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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Romans 1:31

 

 

without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful;

Adam Clarke Commentary

Without understanding - Ασυνετους, from α, negative, and συνετος, knowing; persons incapable of comprehending what was spoken; destitute of capacity for spiritual things.

Covenant-breakers - Ασυνθετους, from α, negative, and συντιθημυι, to make an agreement; persons who could be bound by no oath, because, properly speaking, they had no God to witness or avenge their misconduct. As every covenant, or agreement, is made as in the presence of God, so he that opposes the being and doctrine of God is incapable of being bound by any covenant; he can give no pledge for his conduct.

Without natural affection - Αστοργους ; without that attachment which nature teaches the young of all animals to have to their mothers, and the mothers to have for their young. The heathens, in general, have made no scruple to expose the children they did not think proper to bring up, and to despatch their parents when they were grown old or past labor.

Implacable - Ασπονδους, from α, negative; and σπονδη, A Libation. It was customary among all nations to pour out wine as a libation to their gods, when making a treaty. This was done to appease the angry gods, and reconcile them to the contracting parties. The word here shows a deadly enmity; the highest pitch of an unforgiving spirit; in a word, persons who would not make reconciliation either to God or man.

Unmerciful - Ανελεημονας ; those who were incapable, through the deep-rooted wickedness of their own nature, of showing mercy to an enemy when brought under their power, or doing any thing for the necessitous, from the principle of benevolence or commiseration.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/romans-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Without understanding - Inconsiderate, or foolish; see Romans 1:21-22.

Covenant breakers - Perfidious; false to their contracts.

Without natural affections - This expression denotes the lack of affectionate regard toward their children. The attachment of parents to children is one of the strongest in nature, and nothing can overcome it but the most confirmed and established wickedness. And yet the apostle charges on the pagan generally the lack of this affection. He doubtless refers here to the practice so common among pagans of exposing their children, or putting them to death. This crime, so abhorrent to all the feelings of humanity, was common among the pagan, and is still. The Canaanites, we are told Psalm 106:37-38, “sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils, and shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and their daughters, whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan.” Manasseh among the Jews imitated their example, and introduced the horrid custom of sacrificing children to Moloch, and set the example by offering his own; 2 Chronicles 33:6.

Among the ancient Persians it was a common custom to bury children alive. In most of the Grecian states, infanticide was not merely permitted, but actually enforced by law. The Spartan lawgiver expressly ordained that every child that was born should be examined by the ancient men of the tribe, and that if found weak or deformed, should be thrown into a deep cavern at the foot of Mount Taygetus. Aristotle, in his work on government, enjoins the exposure of children that are naturally feeble and deformed, in order to prevent an excess of population. But among all the nations of antiquity, the Romans were the most unrelenting in their treatment of infants. Romulus obliged the citizens to bring up all their male children, and the oldest of the females, proof that the others were to be destroyed. The Roman father had an absolute right over the life of his child, and we have abundant proof that that right was often exercised.

Romulus expressly authorized the destruction of all children that were deformed, only requiring the parents to exhibit them to their five nearest neighbors, and to obtain their consent to their death. The law of the Twelve Tables enacted in the 301st year of Rome, sanctioned the same barbarous practice. Minucius Felix thus describes the barbarity of the Romans in this respect: “I see you exposing your infants to wild beasts and birds, or strangling them after the most miserable manner.” (chapter xxx.) Pliny the older defends the right of parents to destroy their children, upon the ground of its being necessary in order to preserve the population within proper bounds. Tertullian, in his apology, expresses himself boldly on this subject. “How many of you (addressing himself to the Roman people, and to the governors of cities and provinces) might I deservedly charge with infant murder; and not only so, but among the different kinds of death, for choosing some of the cruelest for their own children, such as drowning, or starving with cold or hunger, or exposing to the mercy of dogs; dying by the sword being too sweet a death for children.”

Nor was this practice arrested in the Roman government until the time of Constantine, the first Christian prince. The Phoenicians and Carthaginians were in the habit of sacrificing infants to the gods. It may be added that the crime is no less common among modern pagan nations. No less than 9000 children are exposed in Pekin in China annually. Persons are employed by the police to go through the city with carts every morning to pick up all the children that may have been thrown out during the night. The bodies are carried to a common pit without the walls of the city, into which all, whether dead or living, are promiscuously thrown. (Barrow‘s Travels in China, p. 113, Amos ed.) Among the Hindus the practice is perhaps still more common. In the provinces of Cutch and Guzerat alone the number of infantile murders amounted, according to the lowest calculation in 1807, to 3,000 annually; according to another calculation, to 30,000.

Females are almost the only victims. (Buchanan‘s Researches in Asia, Eng. ed. p. 49. Ward‘s View of the Hindus.) In Otaheite, previously to the conversion of the people to Christianity. it was estimated that at least two-thirds of the children were destroyed. (Turnbull‘s Voyage round the World in 1800,2,3, and 4.) The natives of New South Wales were in the habit of burying the child with its mother, if she should happen to die. (Collins‘ Account of the Colony of New South Wales, p. 124,125.) Among the Hottentots, infanticide is a common crime. “The altars of the Mexicans were continually drenched in the blood of infants.” In Peru, no less than two hundred infants were sacrificed on occasion of the coronation of the Inca. The authority for these melancholy statements may be seen in Beck‘s Medical Jurisprudence, vol. i. 18-197, ed. 1823; see also Robertson‘s History of America, p. 221, ed. 1821. This is a specimen of the views and feelings of the pagan world; and the painful narrative might be continued to almost any length. After this statement, it cannot surely be deemed a groundless charge when the apostle accused them of being destitute of natural affection.

Implacable - This word properly denotes those who will not be reconciled where there is a quarrel; or who pursue the offender with unyielding revenge. It denotes an unforgiving temper; and was doubtless common among the ancients, as it is among all pagan people. The aborigines of America have given the most striking manifestation of this that the world has known. It is well known that among them, neither time nor distance will obliterate the memory of an offence; and that the avenger will pursue the offender over hills and streams, and through heat or snow, happy if he may at last, though at the expiration of years, bury the tomahawk in the head of his victim, though it may be at the expense of his own life. See Robertson‘s America, book iv. Section lxxiii. - lxxxi.

Unmerciful - Destitute of compassion. As a proof of this, we may remark that no provisions for the poor or the infirm were made among the pagan. The sick and the infirm were cast out, and doomed to depend on the stinted charity of individuals. Pure religion, only, opens the heart to the appeals of want; and nothing but Christianity has yet expanded the hearts of people to make public provisions for the poor, the ignorant, and the afflicted.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/romans-1.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Without understanding,.... Of God, of his nature and worship, of things divine and even moral, being given up to a reprobate mind:

covenant breakers; had no regard to private or public contracts:

without natural affection; to their parents, children, relations and friends:

implacable; when once offended there was no reconciling of them:

unmerciful; had no pity and compassion to persons in distress.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/romans-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Without understanding, n covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

(n) Not caring if they keep their covenants and bargains.

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/romans-1.html. 1599-1645.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Without understanding (ασυνετουςasunetous). Same word in Romans 1:21.

Covenant-breakers (ασυντετουςasunthetous). Another paronomasia or pun. ΑA privative and verbal συντετοςsunthetos from συντιτημιsuntithēmi to put together. Old word, common in lxx (Jer 3:7), men “false to their engagements” (Sanday and Headlam), who treat covenants as “a scrap of paper.”

Without natural affection (αστοργουςastorgous). Late word, αa privative and στοργηstorgē love of kindred. In N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 3:3.

Unmerciful (ανελεημοναςaneleēmonas). From αa privative and ελεημωνeleēmōn merciful. Late word, only here in N.T. Some MSS. add ασπονδουςaspondous implacable, from 2 Timothy 3:3. It is a terrible picture of the effects of sin on the lives of men and women. The late Dr. R. H. Graves of Canton, China, said that a Chinaman who got hold of this chapter declared that Paul could not have written it, but only a modern missionary who had been to China. It is drawn to the life because Paul knew Pagan Graeco-Roman civilization.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/romans-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Without understanding, covenant-breakers ( ἀσυνέτους ἀσυνθέτους )

Another paronomasia: asynetous asynthetous This feature of style is largely due to the pleasure which all people, and especially Orientals, derive from the assonance of a sentence. Archdeacon Farrar gives a number of illustrations: the Arabic Abel and Kabel (Abel and Cain); Dalut and G'ialut (David and Goliath). A Hindoo constantly adds meaningless rhymes, even to English words, as button-bitten; kettley-bittley. Compare the Prayer-book, holy and wholly; giving and forgiving; changes and chances. Shakespeare, sorted and consorted; in every breath a death. He goes on to argue that these alliterations, in the earliest stages of language, are partly due to a vague belief in the inherent affinities of words (“Language and Languages,” 227).


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/romans-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

Covenant-breakers — It is well known, the Romans, as a nation, from the very beginning of their commonwealth, never made any scruple of vacating altogether the most solemn engagement, if they did not like it, though made by their supreme magistrate, in the name of the whole people. They only gave up the general who had made it, and then supposed themselves to be at full liberty.

Without natural affection — The custom of exposing their own new - born children to perish by cold, hunger, or wild beasts, which so generally prevailed in the heathen world, particularly among the Greeks and Romans, was an amazing instance of this; as is also that of killing their aged and helpless parents, now common among the American heathens.


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Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/romans-1.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

31.Without the feelings of humanity are they who have put off the first affections of nature towards their own relations. As he mentions the want of mercy as an evidence of human nature being depraved, [Augustine ], in arguing against the Stoics, concludes, that mercy is a Christian virtue.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/romans-1.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

Ver. 31. Implacable] That will not hear of a truce, much less of a peace. Nihil se libentius facere dictitabat Caesar, quam supplicibus ignoscere. (Caesar. Comment.) And surely, as any one is more manly, he is more merciful, as David, 2 Samuel 1:12. And, on the contrary, the basest natures are most vindictive; neither will they ever be heartily reconciled. Their reconciliations are vulpinae amicitiae, fox-like friendships.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/romans-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Romans 1:31. Without understanding Without consideration, ' Ασυνετους . See on Romans 1:21.—Covenant-breakers: it is well known that the Romans, as a nation, from the very beginning of their commonwealth, never made any scruple of vacating altogether the most solemn engagement, if they did not like it; though made by their supreme magistrate, in the name of the whole people. Theyonly gave up the general who had made it, and then supposed themselves to be at full liberty. The custom of exposing their own new-born children to perish by cold, hunger, or wild beasts, which so generally prevailed in the heathen world, particularly amongthe Greeks and Romans, was an amazing proof of their beingwithout natural affection: as was also that of killing their aged parents: for the Greek word αστοργη may include the absence both of parental and filial affection. See Bengelius, and Doddridge.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/romans-1.html. 1801-1803.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Romans 1:31. ἀσυνθέτους). The LXX. translate the Hebrew words בגד, to act with perfidy, מעל, to prevaricate, by ἀ συνθετε ͂ ιν.(19)


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/romans-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Without understanding; or, without conscience; sunesiv, or snueidhsiv, being much the same.

Without natural affection; this evil also reigned amongst the Gentiles, who sacrificed their very children to their idols, and otherwise exposed them to ruin: see 2 Timothy 3:3.

Implacable; or, irreconcilable and vindictive.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Romans 1:31". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/romans-1.html. 1685.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

31. “Incontinent.” This word means reckless in every sense, incorrigible, abandoned, awful in the extreme. “Covenant breakers,” i. e., recreant to all obligation at home or abroad, all mooring loosed, and utterly unreliable in every respect. “Without natural affections.” The poor heathens in Africa are in this horrific state this day, as all the missionaries can testify. I heard them at Old Orchard Camp-meeting last August testify as eye and ear witnesses to these horrors. E. g., All of their doctors are diabolical wizards claiming to hold communication with the gods, (and true, with the demons, the gods of the poor heathen). They impute all sickness to witchcraft, and simply practice to find the witch. In that case the nearest relatives must set on them and kill them; otherwise they will be implicated as accomplices and killed. Bishop Taylor witnessed the awful tragedy of a man killing his own little daughter ten years old because the doctor said she had bewitched her sick mother. The gospel is the only possible remedy for these horrors. “Incapable of mercy.” This indicates an appalling depth of diabolism and cruelty beyond all hope.


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Bibliography
Godbey, William. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/romans-1.html.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

Without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful.

Without understanding. — This well expresses the original; for although the persons so described were not destitute of understanding as to the things of this world, but as to these might be the most intelligent and enlightened, yet, in a moral sense, or as respects the things of God, they were unintelligent and stupid. This agrees with the usual signification of the word, and it perfectly coincides with universal experience. All men are by nature undiscerning as to the things of God, and to this there never was an exception. Dr. Macknight entirely misses the meaning, when he explains it as signifying persons who are ‘imprudent in the management of affairs.’ The translation of Mr. Stuart, ‘inconsiderate’ is equally erroneous. Covenant-breakers. — This is a correct translation, if covenant is understood to apply to every agreement or bargain referring to the common business of life, as well as solemn all important contracts between nations and individuals. Without natural attention. — There is no occasion to seek for some particular reference in this, which has evidently its verification in many different things. Dr. Macknight supposes that the Apostle has the Stoics in his eye. Beza, and after him Mr. Stuart, supposes that it refer to the exposure of children. Mr. Tholuck, with more propriety, extends the term to filial and parental love. But still the reference is broader; still there are more varieties comprehended in the term. Why limit to one thing what applies to many? Even though one class should be peculiarly prominent in the reference, to confine it to this robs it of its force. Implacable. — The word in the original signifies as we persons who will not enter into league, as persons who, having entered into league, perfidiously break it. In the former sense it signifies implacable, and designates those who are peculiarly savage. In the latter sense it refers to those who violate the most sacred engagements, entered into with all the solemnities of oaths and religious rites. Our translation affixes to it the first sense. But in this sense it applies to none but the rudest and most uncivilized nations, and was not generally exemplified in the Roman empire. It appears that it should rather be understood in the latter sense, as designating the common practice of nations in every age, who, without hesitation, violate treaties and break oaths sanctioned by every solemn obligation. The word above rendered covenant-breakers, designates the violators of any engagement. The word employed here signifies the breaker of solemn engagements, ratified with all the solemnities of oaths and religious ceremonies. Unmerciful. — There is no reason, like Dr. Macknight, to confine this to those who are unmerciful to the poor. Such, no doubt, are included; but it extends to all who are without compassion. Persons need our compassion who are not in want; they may be suffering in many ways. It applies to those who do not feel for the distresses of others, whatever may be the cause of their distresses; and to those who inflict these distresses it peculiarly applies.


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Bibliography
Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/romans-1.html. 1835.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

31. Without understanding—Without common sense, because without moral sense.

Without natural affection—Some professed Christians have imagined that Christian love to our neighbour requires us not to love our own family more than any other persons. This would require us to be without natural affection. As we would not require another man to love his family as little as he loves every body else, so others cannot make such requirement of us.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/romans-1.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Romans 1:31. In this verse adjectives take the place of the substantives previously used. The long catalogue is thus varied.

Without understanding; the same word as ‘senseless’ (E. V. ‘foolish’), Romans 1:21.

Covenant breakers. In the original there is another play upon the sound of the words. (The best authorities omit ‘implacable.’)

Unmerciful. This concludes the list, marking the absence of the least principle of moral action.


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Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/romans-1.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Greek: asunthetous. See 2 Timothy iii. 3. Greek: aspondous, sine fœdere.

====================


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/romans-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Without understanding. Greek. asunetos. See Romans 1:21. Note the Paronomasia with next word. App-6.

covenantbreakers. Greek. asunthetos. Only here.

without natural affection. Greek. astorgos. Only here and 2 Timothy 3:3.

implacable. The texts omit.

unmerciful = pitiless. Greek. aneleemon. Only here.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/romans-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

Without understanding, covenant-breakers , [ asunetous (Greek #801), asunthetous (Greek #802)] - another alliteration (see the note at Romans 1:29),

Without natural affection, [implacable]. The evidence against this bracketed word is decisive. (It is found only in C K L with D ***-a late corrector-with several cursives and versions; whereas it is missing in 'Aleph (') A B D * E G, the Old Latin and Vulgate, and the Memphitic version. Lachmann, Tischendorf, and Tregelles omit it.)

Unmerciful. Green translates this verse with ingenious terseness and uniformity, though the improvement is questionable: 'Senseless, faithless, heartless, pitiless.'


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/romans-1.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

They are immoral. ASUNETOUS = without insight into moral and religious things. These are so amoral that they have lost all sense of Good and evil. No kindness or pity. Compare Matthew 18:21-35 and notes.


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "The Bible Study New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/romans-1.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(31) Without understanding—i.e., without moral or spiritual understanding; incapable of discriminating between right and wrong, expedient and inexpedient. St. Paul prays that the Colossians may possess this faculty (Colossians 1:9).

Without natural affection.—The affection founded upon natural relationship—e.g., between parent and child, husband and wife, brother and sister. In illustration of this particular expression, we may remember that infanticide and divorce were very common at this period.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/romans-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:
Without understanding
20,21; 3:11; Proverbs 18:2; Isaiah 27:11; Jeremiah 4:22; Matthew 15:16
covenant-breakers
2 Kings 18:14-37; Isaiah 33:8; 2 Timothy 3:3
without natural affection
or, unsociable.

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Romans 1:31". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/romans-1.html.

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