Satan's influence as a precondition, the mind cannot be hardened.

Paul wrote the Corinthians that "The god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not dawn upon them" (2 Corinthians 4:4). How did Satan get such a power? It came when people forfeited it to the evil one by willfully turning away from God's teachings, thus making themselves God's enemy. Once in the driver's seat, firmly in control of the unbeliever's mind, Satan exerts a fantastic power to prevent his ever having faith in the Son of God. And is such a thing happening today? Men had better believe it! As Charles Hodge expressed it,

The blindness abides in all humanity apart from those who believe and are regenerated, whose minds have been renewed by the Spirit of God.[59]

Satan's blinding of the minds of people is analogous to the influence of any created being over another and is thus perfectly consistent with the free agency and responsibility of the individual. Also, in the revelation here that Satan blinds certain ones, there is the key to how God hardens the rebellious; he permits Satan to have his way with them.

"No longer walk as the Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind, being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their heart" (Ephesians 4:17,18). Paul's teaching also shows that the blinded mind, the hardened heart, the crippled intellect, can be recovered; because in the next chapter of Ephesians Paul wrote to them, "Ye were once in darkness, but are now light in the Lord" (Ephesians 5:8). Paul spelled it out in detail, just how such a wonder came about. He wrote:

And you did he make alive, when ye were dead through your trespasses and sins, wherein ye once walked, according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience; among whom ye also all once lived in the lusts of your flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest; but God, being rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together in Christ (Ephesians 2:1-5).

This shows that the person willing to do so, through submission to Christ, can overthrow the evil one, reject his domination, and enthrone the Christ upon his lawful place in the heart.

Thus, the fault is in man's will. As long as they will to walk in darkness, there is no power that can recover them. The will has the power to overrule the intellect; and this is the key that explains unbelief as it occurs among learned and intelligent men. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, in "Fears in Solitude," gave poetic expression to the same thought:

Forth from his dark and lonely hiding place, (Portentous sight!) the owlet Atheism, Sailing on obscene wings athwart the noon, Drops his blue-fringed lids, and holds them close, And hooting at the glorious sun in Heaven, Cries out, "Where is it?"[60]

Christ himself made unbelief to be, not an act of intelligence, but a choice of evil in the heart:

And this is the judgment that light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light, for their works were evil (John 3:19).

The word "for" in the last clause has the meaning of "because" as in KJV. Thus, Christ himself is authority for the conclusion that no man ever thought his way into unbelief, whereas there have been millions who sinned their way into infidelity.

J. M. Gillis commented that:

Only in Atheism does the spring rise higher than the source, the effect exist without the cause, life come from a stone, blood from a turnip, a silk from a sow's ear, or a Beethoven Symphony or a Bach Fugue from a kitten walking across the keys.[61]SIZE>

[54] Griffith Thomas, op. cit., p. 53.

[55] Ibid., p. 74.

[56] F. Godet, Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970), p. 58.

[57] John Murray, op. cit., p. 51.

[58] The Houston Chronicle, front page, December 2,1971. top save[59] Charles Hodge, An Exposition of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1950), p. 86.

[60] Frank S. Mead, The Encyclopedia of Religious Quotations (Westwood, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1965), p. 11.

[61] Frank S. Mead, op. cit., p. 11.


Copyright Statement
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/romans-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Being filled with all unrighteousness,.... From hence, to the end of the chapter, follows a large and black list and catalogue of the sad characters of the Gentiles, and of the best men they had among them; for the apostle is all along speaking, not of the common people, but of their wise professors, and moral instructors; than which there never was a more wicked set of men that ever lived upon the face of the earth; who under the guise of morality were guilty of the greatest pride and covetousness, and of the most filthy debaucheries imaginable: they were "filled with all unrighteousness". This word includes in it all manner of sin and wickedness in general; fitly expresses the condition of fallen men, destitute of a righteousness; designs every violation of the law respecting our neighbour; and is opposed to that vain conceit of righteousness which these men had: particular branches of it follow; as,

fornication; which sometimes includes adultery and an unchastity; simple fornication was not reckoned a sin among the Gentiles:

wickedness; or mischief, which intends not so much the internal wickedness of the heart, as that particular vice, by which a man is inclined and studies to do hurt, to others, as Satan does:

covetousness; this may intend every insatiable lust, and particularly the sin which goes by this name, and is the root of all evil, and was a reigning sin among the Gentiles. Seneca, the famous moralist, was notoriously guilty of this vice, being one of the greatest usurers that ever lived:

maliciousness; the word denotes either the iniquity of nature in which men are conceived and born; or that desire of revenge in men, for which some are very notorious:

envy; at the superior knowledge and learning, wealth and riches, happiness, and outward prosperity of others:

murder: which sometimes arose from envy, wherefore they are put together. There is an elegant "paranomasia" in the Greek text:

debate; strife about words more than things, and more for vain glory, and a desire of victory, than for truth:

deceit; through their empty notions of philosophy; hence "philosophy and vain deceit" go together, Colossians 2:8; making large pretences to morality, when they were the vilest of creatures:

malignity; moroseness; having no courteousness nor affability in them, guilty of very ill manners; as particularly they were who were of the sect of the Cynics. Now they are said to be "filled with", and "full of", these things; not filled by God, but by Satan and themselves; and it denotes the aboundings of wickedness in them, and which was insatiable. The apostle goes on to describe them, as

whisperers; who made mischief among friends, by privately suggesting, and secretly insinuating things into the mind of one to the prejudice of another.


Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/romans-1.html. 1999.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Being called with (πεπληρωμενουςpeplērōmenous). Perfect passive participle of the common verb πληροωplēroō state of completion, “filled to the brim with” four vices in the associative instrumental case (αδικιαιadikiāi unrighteousness as in Romans 1:18, πονηριαιponēriāi active wickedness as in Mark 7:22, πλεονεχιαιpleonexiāi covetousness as in 1 Thessalonians 2:5; Luke 12:15, κακιαιkakiāi maliciousness or inward viciousness of disposition as in 1 Corinthians 5:8). Note asyndeton, no connective in the lists in Romans 1:29-31. Dramatic effect. The order of these words varies in the MSS. and πορνειαιporneiāi fornication, is not genuine here (absent in Aleph A B C).

Full of (μεστουςmestous). Paul changes from participle to adjective. Old adjective, rare in the N.T., like μεστοωmestoō to fill full (only in Acts 2:13 in N.T.), stuffed full of (with genitive). Five substantives in the genitive (πτονουphthonou envy, as in Galatians 5:21, πονουphonou murder, and so a paronomasia or combination with πτονουphthonou of like sounding words, εριδοςeridos strife, as in 2 Corinthians 12:16, κακοητιαςkakoēthias malignity, and here only in N.T. though old word from κακοητηςkakoēthēs and that from κακοςkakos and ητοςēthos a tendency to put a bad construction on things, depravity of heart and malicious disposition.


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/romans-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Filled

The retribution was in full measure. Compare Proverbs 1:31; Revelation 18:6.

Wickedness ( πονηρίᾳ )

See on Mark 7:22.

Covetousness ( πλεονεξίᾳ )

Lit., the desire of having more. It is to be distinguished from φιλαργυρία , rendered love of money, 1 Timothy 6:10, and its kindred adjective φιλάργυρος , which A.V. renders covetous Luke 16:14; 2 Timothy 3:2; properly changed by Rev. into lovers of money. The distinction is expressed by covetousness and avarice. The one is the desire of getting, the other of keeping. Covetousness has a wider and deeper sense, as designating the sinful desire which goes out after things of time and sense of every form and kind. Hence it is defined by Paul (Colossians 3:5) as idolatry, the worship of another object than God, and is so often associated with fleshly sins, as 1 Corinthians 5:11; Ephesians 5:3, Ephesians 5:5; Colossians 3:5. Lightfoot says: “Impurity and covetousness may be said to divide between them nearly the whole domain of selfishness and vice.” Socrates quotes an anonymous author who compares the region of the desires in the wicked to a vessel full of holes, and says that, of all the souls in Hades, these uninitiated or leaky persons are the most miserable, and that they carry water to a vessel which is full of holes in a similarly holey colander. The colander is the soul of the ignorant (Plato, “Gorgias,” 493). Compare, also, the description of covetousness and avarice by Chaucer, “Romaunt of the Rose,” 183-246.

“Covetise

That eggeth folk in many a guise

To take and yeve (give) right nought again,

And great treasoures up to laine (lay).

… ..

And that is she that maketh treachours,

And she maketh false pleadours.

… ..

Full crooked were her hondes (hands) two,

For Covetise is ever woode (violent)

To grippen other folkes goode.”

“Avarice

Full foul in painting was that vice.

… ..

She was like thing for hunger dead,

That lad (led) her life onely by bread.

… ..

This Avarice had in her hand

A purse that honge by a band,

And that she hid and bond so strong,

Men must abide wonder long,

Out of the purse er (ere) there come aught,

For that ne commeth in her thought,

It was not certaine her entent

That fro that purse a peny went.”

Maliciousness ( κακίᾳ )

See on naughtiness, James 1:21.

Full ( μεστοὺς )

Properly, stuffed.

Envy, murder ( φθόνου , φόνου )

Phthonou phonou A paronomasia or combination of like-sounding words. Compare Galatians 5:21. Murder is conceived as a thought which has filled the man. See 1 John 3:15.

Debate ( ἔριδος )

In the earlier sense of the word (French, debattre, to beat down, contend ) including the element of strife. So Chaucer:

“Tales both of peace and of debates.”

Man of Law's Tale,” 4550.

Later usage has eliminated this element. Dr. Eadie (“English Bible”) relates that a member of a Scottish Church-court once warned its members not to call their deliberations “a debate,” since debate was one of the sins condemned by Paul in this passage. Rev., correctly, strife.

Deceit ( δόλου )

See on John 1:47.

Malignity ( κακοηθείας )

Malicious disposition.


Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.

Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/romans-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,

Filled with all injustice — This stands in the first place; unmercifulness, in the last.

Fornication — Includes here every species of uncleanness.

Maliciousness — The Greek word properly implies a temper which delights in hurting another, even without any advantage to itself.


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Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/romans-1.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Whisperers; secret slanderers.


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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/romans-1.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

29.Understand by unrighteousness, the violation of justice among men, by not rendering to each his due. I have rendered πονηρίαν, according to the opinion of Ammonium, wickedness; for he teaches us that πονηρον, the wicked, is δραστίκον κακου, the doer of evil. The word (nequitia ) then means practiced wickedness, or licentiousness in doing mischief: but maliciousness (malitia ) is that depravity and obliquity of mind which leads us to do harm to our neighbour. (54) For the word πορνείαν, which Paul uses, I have put lust, (libidinem .) I do not, however, object, if one prefers to render it fornication; but he means the inward passion as well as the outward act. (55) The words avarice, envy, and murder, have nothing doubtful in their meaning. Under the word strife, (contentione ,) (56) he includes quarrels, fightings, and seditions. We have rendered κακοηθείαν, perversity, (perversitatem ;) (57) which is a notorious and uncommon wickedness; that is, when a man, covered over, as it were, with hardness, has become hardened in a corrupt course of life by custom and evil habit.


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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/romans-1.html. 1840-57.

Vv. 29a. "Being filled with every kind of unrighteousness, perverseness, maliciousness, covetousness."

In the following enumeration we need not seek a rigorously systematic order. Paul evidently lets his pen run on as if he thought that, of all the bad terms which should present themselves, none would be out of place or exaggerated. But in this apparent disorder one can detect a certain grouping, a connection through the association of ideas.

The first group which we have detached in our translation embraces four terms; according to the T. R., five. But the word πορνεία, uncleanness, should evidently be rejected; for it is wanting in many Mjj.; it is displaced in some others; finally, the subject has been exhausted in what precedes.

The phrase: "all sort of unrighteousness," embraces collectively the whole following enumeration: πονηρία, perverseness, denotes the bad instinct of the heart; κακία, maliciousness, the deliberate wickedness which takes pleasure in doing harm; πλεονεξία, covetousness (the desire of having more πλέον ἔχειν), the passion for money, which does not scruple to lay hold of the possessions of its neighbor to augment its own. The participle πεπληρωμένους, filled, at the head of this first group, is in apposition to the understood subject of ποιεῖν.

The four terms of this first group thus refer to injustices committed against the well-being and property of our neighbor.

Vv. 29b. "Full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, bitterness."

These five terms form again a natural group, which embraces all the injustices whereby the person of our neighbor is injured. The adjective μεστούς, full of (properly, stuffed), on which this group depends, indicates a change of idea from the preceding. As an adjective, it denotes solely the present attribute, while the preceding participle implied the process of growth which had led to the state described. The similarity of sound in the two Greek words: φθόνου, envy, and φόνου, murder, has led to their being often combined also in the classics; besides, envy leads to murder, as is shown by the example of Cain. If envy does not go the length of making away with him whose advantages give us umbrage, it seeks at least to trouble him with deception in the enjoyment of his wealth; this is expressed by ἔρις, strife, quarrelling; finally, in this course one seeks to injure his neighbor by deceiving him ( δόλος, deceit), or to render his life miserable by bitterness of temper ( κακοήθεια).


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Godet, Frédéric Louis. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Frédéric Louis Godet - Commentary on Selected Books". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsc/romans-1.html.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,

Ver. 29. With all unrighteousness] The mother of all the ensuing misrule.

Wickedness] The Syrian saith, "bitterness." See Jeremiah 2:19. The word πονηρια may be rendered troublesomeness, as the devil is called ο πονηρος, the troublesome one, the molester of God’s people; restless in himself and disquieting others.

Envy, murder] Three such alliterations are found in this black beadroll. {a} {b} The apostle seems delighted with them, as was likewise the prophet Isaiah. Of which noble two, I may well say as one doth of Demosthenes and Cicero, Demosthenes Ciceroni praeripuit ne esset primus orator, Cicero Demostheni, ne solus.

Malignity] Or, morosity, crossness, ill conditions; or an evil disposition, that taketh everything the worst way; whereas a better disposition would make a better exposition, and take things by the right handle.

Whisperers] These are worse than backbiters, because they work underground, like as the wind that creeps in the chinks and crevices in a wall, or the cracks in a window, prove commonly more dangerous than a storm that meets a man in the face upon the champaign. A vento percolato, et ab inimico reconciliato libera nos.

{a} πορνεια, πονηρια. φθονου, φονου. ασυνετους, ασυνθετους. κακοηθεια, κακια.

 

{b} A list of persons to be specially prayed for ŒD


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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/romans-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Romans 1:29. Wickedness The original word signifies doing mischief: that rendered maliciousness denotes a malicious temper; and that rendered malignity, a custom of repeating their malice frequently. Unrighteousness or injustice stands first in this black catalogue, unmercifulness last. The whole enumeration contains nine particulars relating to the affections, two to conversation, three respecting God, themselves, and their neighbour; two to the transacting of outward affairs, and six to the various relations in which they stood. See Bengelius, and Calmet.


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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/romans-1.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Here the apostle sums up the sins which the Heathens committed against the second table, or against their neighbour; not that every particular person was guilty of all these black crimes, but all were guilty of some, and some perhaps were guilty of all or most of them.

Learn hence, That the heart of man doth natually swarm and abound with stange and monstrous lusts and abominations. Lord! what a swarm is here! and yet there are multitudes more in the depths of the heart. Whatever abominations were found in the hearts and lives of Heathens and Sodomites, and the most profligate wretches under heaven, are radically and seminally in our corrupt and degenerate natures, Out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, &c. Matthew 15:19 What are our lusts, but so many toads spitting of venom and spawning of poison? Oh deplorable degradation!

Learn, 2. How much sadder is the condition which unregenerate souls abide in, who remain in and under the power and dominion, the vassalage and slavery of these imperious lusts, which perpetually rage within them, and incessantly contest and scuffle for the throne.

Learn 3. To stand astonished at the heart-changing grace of God, which has delivered thee from so dismal a condition. Oh! fall down and kiss the feet of mercy: adore the sovereignty and freeness of divine grace, which stept in so seasonably to thy rescue. Lord! what black imaginations, what vile affections, what hellish desires, what monstrous abominations were lodged in my heart and nature, before regeneration wrought a change!

Oh that ever the Holy Ghost should set his eyes upon any of the sinful offspring of apostate Adam; in whom were legions of unclean lusts, and whose nature was become the sink and seed-plot of all sin.

Observe lastly, Two particular sins, which of all others seem most monstrous in these Heathens.

1. They were haters of God, not of his essence, being and goodness, but haters of his holiness, justice and providence.

2. They were without natural affection. This appeared by sacrificing their children to their idols; and exposing themselves and their dearest relations to ruin. No sooner did we fall out with God, but we fell out with ourselves and one another.


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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/romans-1.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Romans 1:29. πεπληρωμένους) a word of large meaning; μεστοὺς follows presently after.— ἀδικίᾳ, with unrighteousness) This word, the opposite of righteousness, is put in the first place; unmerciful is put in the last [Romans 1:31]. Righteousness has [as its necessary fruit], life; unrighteousness, death, Romans 1:32. The whole enumeration shows a wise arrangement, as follows: nine members of it respecting the affections; two in reference to men’s conversation; three respecting God, a man’s own self, and his neighbour; two regarding a man’s management of affairs; and six respecting relative ties. Comp. as regards the things contrary to these, ch. Romans 12:9, etc.— πορνέιᾳ) I have now, for a long time, acknowledged that this word should be retained.(16) It does not appear certain, that it was not read by Clemens Romanus.— πονηρίᾳκακίᾳ)(17) πονηρία is the perverse wickedness of a man, who delights in injuring another, without any advantage to himself: κακία is the vicious disposition, which prevents a man from conferring any good on another.— πλεονεξια denotes avarice, properly so called, as we often find it in the writings of Paul: otherwise [were πλεονεξία not taken in the sense avarice] this sin would be blamed by him rather rarely. But he usually joins it with impurity; for man [in his natural state] seeks his food for enjoyment, outside of God, in the material creature, either in the way of pleasure, or else avarice; he tries to appropriate the good that belongs to another.— κακοηθείας), κακοήθεια, κακία κεκρυ΄΄ένη. Ammonius explains this as “wickedly inveighing against all that belongs to others; exhibiting himself troublesome to another.”


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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/romans-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Now follow the sins against the second table, which reigned amongst the Gentiles; amongst which

unrighteousness is as the fountain, from whence the rest as streams do flow. This is the genus that comprehends all the evils hereafter enumerated. It is not to be supposed that all the following vices were found in every individual person; but the meaning is, that all were guilty of some, and some were guilty of all of them.

Fornication, wickedness; in the Greek there is all elegant paronomasia, porneia, ponhria. So there are two more in the following verses, fyonou, fonou, asunetoi, asunyetoi. The design of the apostle is, to set down a particular vice; therefore, instead of wickedness, some read troublesomeness, or a desire to procure trouble and molestation to another. The devil is called oo ponhrov, the troublesome one.

Maliciousness; or, mischievousness, the better to distinguish it from envy.

Malignity; or, morosity and churlishness, taking all things in the worser part.

Whisperers: whisperers speak evil privily of others; backbiters, openly.


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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Romans 1:29". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/romans-1.html. 1685.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

29. This catalogue of sins emphasises the false relations of man to man as following upon the false relation of men to GOD and the false conception of the proper use of man’s own nature. The classification is only partially systematic, 29 a the mental dispositions, 29 b–31 the dispositions seen in various kinds of action.


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"Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/romans-1.html. 1896.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

29. “Is filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, vice and covetousness.” Those who go to heaven must have the fullness of grace in entire sanctification, while in a similar manner Satan ripens his people for hell, by filling them with the very diabolical attributes which congenialize them for the society of hell. “Full of envy, murder, deceitfulness, strife, and evil affections.” These black vices are germinally born in humanity by the fall. Afterward they reach maturity by practice, ripening the soul for hell. In this probation all people are fast rushing to dramatically opposite destinies, diverging incessantly either from another; the one class in due time getting full salvation and ripening for heaven, and the other class, full deterioration and maturing for hell. There is no medium; we must all go one way or the other. So you have your choice between full salvation and full damnation. Which will you have?


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Godbey, William. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/romans-1.html.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers.

Being filled. — This signifies that the vices here exposed were not tempered with virtues, but were alone and uncontrolled, occupying the mind and heart even to overflowing. Unrighteousness. — When this word in the original is taken in a limited sense, it signifies injustice. It is often used for iniquity in general, as in the 18th verse. Some understand it here in the latter sense, as a general word which includes all the different particulars that follow. There is no reason, however, why we should not understand it as one species of the evils which are here enumerated, and confine it to its specific meaning, viz. injustice. This was the public crime of the Romans, who built their empire on usurpation and rapine. Fornication. — Cicero speaks of fornication as unblameable, as a thing universally allowed and practiced, which he had never heard was condemned, either in ancient or modern times. Here it includes all the violations of the seventh commandment, and is not to be confined to the distinctive idea which the term bears in our language. Wickedness. — This refers to the general inclination to evil that reigned among the heathens, and made them practice and take pleasure in vicious and unprofitable actions. Covetousness. — The original word strictly signifies taking the advantage, overreaching in a bargain, having more than what is just in any transaction with our neighbor. Of this, covetousness is the motive. This was universal among rich and poor, and was the spring of all their actions. Maliciousness denotes a disposition to injury and revenge. Full of envy. — Tacitus remarks that this was the usual vice of the villages, towns, and cities. Murder was familiar to them, especially with respect to their slaves, whom they caused to be put to death for the slightest offenses. Debate, strife about words for vainglory, and not truth. Deceit was common to them all, and exemplified in their conduct and conversation, as is said, ch. 3:13. Malignity. — Though the word in the original, when resolved into its component parts, literally signifies bad custom or disposition, yet it generally signifies something more specific, and is with sufficient propriety rendered malignity, which is a desire to hurt others without any other reason than that of doing evil to them, and finding pleasure in their sufferings. The definition of the term, as quoted from Aristotle by Dr.

Macknight, seems true rather as a specification than as a definition. It ‘is a disposition,’ he says, ‘to take everything in the worst sense.’ No doubt malevolence is inclined to this, but this is only one mode of discovering itself. Whisperers. — Dr. Macknight errs in saying that the original word signifies ‘those who secretly speak evil of persons when they are present.’

The word does not import that the speaker whispers lest the person against whom he speaks, being present, should hear. The person spoken against may as well be absent. It refers to that sort of evil speaking which is communicated in secret, and not spoken in society. It is called whispering, not from the tone of the voice, but from the secrecy. It is common to speak of a thing being whispered, not from being communicated in a low voice, but from being privately spoken to individuals. It refers to sowing divisions. It is one of the most frequent and injurious methods of calumny, because, on the one hand, the whisperer escapes conviction of falsehood, and, on the other, the accused has no means of repelling the secret calumny.


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Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/romans-1.html. 1835.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

29. Filled with all unrighteousness—When the sensual vices prevail the cruel and bloody vices are sure to accompany. When the laws of modesty are triumphantly set at naught, and men and women, glorying in shame, invent extravagant modes of sensuality, every other law, human and divine, is broken with the same triumphant license. Hence the apostle, after having fully pictured the sexual demoralization, proceeds to represent the moral anarchy that succeeds, in a list, with little recognisable order, of the vices of a heathenized community.

Fornication—Omitted by best authorities, it is amply included in the previous verses.

Debate—Strife.

Whisperers— Secret slanderers.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/romans-1.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Romans 1:29. Being filled with all unrighteousness. This is a general statement, the specifications follow. (Comp. similar catalogues of sins; noted in marg. references to this verse.) Various ingenious attempts have been made at classifying the list; but the Apostle seems to have had in mind rhetorical effect, rather than systematic order, the design being to bring out more strikingly the absolute need of redemption. (The word ‘fornication’ is omitted by the best authorities; and after Romans 1:26-27, the naming of this vice seems inappropriate.)

Wickedness; disposition to accomplish evil; the adjective is applied to Satan.

Covetousness; this sin is emphasized in the New Testament (see especially Ephesians 5:3, Ephesians 5:5; Colossians 3:5), and was widespread, at that time, in the Roman world.

Maliciousness in the classical sense is idleness as opposed to virtue.

Envy. Conceived here as the thought which has filled the man.

Murder. The similarity in sound of the original words may have led to the mention of this sin first here; but ‘envy’ and ‘murder’ are related.

Strife. The word is that applied to the goddess of Discord.

Whisperers; secret slanderers, tale-bearers. (This word ought to be placed in the next verse.)


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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/romans-1.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Being filled with all iniquity. He passeth to many other sins and crimes of the heathens. (Witham)


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/romans-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

filled. Greek. pleroo. App-125.

fornication. The texts omit.

wickedness Greek. poneria. App-128.

maliciousness. Greek. kakia. App-128.

envy = jealousy. Greek. phthonos. Compare Matthew 27:18.

murder. Greek. phonos. Note the Paronomasia, phthonos, phonos. App-6. See Acts 9:1.

debate = strife.

deceit. Greek. dolos. See Acts 13:10.

malignity. Greek. kakoetheia, literally disposition for mischief. Only here.

whisperers = calumniators. Greek. psithuristes. Only here.


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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/romans-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,

Being filled with all unrighteousness , [ pepleeroomenous (Greek #4137) pasee (Greek #3956) adikia (Greek #93). The dative in place of the genitive (as Green remarks) in this and the following nouns may here be regarded as used designedly to convey, by the entire expression, the idea of an engrossing process, as distinguished from that of mere fullness. See 2 Corinthians 7:4 for a similar idea]. On comparing this, the longest, with some of the other lists of vices which occur in the Pauline Epistles (1 Corinthians 6:9-10; Galatians 5:19-21; 1 Timothy 1:9-10; 2 Timothy 3:2-4), it will be evident that the order in which they are placed follows associations sometimes of sound (as Jewett says) and sometimes of sense. Not without reason, therefore, does Fritzsche recommend the student of the sacred text not to spend his time and ingenuity in arranging into distinct classes words whose meaning, and vices whose characteristics, differ only by a slight shade from each other. A word or two in explanation of the probable sense of some of the terms will suffice. The first word, then, 'unrighteousness' [ adikia (Greek #93)] is a general term, purposely used, perhaps, at the outset.

[Fornication]. This bracketed word [ porneia (Greek #4202), immediately preceding poneeria (Greek #4189)] must be regarded as an addition to the genuine text. It is supported only by one Uncial manuscript, L, and several cursives, the Syriac version, and one or two later Greek fathers; but is lacking in 'Aleph (') A B C (D is here defective), and K, some cursives, and many fathers. Its resemblance to the next word [ poneeria (Greek #4189)] may have occasioned its introduction; and the circumstance of this vice not being included in such a list, may have seemed so incredible as to give rise to the interpolation. The critical editors reject it, and critics generally pronounce against it.

Wickedness , [ poneeria (Greek #4189)] - perhaps 'villany;'

Covetousness - invariably classed in the New Testament with some of the worst vices (Jeremiah 22:17; Habakkuk 2:19; Mark 7:22; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5; 2 Peter 2:3), and pointing probably to outrageous manifestations of it. It is not used in the sense of 'lust' [= epithumia (Greek #1939)], as Jowett thinks.

Maliciousness , [ kakia (Greek #2549)] - 'wickedness,' 'badness,' in a passive sense, as vice is distinguished from 'villany.'

Full , [ mestous (Greek #3324)]. The change of word here (of precisely the same import as that used at the beginning of the verse) is evidently adopted merely to vary the construction of the profusion of nouns following from the preceding ones [and the accusative here, as in the opening word, is-as Erasmus and others have remarked-under the influence of poiein (Greek #4160), at the close of the preceding verse].

Of envy, murder , [ fthonou (Greek #5355), fonou (Greek #5408)]. The alliteration here shows that the sound the one word suggested the other.

Debate (or 'strife'), deceit, malignity , [ kakoeetheias (Greek #2550)] - 'rancour,' 'ill-nature;'

Whisperers , [ psithuristas (Greek #5588)]. The 30th verse should have begun with this word, as the form of the original shows a change in the construction of the words that follow from that of the preceding ones. Accordingly, most critics so arrange the verses.


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/romans-1.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
filled
3:10
whisperers
Psalms 41:7; Proverbs 16:28; 26:20; 2 Corinthians 12:20

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/romans-1.html.

The Bible Study New Testament

They are filled. The language of the TEV shows us clearly the character of those who have corrupted minds.


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Romans 1:29". "The Bible Study New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/romans-1.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

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