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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Romans 1:30

 

 

slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,

Adam Clarke Commentary

Backbiters - Καταλαλους, from κατα, against, and λαλεω, I speak; those who speak against others; false accusers, slanderers.

Haters of God - Θεοστυγεις, atheists, contemners of sacred things, maligners of providence, scorners, etc. All profligate deists are of this class; and it seems to be the finishing part of a diabolic character.

Despiteful - Ὑβριστας, from ὑβριζω, to treat with injurious insolence; stormy, boisterous; abusing both the characters and persons of those over whom they can have any power.

Proud - Ὑπερηφανους, from ὑπερ, above or over, and φαινω, I show or shine. They who are continually exalting themselves and depressing others; magnifying themselves at the expense of their neighbors; and wishing all men to receive their sayings as oracles.

Boasters - Αλαζονας, from λαζομαι, to assume; self-assuming, vain-glorious, and arrogant men.

Inventors of evil things - Εφευρετας κακων . Those who have invented destructive customs, rites, fashions, etc.; such as the different religious ceremonies among the Greeks and Romans - the orgies of Bacchus, the mysteries of Ceres, the lupercalia, feasts of the Bona Dea, etc., etc. Multitudes of which evil things, destructive and abominable ceremonies, are to be found in every part of the heathen worship.

Disobedient to parents - Though filial affection was certainly more recommended and cultivated than many other virtues, yet there are many instances on record of the grossest violation of this great branch of the law of nature.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/romans-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Backbiters - Those Who calumniate, slander, or speak ill of those who are absent. Whisperers declare secretly, and with great reserve, the supposed faults of others. Backbiters proclaim them publicly and avowedly.

Haters of God - There is no charge which can be brought against people more severe than this. It is the highest possible crime; yet it is a charge which the conduct of people will abundantly justify, and the truth of which all those experience who are brought to see their true character. To an awakened sinner there is often nothing more plain and painful than that he is a hater of God. His heart rises up against Him, and his Law, and his plan of saving people; and he deeply feels that nothing can subdue this but the mighty power of the Holy One. This is a charge which is not unfrequently brought against people in the Bible; see John 7:7; John 15:18, John 15:24-25; John 3:19-20. Surely, if this be the native character of man, then it is “far gone from original righteousness.” No more striking proof of depravity could be given; and in no creed or confession of faith is there a more painful and humiliating representation given of human wickedness, than in this declaration of an inspired apostle, that people are by nature haters of God.

Despiteful - This word denotes those who abuse, or treat with unkindness or disdain, those who are present. Whisperers and backbiters are those who calumniate those who are absent.

Proud - Pride is well understood. It is an inordinate self-esteem; an unreasonable conceit of one‘s superiority in talents, beauty, wealth, accomplishments, etc. (Webster). Of the existence of this everywhere, there is abundant proof. And it was particularly striking among the ancients. The sect of the Stoics was distinguished for it, and this was the general character of their philosophers. People will be proud where they suppose none are superior; and it is only the religion that reveals a great and infinite God, and that teaches that all blessings are his gift, and that he has given us the station which we occupy, that will produce true humility. We may add, that the system of paganism did not disclose the wickedness of the heart, and that rids was a main reason why they were elevated in self-esteem.

Boasters - Those who arrogate to themselves what they do not possess, and glory on it. This is closely connected with pride. A man who has an inordinate self-conceit, will not be slow to proclaim his own merits to those around him.

Inventors of evil things - This doubtless refers to their seeking to find out new arts or plans to practice evil; new devices to gratify their lusts and passions; new forms of luxury, and vice, etc. So intent were they on practicing evil, so resolved to gratify their passions, that the mind was excited to discover new modes of gratification. In cities of luxury and vice, this has always been done. Vices change their form, people become satiated, and they are obliged to resort to some new form. The passions cease to be gratified with old forms of indulgence, and consequently people are obliged to resort to new devices to pamper their appetites, and to rekindle their dying passions to a flame. This was eminently true of ancient Rome; a place where all the arts of luxury, all the devices of passion, all the designs of splendid gratification, were called forth to excite and pamper the evil passions of people. Their splendid entertainments, their games, their theaters, their sports - cruel and bloody - were little else than new and ever-varying inventions of evil things to gratify the desires of lust and of pride.

Disobedient to parents - This expresses the idea that they did not show to parents that honor, respect, and attention which was due. This has been a crime of paganism in every age; and though among the Romans the duty of honoring parents was enjoined by the laws, yet it is not improbable that the duty was often violated, and that parents were treated with great neglect and even contempt. “Disobedience to parents was punished by the Jewish Law with death, and with the Hindus it is attended with the loss of the child‘s inheritance. The ancient Greeks considered the neglect of it to be extremely impious, and attended with the most certain effects of divine vengeance. Solon ordered all persons who refused to make due provision for their parents to be punished with infamy, and the same penalty was incurred for personal violence toward them.” Kent‘s Commentaries on American Law, vol. ii. p. 207; compare Virg. AEniad, ix. 283. The feelings of pride and haughtiness would lead to disregard of parents. It might also be felt that to provide for them when aged and infirm was a burden; and hence, there would arise disregard for their wants, and probably open opposition to their wishes, as being the demands of petulance and age. It has been one characteristic of paganism every where, that it leaves children to treat their parents with neglect. Among the Sandwich islanders it was customary, when a parent was old, infirm, and sick beyond the hope of recovery, for his own children to bury him alive; and it has been the common custom in India for children to leave their aged parents to perish on the banks of the Ganges.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/romans-1.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Backbiters,.... Who more publicly defamed the characters of their neighbours, and hurt their good name, credit and reputation, though behind their backs:

haters of God; some read it, "hated of God"; as all workers of iniquity are; but rather this expresses their sin, that they were deniers of the being and providence of God, and showed themselves to be enemies to him by their evil works:

despiteful; both by opprobrious words, and injurious actions:

proud; of their natural knowledge, learning, eloquence and vain philosophy:

boasters: of their parts, abilities, wisdom and works; all which they attributed to themselves, and to the sharpness of their wit, their sagacity and industry:

inventors of evil things; of evil schemes of morality and philosophy, and of evil practices, as well as principles:

disobedient to parents; which was acting contrary to the light of nature.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/romans-1.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

haters of God — The word usually signifies “God-hated,” which some here prefer, in the sense of “abhorred of the Lord”; expressing the detestableness of their character in His sight (compare Proverbs 22:14; Psalm 73:20). But the active sense of the word, adopted in our version and by the majority of expositors, though rarer, agrees perhaps better with the context.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/romans-1.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Paul changes the construction again to twelve substantives and adjectives that give vivid touches to this composite photograph of the God abandoned soul.

Whisperers (πσιτυρισταςpsithuristas). Old word from πσιτυριζωpsithurizō to speak into the ear, to speak secretly, an onomatopoetic word like πσιτυρισμοςpsithurismos (2 Corinthians 12:20) and only here in N.T.

Backbiters (καταλαλουςkatalalous). Found nowhere else except in Hermas, compound like καταλαλεωkatalaleō to talk back (James 4:11), and καταλαλιαkatalalia talking back (2 Corinthians 12:20), talkers back whether secretly or openly.

Hateful to God (τεοστυγειςtheostugeis). Old word from τεοςtheos and στυγεωstugeō All the ancient examples take it in the passive sense and so probably here. So στυγητοςstugētos (Titus 3:13). Vulgate has deo odibiles.

Insolent (υβρισταςhubristas). Old word for agent from υβριζωhubrizō to give insult to, here alone in N.T. save 1 Timothy 1:13.

Haughty (υπερηπανουςhuperēphanous). From υπερhuper and παινομαιphainomai to appear above others, arrogant in thought and conduct, “stuck up.”

Boastful (αλαζοναςalazonas). From αληalē wandering. Empty pretenders, swaggerers, braggarts.

Inventors of evil things (επευρετας κακωνepheuretas kakōn). Inventors of new forms of vice as Nero was. Tacitus (Ann. IV. ii) describes Sejanus as facinorum omnium repertor and Virgil (Aen. ii. 163) scelerum inventor.

Disobedient to parents (γονευσιν απειτειςgoneusin apeitheis). Cf. 1 Timothy 1:9; 2 Timothy 3:2. An ancient and a modern trait.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/romans-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Haters of God ( θεοστυγεῖς )

Rev., hateful to God. All classical usage is in favor of the passive sense, but all the other items of the list are active. Meyer defends the passive on the ground that the term is a summary of what precedes. The weight of authority is on this side. The simple verb στυγέω tohate, does not occur in the New Testament. Στυγητός hatefulis found Titus 3:3. The verb is stronger than, μισέω Ihate, since it means to show as well as to feel hatred.

Proud ( ὑπερηφάνους )

Rev., haughty. See on pride, Mark 7:22.

Boasters ( ἀλαζόνας ). Swaggerers

Not necessarily implying contempt or insult.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/romans-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

Whisperers — Such as secretly defame others.

Backbiters — Such as speak against others behind their back.

Haters of God — That is, rebels against him, deniers of his providence, or accusers of his justice in their adversities; yea, having an inward heart-enmity to his justice and holiness.

Inventors of evil things — Of new pleasures, new ways of gain, new arts of hurting, particularly in war.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/romans-1.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

30.The word θεοστυγεῖς, means, no doubt, haters of God; for there is no reason to take it in a passive sense, (hated of God,) since Paul here proves men to be guilty by manifest vices. Those, then, are designated, who hate God, whose justice they seem to resist by doing wrong. Whisperers (susurrones ) and slanderers (obtrectatores ) (58) are to be thus distinguished; the former, by secret accusations, break off the friendships of good men, inflame their minds with anger, defame the innocent, and sow discords; and the latter through an innate malignity, spare the reputation of no one, and, as though they were instigated by the fury of evilspeaking, they revile the deserving as well as the undeserving We have translated ὑβριστὰς, villanous, (maleficos ;) for the Latin authors are wont to call notable injuries villanies, such as plunders, thefts, burnings, and sorceries; and these where the vices which Paul meant to point out here. (59) I have rendered the word ὑπερήφανους, used by Paul, insolent, (contumeliosos ;) for this is the meaning of the Greek word: and the reason for the word is this, — because such being raised, as it were, on high, look down on those who are, as it were, below them with contempt, and they cannot bear to look on their equals. Haughty are they who swell with the empty wind of overweeningness. Unsociable (60) are those who, by their iniquities, unloose the bands of society, or those in whom there is no sincerity or constancy of faith, who may be called truce-breakers.

To preserve the same negative according to what is done in Greek, we may render Romans 1:31 as follows: —

31.Unintelligent, unfaithful, unnatural, unappeasable, unmerciful. — Ed.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/romans-1.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

Ver. 30. Haters of God] And so God-murderers, 1 John 3:15. {See Trapp on "1 John 3:15"}


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/romans-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Romans 1:30. Haters of God Discontented with his government, and disaffected to his rule, as a righteous and holy Being who could not but be highly displeased with their abominations. The original word ' Υβριστας, rendered despiteful, would be more properly rendered violent or overbearing in their behaviour to each other. It properly expresses the character of a man who is resolved to gratify his own appetites and passions, and to pursue what he apprehends his own interest, right or wrong; without at all regarding those inconvenienciesor sufferings which he may thereby bring upon himself. Inventors of evil things, means such as piqued themselves on making new discoveries in the artsof sensuality or of mischief; who found out new pleasures, new ways of gain, and new arts of hurting their fellow-creatures, particularly in war. See Bengelius, Calmet, and Mintert.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/romans-1.html. 1801-1803.

Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae

DISCOURSE: 1823

MEN HATERS OF GOD

Romans 1:30. Haters of God.

WHAT! are there any persons of this character upon earth? It cannot be: it were a libel upon human nature to suppose it. Go round to all the people you can find, and put the question to them, ‘Are you a hater of God?’ They will spurn at the idea, and deem the question a gross insult. The moral part of mankind would he filled with indignation at such a strange calumnious suggestion. And the most immoral would say, ‘I certainly do not serve him as I ought: but, as to “hating him,” “is thy servant a dog, that he should do this [Note: 2 Kings 8:12-13.]?” ’ But let us “come to the word and to the testimony.” Of whom speaks the Apostle the words which we have read? Does he give this character to some of a pre-eminently impious disposition? or does he ascribe it to the whole Gentile world, even to every child of man, so long as he continues in his natural and unconverted state? It is most assuredly in this latter sense that the words must be understood: for the scope of this part of the epistle is to shew, not that some particular persons need a Saviour, but “that every mouth must be stopped, and all the world become guilty before God [Note: Romans 3:19.].” I am far from saying that all persons manifest their enmity against God in the same way, and to the same extent: but if we will candidly examine the state of mankind, we shall find it precisely such as the Apostle here describes it; and that the human heart, till changed by Divine grace, is “full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity;” and that men still are, no less than in the Apostle’s days, “whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful [Note: ver. 29–31.].” With the description at large I shall not trouble you. It is my intention to confine myself to that particular part of it which I have selected for my text: in confirmation of which, I shall,

I. Establish the fact, that unregenerate men are haters of God—

This fact is absolutely universal—

[Look at every child of man, and see what are his dispositions and conduct towards the God of heaven and earth: and all, without exception, will be found to deserve the character here assigned them. All betray an enmity against God; they feel it in their hearts, and manifest it in their lives. It their minds were rightly disposed towards God, they would esteem him above all; and desire him above all; and delight in him above all; and, in comparison of his favour, there would be nothing regarded by them as worthy of a thought. But what is the fact? There is not any thing, however vain or worthless, or vile, that does not occupy a higher place in their esteem than He. Any gratification which they affect, is sufficient to draw them from their allegiance to Him, and to induce them to violate his most express commands. The favour of a fellow-creature is more sought than his; and the displeasure of a poor sinful worm more dreaded than his. Even Satan himself is deemed more worthy to be obeyed than he: as our Lord has said, “Ye are of your father the devil; and the lusts of your father ye will do [Note: John 8:44.].” But the will of our heavenly Father we will not do. There is no such satisfaction felt in any thing which he enjoins; no such readiness to comply with his sacred motions in the soul. In truth, what is the whole life of an unregenerate man? is it not a state of rebellion against God? There is not a command of his which we desire to keep: there is not one which we do not violate.

Now let us try this conduct by an easy test. Suppose that a child, or a servant, treated us as we have treated God: suppose that, whilst he acknowledged his relation to us, he never sought to please us; never cared however much he displeased us; never felt any comfort in our society, but affected rather the society of our bitterest enemies; never was concerned about our honour or interests; but would sacrifice both the one and the other at any time, without any shame or remorse—what construction should we put upon that conduct? Should we not say that his mind was altogether alienated from us? No doubt we should: and that is the construction which God himself puts on our deportment towards him: “The carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be [Note: Romans 8:7.].”]

This fact is also realized, to an inconceivable degree—

[It would appear impossible for a man so to hate God, as that HIS annihilation and extinction should prove to them a source of real satisfaction: but I put it to the consciences of all, and ask, Supposing we were told, from undoubted authority, that there was no God to control us, no God to inspect our ways, no God to call us to an account, and that we were at liberty to follow our own ways without any fear of a hereafter, would it not, on the whole, be an acceptable report? The Psalmist says, “The fool hath said in his heart, No God [Note: Psalms 14:1.].” Now, whether we understand that as an affirmation or a wish, it equally shews what I am now contending for; that the very existence of God is a burthen to the carnal mind; and that the extinction of it, if it were possible, would be welcomed as a relief. In truth, we flee from him, as Adam did after the fall [Note: Genesis 3:8.], and banish him from our minds as much as possible [Note: Psalms 10:4.], and live altogether as “without him in the world [Note: Ephesians 2:12.].” And thus we give a clear proof that we should esteem it no loss if we could get rid of him altogether.]

Melancholy, indeed, is this fact. I will now endeavour to,

II. Account for it—

One would suppose, that He who is all excellence in himself, and the one source of all benefits to man, should be an object of love, and not of hatred, to us: and so he would be, if we had retained our primitive state of innocence: but we have fallen, and are become inconceivably depraved: and therefore we hate him on account of,

1. The contrariety that exists between him and us—

[There is not a greater difference between light and darkness, than between, him and us; not only in his natural attributes, which, of course, we cannot resemble, but in his moral perfections also, which in our original creation were enstamped upon us. There is not any one thing which God loves, which we do not hate with a perfect hatred. Holiness, in all its branches, is that which he approves: but in no one respect do we love it. A conformity to his image we never seek; nay, if we behold it in another, we hate and abhor it. This matter has been put to a trial. God himself has become incarnate, and exhibited to the world a perfect transcript of his perfections: and how did the world treat him? There was not an indignity which they did not offer him; nor did they rest, till they had put him to the most ignominious death. Nor was this the conduct of the ignorant populace alone, but of every rank and order in society: kings, priests, people, all joined in the same murderous assaults upon him. His image, too, was represented in his holy Prophets and Apostles: and how were all of them treated? In every age they were the objects of most inveterate hatred; insomuch, that, of all the Apostles, one alone escaped the sword of martyrdom. And is human nature different now from what it was in former ages? The laws of men have imposed restraints on the enmity of the heart: but were those restraints removed, and occasion for the exercise of men’s evil dispositions afforded, the same scenes would be transacted now as formerly: for men at this hour, no less than in former ages, “love darkness rather than light;” and would gladly extinguish the light, that they might be left to follow their own ways unmolested and unreproved.]

2. The consciousness we feel that he will summon us to his tribunal—

[We may treat revelation as we will; but we all feel in our bosoms a persuasion that God inspects our ways, and hates our proceedings, and will avenge the breaches of his holy laws. We may try to divest ourselves of these feelings, and may prevail to dissipate them for a moment; but they will return; and at certain times and seasons will occasion much uneasiness to the mind, and produce there a wish that we could by any means avoid the judgment that awaits us. We feel that God is, and must be, an enemy to us: and therefore we cannot contemplate him with any other feeling than that of fear and dread.

It may be said indeed by some, that this is by no means their experience: that, on the contrary, they feel a complacent regard for God, and a grateful sense of his mercies.

But to this I would answer, It is not to God as revealed in the Scripture, but as they paint him to themselves in their own vain imaginations, that they feel this regard. They conceive of him as bearing no anger against them for their sins, and as lowering his demands of obedience to the standard which they have fixed for themselves, and as looking with complacency on their formal self-righteous endeavours: it is in this view of him alone that they are pleased with him: they despoil him of his own proper attributes, and clothe him with attributes of their own creation; and then they worship the work of their own hands. But, let him be presented to them in his own proper character—as a holy Being, that cannot look upon iniquity without the utmost abhorrence; as a just Being, that cannot but punish with everlasting destruction every impenitent sinner; and as a God of truth, that will accept no human being but as clothed in the righteousness of his dear Son—and they will lose all their fancied regard for him, and shew towards him all the aversion which we have before described. They will find in themselves that Scripture realized, “My soul lothed them; and their soul abhorred me [Note: Zechariah 11:8.].”]

Regarding the fact as proved, I now come to,

III. Make some reflections upon it—

In the view of this fact, we may observe,

1. How deep should be our humiliation before God!

[Men are not humbled, because they will not look at themselves in the glass of God’s word. They think only of some particular sins which they may have committed; and put out of view altogether the disposition of their souls towards God. But, if we would have a just sense of our condition we must probe our hearts to the bottom; and see, not merely what we are, but what we should have been if we had been left to follow our dispositions without restraint. Look at the souls that are now shut up in the abodes of misery in hell: Has any new disposition been infused into them, since they have entered into the eternal world? No: they have only the dispositions which they carried with them: and the only difference is, that they are now left to manifest to the uttermost what in this world was kept from issuing forth in all its full malignity. Under the displeasure of their God, so far are they from humbling themselves before him, that they “gnaw their tongues with anguish, and blaspheme the God of heaven because of their pains [Note: Revelation 16:10-11.].” What would they have said in this world, if they had been told what was really in their hearts? They would have deemed it a gross calumny. But such would be our deportment here, if our corruptions were not restrained, either by education, or by the preventing grace of God. And, if we be sensible how great our depravity is, we shall see that no humiliation can be too deep for any of us; but that it becomes all of us, without exception, to “abhor ourselves, even as holy Job did, in dust and ashes.”]

2. What obligations we owe to God for his Gospel!

[In the Gospel is revealed a way of reconciliation for us, through Christ. O! what love was it that bestowed upon us such an inestimable gift as that of God’s only dear Son, to make reconciliation for us through the blood of his cross! And here it is particularly to be noticed, that God does not so much offer to be reconciled to us, as he invites us to be reconciled to him. The address which his ministers are commissioned to make to men, is, “We beseech you in Christ’s stead, Be ye reconciled to God [Note: 2 Corinthians 5:20.].” The great obstruction to friendship between God and us lies altogether on our part. Not a single moment would God retain his anger against us, if we humbled ourselves before him, and besought his favour for Christ’s sake. But, though importuned by him, we continue obstinate in our alienation from him. Still, however, the Gospel follows us with invitations and entreaties to lay aside our enmity, and to accept his proffered mercies. Be thankful for this marvellous kindness vouchsafed unto you: for, if once you be taken into the eternal world, there will be no longer any forbearance on the part of God; but his wrath will burst forth against you, and burn even to the lowest hell to all eternity [Note: Psalms 11:6. Romans 2:8-9.]. It would be terrible to have all the creation for your enemies: but to have the Creator himself your enemy, and that for ever and ever, O! how inconceivably terrible will this be! Well! bless your God that this need not be your fate, nor shall be, if only you will throw down the weapons of your rebellion, and implore mercy at God’s hands for Christ’s sake.]

3. What a blessing the Gospel proves to all who receive it!

[The effect of the Gospel is, to “slay this enmity,” and to bring the soul into a state of peace with God. Nor does it merely put away our guilt; but removes also our indisposition to what is good and holy, and even writes the law of God upon our hearts; so that there is in those who receive it as great a resemblance to God, as there was before a contrariety. The mind of a true convert is brought into a conformity to God’s mind, and his ways into a conformity to God’s ways. Thus, “being agreed, they walk together” in mutual love; and earth is made, to man, a foretaste of heaven itself. See, then, my brethren, that ye experience this effect. See that you love all that God loves, and do all that God approves. Then will you shew that there is an efficacy in the Gospel to transform the soul into the Divine image, and to render it meet for the inheritance of the saints in light.]


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Bibliography
Simeon, Charles. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/shh/romans-1.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Romans 1:30. ψιθυριστάς, whisperers), who defame secretly.— καταλάλους, back-biters), who defame openly.— θεοστυγεῖς) men who show themselves to be haters of Godὑβριστὰς) those who insolently drive away from themselves all that is good and salutary.— ὑπερηφάνους) those who exalt themselves above others. On this vice, and others which are here noticed, see 2 Timothy 3:2, etc.— ἀλαζόνας) [‘boasters,’ Engl. vers.], assuming, in reference to things great and good.(18)ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν, inventors of evil things) of new pleasures, of new methods of acquiring wealth, of new modes of injuring others, for example in war, 2 Maccabees 7:31. Antiochus is said to have been πάσης κακίας εὑρετής [an inventor of every kind of evil] against the Hebrews.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/romans-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Haters of God; the original word hath a passive termination, and therefore some read it, hated of God. But words passive are sometimes actively taken: see 2 Peter 1:3. And the apostle here intendeth a catalogue of the Gentiles’ sins, whereof this was one: see Psalms 81:15.

Despiteful; or, injurious.

Inventors of evil things; they were not contented with old usual evils, but they invented new; whether we refer this to evils of pain, or evils of sin, we may find examples thereof amongst the heathen. Phalaris propounded a reward to him that could devise a new torment; and Sardanapalus offered rewards to such as could find out new venereal pleasures.

Disobedient to parents, either natural or political.


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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Romans 1:30". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/romans-1.html. 1685.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

30. “Secret maligners,” i. e., eaves-droppers clandestinely stirring up a hell-fire to burn you forever, meanwhile they flatter you with their lips, and claim to be your best friends. “These slanderers.” How frequently does murder follow slander! These remorseless liars, whether clandestinely or openly, set whole communities on the fires of hell, often deluging homes with blood. “Haters of God.” Satan imparts his own nature to the people given up to him. So they actually loathe and despise the God who made them and gives them the air they breathe. “Proud, haughty, arrogant.”

These words express different phases of that abominable Satanic delusion that makes the beggar think he is a king, the fool think he is a philosopher, the debauchee think he is a gentleman, and the hypocrite think he is a saint. “Practitioners of evil,” i. e., they are professional scoundrels, ready to do anything that is bad and nothing that is good. If they pretentiously do good, it is only a cloak for their meanness, that they may unsuspected perpetrate a blacker crime. “Disobedient to parents.” How awfully dissolute the present age on parental discipline: children rushing headlong to hell under the immediate eye of parents who make a profession of Christianity! In many so-called Christian homes, the children are Incorrigible. In Georgia, an old- style Methodist forbade his daughters to attend Satan’s dances, their silly, half-hearted mother encouraging them to go and catch beaux so they could marry. One day the father comes into the family room, finding them all busy making lustful ball-dresses, getting ready for Satan’s fandango. They could no longer hide the matter, so they confess outright. He then picks up all of the goods, seventy dollars worth, and laid them into the big, old-style wood fire, and looks at them till they all burn into ashes. Then turning he addresses his wife and daughters: “If there is anything more of this, I will sell out [and he had a princely house] and give all I have to the missionary cause, tramp for my living, and you shall all go to the wash-tub for your bread.” He had an iron will, and they knew he would do it, so he had no more trouble to rule his house. Good Lord, give us more like him!


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Godbey, William. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/romans-1.html.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents.

Backbiters. — The original word is here improperly translated backbiters.

Dr. Macknight equally misses the meaning of this term, which he translates ‘revilers,’ distinguishing it from whisperers, or ‘persons who speak evil of others to their face,’ giving them opprobrious language and bad names. The word indeed includes such persons; but it applies to evil speaking in general, — to those, in short, who take a pleasure in scandalizing their neighbors, without any reference to the presence or absence of those who are spoken against; and it by no means designates, as he says, the giving of ‘opprobrious language and bad names.’ Such persons are included in it, but not designated by it. Whisperers or tattlers are evil-speakers, without any peculiar distinction. Our translators have erred in rendering it backbiters. As Dr. Macknight has no authority to limit the word to what is spoken face to face, it is equally unwarrantable to confine it to what is spoken in the absence of those who are spoken against. The word translated ‘whisperers’ refers, according to Mr. Tholuck, to a secret, and the word translated ‘backbiters,’ to an open slander. Secrecy is undoubtedly the characteristic of the first word, but the last is not distinguished from it by contrast, as implying publicity; on the contrary, the former class is included in the latter, though here specifically marked.

Besides, though the communication of both the classes referred to may usually be slander, yet it appears that the signification is more extensive.

Whisperers, as speakers of evil, may be guilty when they speak nothing but truth. Mr. Stuart has here followed Mr. Tholuck. The former he makes a slander in secret, the latter a slander in public. It is not necessary that all such persons should be slanderers, and the evil-speaking of the latter may be in private as well as in public. Haters of God. — There is no occasion, with Mr. Tholuck, to seek a reference here to ‘those heathens mentioned by Cyprian, who, whenever a calamity befell them, used to cast the blame of it upon God, and denied a providence.’ Nor is it necessary to suppose, with him, that the propriety of the charge is to be found in the fact that superstition begets a hatred of the gods. The charge is applicable to the whole heathen world, who hated God, and therefore did not like to keep Him in remembrance. This was manifest throughout the world in the early introduction of Polytheism and idolatry. No other cause can be assigned for the nations losing the knowledge of the true God. They did not like to retain Him in their knowledge. Had men loved God, He would have been known to them in all ages and all countries. Did not mankind receive a sufficient lesson from the flood? Yet such was their natural enmity to God, that they were not restrained even by that awful manifestation of Divine displeasure at forgetfulness of the Almighty. Although no one will acknowledge this charge to be applicable to himself, yet it is one which the Spirit of God, looking deeply into human nature, and penetrating the various disguises it assumes, brings home to all men in their natural state. ‘The carnal mind is enmity against God.’ They hate His holiness, His justice, His sovereignty, and even His mercy in the way in which it is vouchsafed. The charge here advanced by the Apostle against the heathens was remarkably verified, when Christianity, on its first appearance among them, was so violently opposed by the philosophers and the whole body of the people, rich and poor, learned and unlearned. This melancholy fact is written in the history of the persecutions of the early Christians in characters of blood. 11 Despiteful. — This term does not express the meaning of the original.

Archbishop Newcome translates it injurious; but though this is one of the ideas contained in the word, it is essentially deficient. It signifies injury accompanied with contumely; insolence, implying insult. It always implies contempt, and usually reproach. Often, treatment violent and insulting.

Mr. Stuart translates it ‘reproachful, ’ i.e., he says, ‘lacerating others by slanderous, abusive, passionate declarations.’ But this does not come up to the meaning of the original. All this might be done without affecting to despise its object, or in any point of view to assume superiority over him, an idea always implied in the original word. Besides, the reproachful words may not be slanderous. Mr. Tholuck makes it pride towards a fellow-creature; but this designation is not sufficiently peculiar. A proud man may not insult others. This vice aims at attaching disgrace to its object; even in the injuries it commits on the body, it designs chiefly to wound the mind. It well applies to hootings, hissings, and peltings of a mob, in which, even when the most dignified persons are the objects of attack, there is some mixture of contempt. Proud. — This word translates the original correctly, as it refers to the feeling generally, and not to any particular mode of it, which is implied in arrogance, insolence, haughtiness, to persons puffed up with a high opinion of themselves, and regarding others with contempt, as if they were unworthy of any intercourse with them. Boasters. — The term in the original designates ostentatious persons in general; but as these usually affect more than belongs to them, it generally applies to persons who extend their pretensions to consideration beyond their just claims. Inventors of evil things. — Dr. Macknight translates this inventors of unlawful pleasures, and no doubt such inventions are referred to, but there is no reason to restrict it to the invention of pleasures when there are many other evil inventions. In such a case it is proper to give the expression the utmost latitude it will admit, as including all evils. Disobedient to parents. — Obedience to parents is here considered as a duty taught by the light of nature, the breach of which condemns the heathens, who had not the fifth commandment written in words. It is a part of the law originally inscribed on the heart, the traces of which are still to be found in the natural love of children to their parents. When the heathens, then, disregarded this duty, they departed from the original constitution of their nature, and disregarded the voice of God in their hearts.

Footnote:
11: Hatred to God, and not dislike to mysteries, is remarkably verified in infidels. Hatred to God is the origin of Arianism and Socinianism. It is hatred to the sovereignty of God that influences the Arminian. Hatred to God manifests itself by an almost universal neglect of His laws.

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Bibliography
Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/romans-1.html. 1835.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

30. Backbiters—Open slanderers.

Haters of God—Railers against religion and the Divine Being.

Inventors of evil things—Not only doers of wrong, but fertile in inventing new forms of wickedness.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/romans-1.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Romans 1:30. Backbiters; open slanderers, or calumniators.

Hateful to God; or, as in the E. V., ‘haters of God.’ The former sense is the classical one; the latter is supposed to be more in accordance with the Biblical view of God. ‘Leaving the word in its strict signification, hated of God, we recognize in it a summary judgment of moral indignation respecting all the preceding particulars; so that, looking back on these, it forms a resting-point in the disgraceful catalogue’ (Meyer). This suits the connection better: ‘If any crime was known more than another, as “hated by the gods,” it was that of informers, abandoned persons who circumvented and ruined others by a system of malignant espionage and false information’(Alford).

Insolent, haughty, boasters; three terms applying to self-exaltation, the last the least offensive.

Disobedient to parents. ‘Apostasy from the piety and affection due to parents is a fountain of corruption. See Malachi 4:6; Luke 1:17’ (Lange).


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Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/romans-1.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Hateful (5) to God. The Greek may also signify, haters of God. (Witham) --- Greek: theostugeis means either haters of God, or hated by God. (Menochius) --- Disobedient to parents. The Greek literally signifies, Not listening to the advice of their parents; who rise up against them, and refuse to obey. (Calmet)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Deo odibiles. Greek: theostugeis.


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/romans-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Backbiters = evil speakers (not necessarily behind the back). Greek. katalalos. Only here. Compare 2 Corinthians 12:20. 1 Peter 2:1.

haters of God = hateful to God. Greek. theostuges. Only here.

despiteful = insolent. Greek. hubristes. Only here and 1 Timothy 1:13.

proud. Greek. huperephanos. Here, Luke 1:51. 2 Timothy 3:2. James 4:6. 1 Peter 5:6.

boasters. Greek. alazon. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:2.

inventors. Greek. epheuretes. Only here.

evil. Greek. kakos. App-128.

disobedient. See Acts 26:19.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/romans-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

Backbiters , [ katalalous (Greek #2637)] - rather, 'slanderers'. The former word refers to secret, this to open slander.

Haters of God , [ theostugeis (Greek #2319)] - 'God-hated,' being the classical sense of this not very common word, is that which some superior critics give it here; understanding by it 'abhorred of the Lord,' as denoting the detestableness of their character in His sight (cf. Proverbs 22:14; Psalms 73:20). But the active sense of the word, adopted in our version, and by the majority of expositors, though rarer, agrees perhaps better with the context, whose object is, by a series of examples, to set forth the evil principles, feelings, and practices which reigned in the pagan world.

Despiteful , [ hubristas (Greek #5197)] - 'insolent,' or 'insulters' (cf. Matthew 22:6, "entreated them spitefully;" Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5; 1 Thessalonians 2:2);

Proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/romans-1.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

They are hateful to God. Sin is a hateful thing to God. See note on Matthew 27:46.


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "The Bible Study New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/romans-1.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(30) Haters of God.—Rather, perhaps, hated by God. There seem to be no examples of the active sense. The Apostle apparently throws in one emphatic word summing up the catalogue as far as it has gone; he then resumes with a new class of sins. Hitherto he has spoken chiefly of sins of malice, now he turns to sins of pride.

Despiteful, proud, boasters.—The three words correspond to the distinction between act, thought, and word. The first implies distinctly insolence in outward bearing; it is the word translated “injurious” in 1 Timothy 1:13. The second is a strong self-esteem mixed with contempt for others. (See 2 Timothy 3:2.) The third is used especially of boastfulness or braggadocio in language.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/romans-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
Backbiters
Proverbs 25:23
haters
8:7,8; Numbers 10:35; Deuteronomy 7:10; 2 Chronicles 19:2; Psalms 81:15; Proverbs 8:36; John 7:7; John 15:23,24; Titus 3:3
boasters
2:17,23; 3:27; 1 Kings 20:11; 2 Chronicles 25:19; Psalms 10:3; 49:6; 52:1; 94:4; 97:7; Acts 5:36; 2 Corinthians 10:15; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; James 3:5; 4:16; 2 Peter 2:18; Jude 1:16
inventors
Psalms 99:8; 106:39; Ecclesiastes 7:29
disobedient
Deuteronomy 21:18-21; 27:16; Proverbs 30:17; Ezekiel 22:7; Matthew 16:21; 15:4; Luke 21:16; 2 Timothy 3:2

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Romans 1:30". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/romans-1.html.

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