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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Romans 1:3

 

 

concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh,

Adam Clarke Commentary

Concerning his Son - That is, the Gospel relates every thing concerning the conception, birth, preaching, miracles, passion, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ, who was of the seed-royal, being, as far as his humanity was considered, the son of David, and then the only rightful heir to the Israelitish throne.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/romans-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Concerning his Son - This is connected with the first verse, with the word “gospel.” The gospel of God concerning his Son. The design of the gospel was to make a communication relative to his Son Jesus Christ. This is the whole of it. There is no “good news” to man respecting salvation except what comes by Jesus Christ.

Which was made - The word translated “was made” means usually “to be,” or “to become.” It is used, however, in the sense of being born. Thus, Galatians 4:4, “God sent forth his Son made of a woman,” born of a woman. John 8:58, “before Abraham was (born), I am.” In this sense it seems to be used here, who was born, or descended from the seed of David.

Of the seed of David - Of the posterity or lineage of David. He was a descendant of David. David was perhaps the most illustrious of the kings of Israel. The promise to him was that there should not fail a man to sit on this throne; 1 Kings 2:4; 1 Kings 8:25; 1 Kings 9:5; 2 Chronicles 6:16. This ancient promise was understood as referring to the Messiah, and hence, in the New Testament he is called the descendant of David, and so much pains is taken to show that he was of his line; Luke 1:27; Matthew 9:27; Matthew 15:22; Matthew 12:23; Matthew 21:9, Matthew 21:15; Matthew 22:42, Matthew 22:45; John 7:42; 2 Timothy 2:8. As the Jews universally believed that the Messiah would be descended from David John 7:42, it was of great importance for the sacred writers to make it out clearly that Jesus of Nazareth was of that line and family. Hence, it happened, that though our Saviour was humble, and poor, and obscure, yet he had that on which no small part of the world have been accustomed so much to pride themselves, an illustrious ancestry. To a Jew there could be scarcely any honor so high as to be descended from the best of their kings; and it shows how little the Lord Jesus esteemed the honors of this world, that he could always evince his deep humility in circumstances where people are usually proud; and that when he spoke of the honors of this world, and told how little they were worth, he was not denouncing what was not within his reach.

According to the flesh - The word “flesh,” σάρξ sarxis used in the Scriptures in a great variety of significations.

(1) it denotes, as with us, the flesh literally of any living being; Luke 24:39, “A spirit hath not flesh and bones,” etc.

(2) the animal system, the body, including flesh and bones, the visible part of man, in distinction from the invisible, or the soul; Acts 2:31, “Neither did his flesh (his body) “see corruption.” 1 Corinthians 5:5; 1 Corinthians 15:39.

(3) the man, the whole animated system, body and soul; Romans 8:3, “In the likeness of sinful flesh. 1 Corinthians 15:50; Matthew 16:17; Luke 3:6.

(4) human nature. As a man. Thus, Acts 2:30, “God hath sworn with an oath that of the fruit of his loins according to the flesh, that is, in his human nature, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne.” Romans 9:5, “whose are the fathers, and of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, God blessed forever.” The same is its meaning here. He was a descendant of David in his human nature, or as a man. This implies, of course, that he had another nature besides his human, or that while he was a man he was also something else; that there was a nature in which he was not descended from David.

That this is its meaning will still further appear by the following observations.

(1) the apostle expressly makes a contrast between his condition according to the flesh, and that according to the spirit of holiness.

(2) the expression “according to the flesh” is applied to no other one in the New Testament but to Jesus Christ. Though the word “flesh” often occurs, and is often used to denote man, yet the special expression, “according to the flesh” occurs in no other connection.

In all the Scriptures it is never said of any prophet or apostle, any lawgiver or king, or any man in any capacity, that he came in the flesh, or that he was descended from certain ancestors according to the flesh. Nor is such an expression ever used any where else. If it were applied to a mere man, we should instantly ask in what other way could he come than in the flesh? Has he a higher nature? Is he an angel, or a seraph? The expression would be unmeaningful. And when, therefore, it is applied to Jesus Christ, it implies, if language has any meaning, that there was a sense in which Jesus was not descended from David. What that was, appears in the next verse.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/romans-1.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

Concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh.

Having already announced the origin of the gospel in God himself (Romans 1:1), Paul immediately introduced God's Son as the central fact of the good news, the gospel having but one center and that in Christ, Christ alone is the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy, the embodiment of all Jewish hopes, the willing sacrifice, the sin-bearer, and the atonement. He, and he alone, is the architect of the crucifixion, the deliverer of God's redeeming word; indeed, he is that Word which was in the beginning with God, and which was God (John 1:1). Christ is the Hope of Israel, the Light of the Gentiles, the Lily of the Valley, the Bright and Morning Star, the Fairest of Ten Thousand, Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace!

Of the seed of David ... The dual nature of Christ, both his divinity and humanity, are affirmed by Paul in this passage. As for the body that Jesus took when he decided to enter our earth life, it was descended through David, as attested by the genealogies of both Matthew and Luke, the very first verse of the New Testament hailing him as "the Son of David." However, it was only the humanity of Jesus that descended through David. In his totality, Christ descended from no man but was co-existent with the Father. Hebrews 2:14-16 plainly declares that Christ "take hold of" the seed of Abraham, thus affirming that he had an existence before assuming a human body.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/romans-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord,.... These words are in connection with "the Gospel of God", Romans 1:1, and express the subject matter of it, the Son of God, Jesus Christ our Lord; for Christ, as the Son of God, the Saviour of sinners, the only Mediator between God and men, who is Lord both of the dead and living, is the sum and substance of the Gospel: he is here described by his relation to God, his Son, of the same nature with him, equal to him, and distinct from him; by his usual names, "Jesus Christ", the one signifying a "Saviour", the other "anointed", and both, that he was anointed of God to be the Saviour of his people; and by his dominion over the saints our Lord, not merely by creation, but by redemption and grace, and happy is the person that can claim interest in him, as is here done; and by the distinction of natures in him:

which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; this respects Christ in his human nature, who was made flesh, and of a woman; and shows his existence before his incarnation, and the immediate power and hand of God in it; and which was done, not by transmutation of him into flesh, but by an assumption of human nature into union with his divine person: he is said to be made "of the seed of David"; this points out the family from whence he sprung; designs the posterity of David, particularly Mary; has regard to the promise made to David, which God fulfilled; and shows the royal descent of Christ: it is added, "according to the flesh"; that is, according to his human nature; which phrase does not denote the corruption, but the truth of that nature; and supposes that he had another nature, otherwise there would have been no need of this limiting and restrictive clause.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/romans-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

3 Concerning his d Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was e made of the seed of David f according to the flesh;

(3) By declaring the sum of the doctrine of the Gospel, he stirs up the Romans to consider well the matter about which he is entreating them: so then he shows that Christ (who is the very substance and sum of the gospel) is the only Son of God the Father, who with regard to his humanity is born of the seed of David, but with regard to his divine and spiritual nature, by which he sanctified himself, is begotten of the Father from everlasting, as also manifestly appears by his mighty resurrection.

(d) This is a plain testimony of the person of Christ, that he is but one, and also a testimony of his two natures, and their properties.

(e) Who received flesh from the virgin who was David's daughter.

(f) As he is man: for this word "flesh", by the figure of speech synecdoche, is taken for man.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/romans-1.html. 1599-1645.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Concerning his Son (περι του υιου αυτουperi tou huiou autou). Just as Jesus found himself in the O.T. (Luke 24:27, Luke 24:46). The deity of Christ here stated.

According to the flesh (κατα σαρκαkata sarka). His real humanity alongside of his real deity. For the descent from David see Matthew 1:1, Matthew 1:6, Matthew 1:20; Luke 1:27; John 7:42; Acts 13:23, etc.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/romans-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Concerning His son

Connect with promised afore. Christ is the great personal object to which the promise referred.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/romans-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

Who was of the seed of David according to the flesh — That is, with regard to his human nature. Both the natures of our Saviour are here mentioned; but the human is mentioned first, because the divine was not manifested in its full evidence till after his resurrection.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/romans-1.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Of the seed of David; of the family of David.--According to the flesh; in respect to earthly parentage.


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Bibliography
Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/romans-1.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

3.Concerning his own Son, etc. — This is a remarkable passage, by which we are taught that the whole gospel is included in Christ, so that if any removes one step from Christ, he withdraws himself from the gospel. For since he is the living and express image of the Father, it is no wonder, that he alone is set before us as one to whom our whole faith is to be directed and in whom it is to center. It is then a definition of the gospel, by which Paul expresses what is summarily comprehended in it. I have rendered the words which follow, Jesus Christ our Lord, in the same case; which seems to me to be most agreeable with the context. We hence learn, that he who has made a due proficiency in the knowledge of Christ, has acquired every thing which can be learned from the gospel; and, on the other hand, that they who seek to be wise without Christ, are not only foolish, but even completely insane.

Who was made, etc. — Two things must be found in Christ, in order that we may obtain salvation in him, even divinity and humanity. His divinity possesses power, righteousness, life, which by his humanity are conveyed to us. Hence the Apostle has expressly mentioned both in the Summary he gives of the gospel, that Christ was manifested in the flesh — and that in it he declared himself to be the Son of God. So John says; after having declared that the Word was made flesh, he adds, that in that flesh there was a glory as of the only-begotten Son of God. (John 1:14.) That he specially notices the descent and lineage of Christ from his ancestor David, is not superfluous; for by this he calls back our attention to the promise, that we may not doubt but that he is the very person who had been formerly promised. So well known was the promise made to David, that it appears to have been a common thing among the Jews to call the Messiah the Son of David. This then — that Christ did spring from David — was said for the purpose of confirming our faith.

He adds,according to the flesh; and he adds this, that we may understand that he had something more excellent than flesh, which he brought from heaven, and did not take from David, even that which he afterwards mentions, the glory of the divine nature. Paul does further by these words not only declare that Christ had real flesh, but he also clearly distinguishes his human from his divine nature; and thus he refutes the impious raving of Servetus, who assigned flesh to Christ, composed of three untreated elements.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/romans-1.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

seed

See note on the Davidic descent of Christ, (See Scofield "Luke 3:23").


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Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Romans 1:3". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/romans-1.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

Ver. 3. Concerning his Son] Here is a lofty and lively description of Christ’s sacred person. The whole Epistle being the confession of our Churches, as Melancthon calleth it, who therefore went over it ten different times in his ordinary lectures (Scultet. Annal.): the Epistle being such, as never can any man possibly think, speak, or write sufficiently of its worth and excellency. Mr Perkins adviseth, in reading the Scripture, first to begin with the Gospel of John, and this Epistle to the Romans, as being the keys of the New Testament. And for this Epistle to the Romans, Cardinal Pole adviseth to begin at the twelfth chapter, and read to the end; and practise the precepts of repentance and mortification, and then set upon the former part of the Epistle, where justification and predestination are handled.

According to the flesh] i.e. Either his body or his human nature, called a swift cloud (as some will have it), Isaiah 19:1; "Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt." And the habitable part of God’s earth, Proverbs 8:31. For the Word dwelt among us, John 1:14. And here was habitatio Dei cum carne, God dwelling with flesh, which the magicians held impossible, Daniel 2:11. It was much for God to "pour out his Spirit upon all flesh," the best thing upon the basest, Joel 2:28. But it was more, for the fulness of the Godhead bodily to inhabit it, Colossians 2:9. {See Trapp on "1 Corinthians 1:2"} St Paul seems to have learned of the holy angels, thus to salute, Luke 2:14. {See Trapp on "Luke 2:14"}


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/romans-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Romans 1:3. According to the flesh That is, with regard to his human nature. Both the natures of our Saviour are mentioned in this and the following verse. This too regards the Jew, and puts him in mind that Jesus, whom Paul preached, was of the royal stock, whence they expected the Messiah would spring. See Taylor and Locke


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/romans-1.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

The apostle having told us in the foregoing verses, that he was particularly called to, and by God set apart for, the preaching of the gospel, in the verses before us he declares that Jesus Christ was the main subject of that gospel which he preached, and describes him by his two-fold nature, by his human nature, ver. 3. by his divine nature, ver. 4.

According to his human nature, he was made of the seed of David; that is, descended from David, and one of his posterity by the mother's side, who was of that house and line, according to the flesh; that is, the weakness, frailty, and mortality, of his human nature.

Where observe, 1. That our Lord Jesus Christ had a being, even an eternal existance, before his incarnation, or manifestation in our flesh and nature. He was the Son of God, before he was the Son of man; hence he is said to be made of the seed of David, intimating that he was then made what he was not before.

In regard of his divine nature, he was begotten, not made; but in regard of his human nature, he was made, not begotten.

Observe, 2. That Jesus Christ, the eternal Son of God, did in the fulness of time assume the true and perfect nature of man into a personal union with his God-head; the human nature was united to the divine nature of miraculously and extraordinarily, by the overshadowing power of the Holy Ghost, Luke 1:34-35 and also integrally and completely; that is to say, Christ took a complete and perfect human soul and body, with all the faculties of the one, and all the members of the other, that thereby he might heal the whole nature of that leprosy of sin, which had siezed upon, and diffused its malignity into every member, and every faculty.

Next, we have a demonstration of Christ's divine nature, ver. 4. Declared to be the Son of God with power, &c. As if our apostle had said, that our Lord Jesus Christ, though according to the faculty and weakness of his human nature he was the seed of David, yet in respect of that divine power of the Holy Ghost which manifested itself in him, especially in his resurrection from the dead, he was declared to be the Son of God with power; that is, mightily and powerfully demonstrated so to be.

Learn hence, 1. That the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead, by the Holy Ghost, is a powerful and convincing demonstration that he was the Son of God. Christ as man is nowhere said in scripture to be the Son of God, but with relation to the divine power of the Holy Ghost, by whom he had life communicated to him from the Father, both at his conception and at his resurrection.

At his conception he was the Son of God, by being conceived by the Holy Ghost; but this was secret and invisible, known only to the mother of our Lord. Therefore at his resurrection, by the Spirit of holiness, that is, by the immediate power of the Holy Ghost, God thought fit to give a visible and public demonstration to the whole world, that Jesus was his own Son, the promised and true Messias, and consequently did thereby give testimony to the truth and divinity of our Saviour's doctrine and miracles.

God did now publicly own his Son, in the face of the whole world, and freed him from all suspicion of being an imposter or deciever; for it is not supposable, that God should put forth an almighty power to raise him from the grave, if he had by robbery assumed that glorious title of the Son of God, therefore saith the Father of him in the morning of the resurrection; Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee: that is, in the words of our apostle here, declared and made thee conspicuously appear to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.

Yet observe, 2. That though Christ was raised from the dead by the power of God's Holy Spirit, yet did he certanly raise himself by his own power as God, according to his own prediction,, John 2:19, Destroy this temple of my body, and in three days I will raise it up; and according to St. Peter's assertion,, 1 Peter 3:18 Being put to death in the flesh, that is, in his human nature, but quickened by the Spirit; that is, by the power of his Godhead, or divine nature, quickening himself; for had he been only raised by the power of God, and not by his own power, how could his resurrection have been a declaration that he was the Son of God? What had more appeared in Christ's resurrection than in other men's? for they were raised by the power of God as well as he. But here lies the difference; Christ rose by a self-quickening principle, others are raised by a quickening principle derived from Christ, with respect to which he is called resurrection and the life, John 11:25 that is, the principle of quickening life, by which the dead saints are raised.

Observe, 3. That the apostle doth not say, Christ was made or constituted the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead, but declared so to be: Multa tunc fieri dicuntur quando facta esse manifestantur, according to the phrase of scripture; "Things are then said to be when they conspicuously appear." Nothing can be more evident than that Christ was the Son of God before his resurrection; yea, before his incarnation, being the Father of eternity,, Isaiah 9:6.

But the glory of his divinity was much clouded, darkened, and eclipsed, by the frailty of his humanity, by the miseries of his life, and the ignominy of his death. But by his resurrection God rolled away his reproach, and freed him from all the aspersions and accusations of his enemies, who charged him with blasphemy, for affirming that he was the Son of God: and thus our Jesus, in whom we trust, was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.


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Bibliography
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/romans-1.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

3. περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ] belongs to ὃ προεπ. above,—which he promised beforehand, &c., concerning His Son, i.e. ‘which (good tidings) He promised beforehand, &c., and indicated that it should be concerning His Son.’ This is more natural than to bind these words to εὐαγγ. θεοῦ which went before. Either meaning will suit Romans 1:9 equally well. Christ, the Son of God, is the great subject of the good news.

γενομένου] not ὄντος, see John 1:1-3, and notes [nor as in E. V. ‘was made.’ There is nothing in the word indicating creation, however true that may have been: see John 1:14].

κατὰ σάρκα] On the side of His humanity, our Lord ἐγένετο; that nature of His begins only then, when He was γενόμενος ἐκ γυναικός, Galatians 4:4.

σάρξ is here used exactly as in John 1:14, ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο, to signify that whole nature, body and soul, of which the outward visible tabernacle of the FLESH is the concrete representation to our senses.

The words ἐκ σπέρματος δαυείδ cast a hint back at the promise just spoken of. At the same time, in so solemn an enunciation of the dignity of the Son of God, they serve to shew that even according to the human side, His descent had been fixed in the line of him who was Israel’s anointed and greatest king.


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Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/romans-1.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Romans 1:3. On “Every one that believeth,” Romans 9:1; Romans 9:6; Romans 9:14; Romans 9:24; Romans 9:30; Romans 10:1; Romans 10:11; Romans 11:1; Romans 11:7; Romans 11:11; Romans 11:25; Romans 11:33.

ιουδαίῳ, to the Jew) After the Babylonish captivity, all the Israelites, as Josephus informs us, were called Jews; hence the Jew is opposed to the Greek. For a different reason, the Greek is opposed to the Barbarian; Romans 1:14.— πρῶτον) concerning this particle, See Appendix. Crit. Ed. ii.,(9)) on this verse. The apostle, as I have shown, treats of faith, ch. 1 to 4; of salvation, ch. 5 to 8; of the Jew and the Greek, ch. 9 to 11. The knowledge of this division is very useful for the right understanding of the epistle. The third part of the discussion, that concerning the Jew and the Greek, neither weakens nor strengthens the genuineness of the particle πρῶτον. Paul uses it rather for the purpose of convicting [confuting their notion of their own peculiar justification by the mere possession of the law] the Jews, Romans 2:9-10; but the Gospel is the power of GOD unto salvation, not more to the believing Jew, than to the Greek.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/romans-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord: this phrase either respects the Holy Scriptures, mentioned immediately before in Romans 1:2; the sum and substance of them is, concerning the Messiah, the Son of God: or else it respects the gospel, that was spoken of in the Romans 1:1,2 being only a parenthesis, as was before hinted; then the meaning is, that the apostle Paul was separated to the gospel of God, which only or mainly concerns his Son Jesus Christ. And this seems to show the excellency of the gospel, that it doth not treat of vulgar and ordinary matters. as of the gods of the Gentiles, or the actions of Alexander, Caesar, the Scipios, or such like heroes; but of the Son of God himself.

Which was made; i.e. as he afterwards expresseth it, according to the flesh, or his human nature: in regard of his Divine subsistence, he was begotten and not made; in regard of his manhood, he was made and not begotten. When he says the Son of God was made, & c., it is undeniably implied, that he did exist before his incarnation, and was the Son of God before he was the Son of man. This place proves clearly these two truths:

1. That in the person of Jesus Christ there are two natures.

2. That there is between these a communication of properties; here the Son of God is said to be made of the seed of David; and elsewhere the Son of man is said to have come down from heaven: see John 3:13: cf. John 6:62 Acts 20:28 1 Corinthians 2:8.

Of the seed of David; i.e. of the virgin Mary, who was of David’s lineage and posterity; the promise was expressly, that the Messiah should be of the fruit of his loins, Acts 2:30, compared saith Isaiah 11:1 Jeremiah 23:5 Ezekiel 34:24. Yea, this promise was so fully known to the Jews, that when they spake of the Messiah, they called him the Son of David: see Matthew 21:9 22:42 Mark 10:47,48 Joh 7:42. Hence it is that the evangelists, Matthew and Luke, are so careful and industrious to prove, that the virgin Mary, and Joseph to whom she was espoused, did come of David’s line and race.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Romans 1:3". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/romans-1.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

The seed of David; a descendant of David.

According to the flesh; as to his human nature.


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Bibliography
Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Family Bible New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/romans-1.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

3. περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ κ.τ.λ. ‘His Son’ is the subject of GOD’S Gospel promised beforehand—the words go with the whole preceding clause taken as one idea; their meaning is developed in the participial clauses following, which are strictly parallel and explain the twofold character or nature in which ‘His Son’ was revealed to men, on the human side (κατὰ σάρκα) as the son of David, on the divine side (κατὰ πν. ἁγ.) as Son of GOD. Both characters are a fulfilment of prophecy, and together form the fundamental content of the Gospel. The article marks the uniqueness of the relation, ct[53], Hebrews 1:2. The aorists of the participles point to two definite historic acts, the interpretation of which is the key to the mystery which makes ‘His Son’ the subject of GOD’S Gospel. The consequence of the implied argument is then summed up in the full title . Χ. τ. κ. .

τοῦ γενομένουκατὰ σάρκα. For γεν. cf. Philippians 2:7; Galatians 4:4; John 1:14. The entry into a new kind of existence is implied in all these passages: the special kind is marked here and Joh. l.c[54] as κατὰ σάρκα, that is, existence as a man, ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπου (Phil.), ἐκ γυναικός (Gal.), σάρξ here stands for human nature as such, including all that belongs to it (cf. 1 Timothy 3:16), and not ‘flesh’ as contrasted with ‘spirit’; cf. Westcott on John 1:14, Thayer, s.v[55] 3.

ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυείδ. The Davidic descent is referred to as marking the fulfilment of prophecy: a commonplace in the primitive argument; cf. Acts 2:29 f., Acts 13:34 f.; 2 Timothy 2:8; Revelation 3:7 (v. Swete); Mark 12:35.


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"Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/romans-1.html. 1896.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘Concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,’

This message was ‘concerning His Son’. The phrase ‘His own Son’ contains within it the certainty of Christ’s Godhood. Compare John 5:17-18 where Jesus, speaking of God as ‘His own Father’, was seen as having thereby made a claim to be equal with God. This was thus no ordinary Good News. It was Good News concerning God’s only co-equal Son.

And this Son was ‘born of the seed of David according to the flesh.’ In other words He was born into the world as the promised, truly human, long anticipated, coming King of the house of David. That was His status humanwise. In Him the hopes of the nation of Israel were coming to fruition. In inter-testamental terms He was the Messiah, the Christ. The importance of this lay in the fact that it connected Him with all the promises concerning the coming Davidic king contained in the Scriptures, commencing with the promises first made to David himself (2 Samuel 7:16), and continuing throughout the prophets (Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 11:1-5; Isaiah 55:3; Jeremiah 30:9; Jeremiah 33:14-26; Ezekiel 34:23-24; Ezekiel 37:24-28; Micah 5:2; and so on).

But the addition of ‘according to the flesh’ (it would normally have been enough to say ‘born of the seed of David’) immediately draws our attention to the fact that a greater announcement is coming. For while the Gospel of God certainly reveals that He was truly human (‘the Word became flesh and dwelt among us - John 1:14), that He was ‘born according to the flesh’, it also prepares us for something more outstanding. He was not only just a human being. In His human nature He was born of the seed of David, but He is now to be revealed as a greater than David, and as having pre-existed David.


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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/romans-1.html. 2013.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

Concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which has made of the seed of David according to the flesh 2 .

The Gospel of God concerns His Son. The whole of it is comprised in the knowledge of Jesus Christ; so that whoever departs one step from Him, departs from the Gospel. For as Jesus Christ is the Divine image of the Father, He is set before us as the real object of our faith. It is of Him that the Gospel of God, promised by the Prophets, treats; so that He is not simply a legislator or interpreter of the Divine will, like Moses, and the Prophets, and the Apostles. Had the law and the Gospel been given by others than Moses and the Apostles, the essential characteristics of these two economies would have remained the same. But it is altogether different respecting Jesus Christ, who is exclusively the Alpha and Omega of the Gospel, its proper object, its beginning and its end. For it is He who founded it in His blood, and who has communicated to it all its virtue. On this account He Himself says, ‘I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life; no man cometh unto the Father but by Me.’ He is the Son of God, His own Son, the Only-begotten of the Father; which proves that He is truly and exclusively His Son, of the same nature, and equal with the Father, and not figuratively, or in a secondary sense, as angels or men, as Israel or believers.

Jesus Christ. — He was called Jesus, the Greek name of the Hebrew Joshua, signifying Jehovah that saveth; and so called by the angel before He was born. ‘Thou shalt call His name JESUS; for He shall save His people from their sins,’ Matthew 1:21. The title Christ — that is, Messiah, or ‘Anointed’, 3 — being so often added in designation of His office, at length came into use as a part of His name.

Our Lord. — This follows from His being the Son of God. The word translated Lord, comprehends the different names or titles which the Hebrews gave to God, but most usually corresponds with that of Jehovah. Where it is used as the name of God, it designates essentially the three persons of the Godhead; but it is also applied to any one of the Divine persons. In the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles, it generally refers to Christ; and in these Divine writings this appellation is applied to Him in innumerable instances. He is called ‘the Lord of glory;’ ‘the Lord both of the dead and living;’ ‘the Lord of all.’ The name Jesus refers to His saving His people; the designation Christ , to His being anointed for that purpose; and that of Lord, to His sovereign authority.

On whatever subject Paul treats, he constantly introduces the mystery of Christ. In writing to the Corinthians, he says, ‘I determined not to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ and Him crucified.’ This is a declaration that the doctrine concerning Christ is the whole of religion; in which all besides is comprehended. In delivering his instructions to the saints at Corinth respecting the incestuous person he points out to them Jesus Christ as the Lamb that was sacrificed. If his subject respects the promises he has made, or the engagements he has entered into, he draws our attention to the promises of God, which are all yea and amen in Christ Jesus. When he treats of the precepts to be obeyed, he regards them as connected with the knowledge of Christ. All duties are considered in relation to Him, as the only Savior from whom we can derive power to fulfill them, the only altar on which they can be accepted, that model according to which they are to be performed, and the motive by which those who perform them are to be actuated. He is the head that gives life to the members, the root which renders the branches fruitful. Believers are the workmanship of God, created in Christ Jesus unto good works. Jesus Christ is the end and object of their obedience, in order that the name of the Father may be glorified in the Son, and that the name of the Son may be glorified in them. Accordingly, the Scriptures speak of the commencement and the continuation of the life of believers as being derived from Christ; of their being planted together with Him; buried and risen with Him; walking in Him; living and dying with Him. The principal motives to holiness, in general, or to any particular duty, are drawn from some special view of the work of redemption, fitted to excite to the fulfillment of such obligations. The love of God in Christ is set before us, in a multitude of passages, as the most powerful motive we can have to love Him with all our heart, with all our soul, and with all our mind. When we are exhorted to look not to our own things only, but also to those of others, it is because we ought to have the same mind in us that was in Christ Jesus, who, being in the form of God, humbled Himself to do such wonderful things for us. The duty of almsgiving is enforced by the consideration that He who was rich for our sakes became poor, that we through His poverty might be rich. Forbearance to weak brethren has for its motive the death of Christ for them. If we are exhorted to forgive the offenses of others, it is because God, for Christ’s sake, hath forgiven us.

The reciprocal duties of husband and wife are enforced by the consideration of the love of Christ, and the relation in which He stands to His Church. The motive to chastity is, that we are members of Christ’s body, and temples of the Holy Ghost. In one word, the various exhortations to the particular duties of a holy life, and the motives which correspond to each of them, are all taken from different views of one grand and important object, the mystery of redemption. He ‘His own self bare our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness.’ ‘Ye are bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.’ Having referred to Jesus Christ under the title of the Son of God, the Apostle immediately subjoins a declaration concerning His person as God and man.

Which was made of the seed of David. — The wisdom of God was displayed in the whole of the dispensation that related to the Messiah, who, in His human nature, was, conformably to many express predictions, to descend from David king of Israel 4 . He was born of a virgin of the family of David; and the first promise, containing His earliest name, the seed of the woman, indicated that He was in this supernatural manner to come into the world; as also that He was to be equally related to Jews and to Gentiles. To Abraham it was afterwards promised, that the Messiah should spring from him. ‘In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.’ But as this promise was still very general, it was next limited to the tribe of Judah. ‘The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come.’ And to David the Lord had sworn, ‘Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne.’ Thus, as the period of His birth approached, the promises concerning Him were more particular and more restricted. The wisdom of God was pleased in this manner to designate the family in which the Messiah, as to His human nature, was to be born, that it might be one of the characteristics which should distinguish and make Him known, as well as to confound the unbelief of those who should reject Him, and deny His advent. For, if He has not yet come, it was to no purpose that the prophets foretold that He should descend from a certain family, since all the genealogies of the Jews are now lost. It must therefore be admitted either that these predictions, thus restricted, were given in vain, or that the Messiah must have appeared while the distinction of Jewish families still subsisted, and the royal house of David could still be recognized. This declaration of the Apostle was calculated to have great weight with all, both Jews and Gentiles, who reverenced the Old Testament Scriptures, in convincing them that Jesus Christ was indeed the Messiah, the hope of Israel.

God has also seen it good to exhibit, in the birth of Jesus Christ, that union of majesty and dignity on the one hand, and weakness and abasement on the other, which reigns through the whole of His economy on earth. For what family had there been in the world more glorious than that of David, the great king of Israel, most honored and beloved of God, both as a prophet and a king? And what family was more reduced or obscure when Jesus Christ was born? This is the reason why He is represented by the prophet Isaiah as the rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch growing out of his roots, which marks a family reduced, as if nothing more remained but the roots, which scarcely appeared above ground. And by the same prophet it is also said, ‘He shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground.’

According to the flesh. — The prophets had abundantly testified that the Messiah was to be truly man, as well as truly God, which was necessary in order to accomplish the purpose of His advent. ‘Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, He also Himself likewise took part of the same; that through death He might destroy him that had the power of death.’ The Apostle John declares that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. This expression could not be employed respecting any mere man, as no one who was only a man could come except in the flesh. Since, then, Jesus Christ might have come in some other manner, these words affirm His humanity, while at the same time they prove His pre-existence.

Footnote:
2: In the original, the words, ‘Jesus Christ our Lord, stand at the conclusion of verse 4th, and the words between them and ‘concerning His Son’ may be read as a parenthesis; but the sense remains the same.
3: Oil was the instituted emblem of the grace of the Holy Spirit which was given to the Lord Jesus Christ without measure; and anointing oil was the outward visible sign of the Spirit’s inward and spiritual graces. We meet with the institution, Exodus 30:22, to the end. The holy ointment was to be used in consecrating the tabernacle and all its vessels, and in setting apart certain persons for some great offices. It was unlawful to use it upon any other occasion; whosoever did so was to be cut off from the people. This consecrating unction was used on the tabernacle, which was a type of the body of Christ, and on all the vessels of the tabernacle to show that Christ and everything respecting Him, was under the sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit; and it was used to set apart the prophets, the priests, and the kings, because He was to sustain these offices.
4: In regard of His Divine subsistence, Jesus Christ was begotten, not made; in regard of His manhood, He was not begotten, but made of the seed of David, John 1:14; Galatians 4:4.

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Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/romans-1.html. 1835.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

3. Concerning his Son—Depending on Gospelthe Gospel concerning his Son. The good news about the Messiah, for it should never be forgotten that, whereas Jesus is a name, Christ is a title. (See notes on Matthew 1:1, and John 4:25.)

Seed of David—(See note on Matthew 1:1.)


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/romans-1.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Romans 1:3. Concerning his Bon. The punctuation of the E. V. connects this with the word ‘gospel’ (Romans 1:1), but it may be joined with Romans 1:2 : God’s previous promise in the Old Testament was concerning His Son. That promise was fulfilled in the gospel. In any case it is fairly implied that the ‘Son’ existed in a peculiar relation to God, before the historical manifestations described in the two parallel clauses which follow. These clauses each contain three contrasted members: (1) was born, (2) of the seed of David, (3) according to the flesh; (1) was declared to be the Son of God with power, (2) by resurrection of the dead, (3) according to the Spirit of holiness.

Who was born. Though He was the Son of God, it was necessary for the fulfilment of the Messianic promises that He should appear as man, hence He was born.

Of the need of David. This too was in fulfilment of the promise. On the question whether this refers to Mary as well as Joseph, see vol. i., pp. 29, 367.

According to the flesh, i.e., according to His human nature, or descent. The word ‘flesh’ is also used of our sinful nature, but that sense is excluded here, since He appeared ‘in the likeness of the flesh of sin’ (see on chap. Romans 8:3). Nor does the phrase refer to the body alone, or to the body and soul, distinguished from the spirit ‘Were He a mere man, it had been enough to say that He was of the seed of David; but as He is more than man, it was necessary to limit His descent from David to His human nature’ (Hodge).


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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/romans-1.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Romans 1:3 f. περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ: the subject of the Gospel of God is His Son. For the same conception, see 2 Corinthians 1:19 : τοῦ θεοῦ γὰρ υἱὸς χ. . ἐν ὑμῖν διʼ ἡμῶν κηρυχθείς. Taken by itself, “the Son of God” is, in the first instance, a title rather than a name. It goes back to Psalms 2:7; the person to whom it is applied is conceived as the chosen object of the Divine love, God’s instrument for accomplishing the salvation of His people. (Weiss.) The description which follows does not enable us to answer all the questions it raises, yet it is sufficiently clear. “The Son of God” was born of the seed of David according to the flesh. For γενομένου, cf. Galatians 4:4; for David, 2 Timothy 2:8, where, as here, the Davidic descent is an essential part of the Pauline Gospel. That it was generally preached and recognised in the primitive Church is proved by these passages, as well as by Hebrews 7:14 and the genealogies in Matthew and Luke; yet it seems a fair inference from our Lord’s question in Mark 12:35 ff. that for Him it had no real importance. Those who did not directly see in Jesus one transcendently greater than David would not recognise in Him the Saviour by being convinced of His Davidic descent. This person, of royal lineage, was “declared Son of God, with power, according to the spirit of holiness, in virtue of resurrection from the dead”. The word ὁρισθέντος is ambiguous; in Acts 10:42; Acts 17:31, it is used to describe the appointment of Christ to judge the living and the dead, and is rendered in A.V. “ordained”. If to be Son of God were merely an office or a dignity, like that of judge of the world, this meaning might be defended here. There is an approximation to such an idea in Acts 13:33, where also Paul is the speaker. “God,” he says, “has fulfilled His promise by raising up Jesus; as it is written also in the second Psalm, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee.” Here the resurrection day, strictly speaking, is the birthday of the Son of God; sonship is a dignity to which He is exalted after death. But in view of passages like Galatians 4:4, 2 Corinthians 8:9, Philippians 2:5 f., it is impossible to suppose that Paul limited his use of Son of God in this way; even while Jesus lived on earth there was that in Him which no connection with David could explain, but which rested on a relation to God; the resurrection only declared Him to be what He truly was—just as in the Psalm, for that matter, the bold words, This day have I begotten Thee, may be said to refer, not to the right and title, but to the coronation of the King. In virtue of His resurrection, which is here conceived, not as from the dead ( ἐκ νεκρῶν), but of the dead ( ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν—a resurrection exemplifying, and so guaranteeing, that of others), Christ is established in that dignity which is His, and which answers to His nature. The expression κατὰ πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης characterises Christ ethically, as κατὰ σάρκα does physically. Not that it makes the sonship in question “ethical” as opposed to “metaphysical”: no such distinctions were in the Apostle’s thought. But the sonship, which was declared by the resurrection, answered to ( κατὰ) the spirit of holiness which was the inmost and deepest reality in the Person and life of Jesus. The sense that there is that in Christ which is explained by his connection with mankind, and that also which can only be explained by some peculiar relation to God, is no doubt conveyed in this description, and is the basis of the orthodox doctrine of the two natures in the one Person of the Lord; but it is a mistake to say that that doctrine is formulated here. The connection of the words ἐν δυνάμει is doubtful. They have been joined to ὁρισθέντος (cf. 2 Corinthians 13:4 : ζῇ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ): declared to be Son of God “by a miracle,” a mighty work wrought by God; and also with υἱοῦ θεοῦ = Son of God, not in humiliation, but “in power,” a power demonstrated by the gift of thè Spirit and its operations in the Church. “Jesus, Messiah, Our Lord,” summarises all this. “Our Lord” is the most compendious expression of the Christian consciousness. (A. B. Bruce, Apologetics, 398 ff.) “The whole Gospel of Paul is comprehended in this historical Jesus, who has appeared in flesh, but who, on the ground of the πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης, which constitutes His essence, has been exalted as Christ and Lord.” (Lipsius.)


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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". The Expositor's Greek Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/romans-1.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Who was made to him of the seed of David, according to the flesh. The sense is, that God promised, that he who was his true and only Son from eternity, should also become his son, as man; that the same son should be man, as well as God, when the word was made flesh, or when that divine person should be united to our human nature. Thus the same person, who was his only begotten Son from eternity, being made man, and of the seed of David, by his incarnation, was still his Son, both as God, and also as man. (Witham) --- The Greek text has not the particle ei, (to him) but only Greek: tou genomenou ek spermatos David. But St. Irenæus, (lib. iii. chap. 18.) St. Ambrose, St. Jerome read, Qui factus est ei. And also St. Augustine in his unfinished exposition of the epistle to the Romans; though before in his book against Faustus, (lib. xi. chap. 14.) he reads it otherwise. (Calmet)


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/romans-1.html. 1859.

Mark Dunagan Commentary on the Bible

Romans 1:3 concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,

"Concerning" -the good news is all about one person, the Son of God. Which reference to His humanity, He was a descendant of David, the line which had the Divine right to rule over the people of God. (Psalms 89:34-36; 2 Samuel 7:12)


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Dunagan, Mark. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Mark Dunagan Commentaries on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dun/romans-1.html. 1999-2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

Son. Greek. huios. App-108.

Jesus . . . Lord. In the Greek these words follow after "dead" in Romans 1:4. Figure of speech Hyperbaton. App-6.

Lord. App-98.

Which was made = Who was born (Galatians 1:4, Galatians 1:4, Revised Version.)

seed: i.e. of David"s line, but ending specifically in Mary, who was here the "seed" of David. App-99. And Christ was "the Seed" of the woman (Genesis 3:15. Isaiah 7:14. Matthew 1:23).

David. Compare John 7:42. 2 Timothy 2:8.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

flesh = human nature. Greek. sarx. See Romans 9:3, Romans 9:5.


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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/romans-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

Concerning ... It would have been better if the order in which the words of this and the following verse stand in the original had been followed in our version, as they are in nearly every other-thus: 'Concerning His Son, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh, and declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, [even] Jesus Christ our Lord.'

Concerning his Son. Does this mean that the Gospel itself, or that the promise of it in the Old Testament, was "Concerning his Son?" Most critics, probably, say the latter; but (with Calvin, Bengel, Olshausen, Lange, etc.) we think the former the more natural-that the grand Burden of the Gospel of God is His own Son, whose glorious Person the apostle now proceeds to unfold.

Which was made of the seed of David. As that was the predicted Messianic line (2 Samuel 7:12, etc.; Psalms 89:1-52 passim; Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 11:1; Isaiah 55:3; Jeremiah 23:5), Jesus of Nazareth behoved to come of it, if He was to have any just claim to be "the Christ of God" (see Matthew 22:42; John 7:42). Accordingly this is grandly dwelt on in the angelic annunciation of His birth by the angel to the blessed Virgin (Luke 1:32), while the descent of His legal father also from David was emphatically recognized to himself by the same angel (Matthew 1:20; see Luke 1:27); and His birth at the royal city was announced to the shepherds as one of the most notable circumstances of this great event (Luke 2:11). The apostles were at pains to bring this claim of Jesus of Nazareth to be their predicted Messiah under the notice of their countrymen, in their earliest pleadings with them (Acts 2:30-32; Acts 13:22-23; 2 Timothy 2:8).

According to the flesh - that is (beyond all reasonable doubt), 'according to His human nature: compare John 1:14, "The Word was made flesh" (or 'became man'); Romans 9:5, "of whom, as concerning the flesh" [ kata (Greek #2596) sarka (Greek #4561)], or 'in respect of His human nature,' "Christ came;" 1 John 4:2-3, "Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh" (or 'in true humanity'). But this sense will more clearly appear to be the only true one by what follows.


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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/romans-1.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;
his Son
9; 8:2,3,29-32; Psalms 2:7; Matthew 3:17; 26:63; 27:43; Luke 1:35; John 1:34,49; John 3:16-18,35,36; 5:25; 10:30,36; 20:28,31; Acts 3:13; 8:37; 9:20; 1 Corinthians 1:9; Galatians 4:4; Colossians 1:13-15; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 1 John 1:3; 3:8,23; 4:9,10,15; 1 John 5:1,5,10-13,20; Revelation 2:18
which
2 Samuel 7:12-16; Psalms 89:36,37; Isaiah 9:6,7; Jeremiah 23:5,6; 33:15-17,26; Amos 9:11; Matthew 1:1,6,16,20-23; 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 22:42-45; Luke 1:31-33,69; 2:4-6; John 7:42; Acts 2:30; 13:22,23; 2 Timothy 2:8
according
8:3; 9:5; Genesis 3:15; John 1:14; Galatians 4:4; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 4:2,3; 2 John 1:7

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/romans-1.html.

Hodge's Commentary on Romans, Ephesians and First Corintians

Concerning his Son. These words are either to be connected with εὐαγγέλιον, the gospel concerning his Son; or with προεπηγγείλατο, which he promised concerning his Son. The sense in either case is much the same. As most commentators and editors regard the second verse as a parenthesis, they of course adopt the former construction; but as there is no necessity for assuming any parenthesis, the natural grammatical connection is with προεπηγγείλατο. The personal object of the ancient promises is the Son of God.

It is a well known scriptural usage, that the designations employed in reference to our Lord are sometimes applied to him as a historical person, God and man, and sometimes exclusively to one or the other of the two natures, the divine and human, which enter into the constitution of the theanthropos. Thus the term Son designates the Logos in all those passages in which he is spoken of as the Creator of all things; at other times it designates the incarnate Logos; as when it is said, "the Son shall make you free." Sometimes the same term is used in the same passage in reference fist to the incarnate Word, and then to the Word as the second person of the Trinity. Thus in Hebrews 1:2 it is said, "Hath spoken unto us by his Son, (the historical person, Jesus Christ,) by whom (the eternal Word) he made the worlds." So here "concerning his Son," means the Son of God as clothed in our nature, the Word made flesh; but in the next clause, "declared to be the Son of God," the word Son designates the divine nature of Christ. In all cases, however, it is a designation implying participation of the divine nature. Christ is called the Son of God because he is consubstantial with the Father, and therefore equal to him in power and glory. The term expresses the relation of the second to the first person in the Trinity, as it exists from eternity. It is therefore, as applied to Christ, not a term of office, nor expressive of any relation assumed in time. He was and is the Eternal Son. This is proved from John 1:1-14, where the term υἱός is interchanged with λόγος. It was the Son, therefore, who in the beginning was with God, who was God, who created all things, in whom was life, who is the light of men, who is in the bosom of the Father. In John 5:17-31, Christ calls himself the Son of God, in a sense which made him equal to the Father, having the same power, the same authority, and a right to the same honor. In John 10:29-42, Christ declares God to be his Father in such a sense as to make himself God, one with the Father; and he vindicates his claim to this participation of the divine nature by appealing to his works. In Colossians 1:13-17, he is said as Son to be the image of the invisible God, the exact exemplar, and of course the reveler of the Divine nature; the Creator of all things that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible. In Hebrews 1:4-6, the title Son is adduced as proof that he is superior to the angels, and entitled to their worship. He is therefore called God's proper Son, ἴδιος, Romans 8:32 (comp. πατέρα ἴδιον ἔλεγεν τὸν θεόν, John 5:18); his own Son, ἑαυτοῦ, Romans 8:3; his only begotten Son, μονογενής, John 1:14, John 1:18; John 3:16, John 3:18; 1 John 4:9. Hence giving, sending, not sparing this Son, is said to be the highest conceivable evidence of the love of God, John 3:16; Romans 8:32; 1 John 4:9. The historical sense of the terms λόγος, εἰκών, υἱός, πρωτοτόκος, as learned from the Scriptures and the usus loquendi of the apostolic age, shows that they must, in their application to Christ, be understood of his Divine nature.

Who was made of the seed of David. As γίνομαι, from the assumed theme γένω, to beget, signifies to begin to be, to come into existence, it is often used in reference to descent or birth, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, Galatians 4:4; ης ἐγενήθητε τέκνα, 1 Peter 3:6. "Made of the seed of David," is therefore equivalent to "born of the seed of David." That the Messiah was to be of the family of David, was predicted in the Old Testament, and affirmed in the New. Isaiah 9:1; Jeremiah 23:5; Matthew 22:45; John 7:42; Acts 13:23.

The limitation κατὰ σάρκα, according to the flesh, obviously implies the superhuman character of Jesus Christ. Were he a mere man, it had been enough to say that he was of the seed of David; but as he is more then man, it was necessary to limit his descent from David to his human nature. That the word σάρξ here means human nature is obvious both from the scriptural usage of the word, and from the nature of the case. See John 1:14; Romans 9:5; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 4:2, 1 John 4:3. It is not the flesh or body, as opposed to the soul, but the human, as opposed to the divine nature, that is intended. Neither does σάρξ here mean the purely material element with its organic life, the σῶμα and ψυχή, to the exclusion of the πνεῦμα or rational principle, according to the Apollinarian doctrine, but the entire humanity of Christ, including "a true body and a reasonable soul." This is the sense of the word in all the parallel passages in which the incarnation is the subject. As when it is said, "The Word was made flesh," John 1:14; or, "God was manifested in the flesh," 1 Timothy 3:16. These are explained by saying, "He was found in fashion as a man," Philippians 2:8. The word therefore includes everything which constitutes the nature which a child derives from its progenitors.


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Bibliography
Hodge, Charles. "Commentary on Romans 1:3". Hodge's Commentary on Romans, Ephesians and First Corintians. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hdg/romans-1.html.

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