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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Romans 3:22

 

 

even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction;

Adam Clarke Commentary

Even the righteousness of God - That method of saving sinners which is not of works, but by faith in Christ Jesus; and it is not restrained to any particular people, as the law and its privileges were, but is unto all mankind in its intention and offer, and becomes effectual to them that believe; for God hath now made no difference between the Jews and the Gentiles.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/romans-3.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Even the righteousness of God - The apostle, having stated that the design of the gospel was to reveal a new plan of becoming just in the sight of God, proceeds here more fully to explain it. The explanation which he offers, makes it plain that the phrase so often used by him, “righteousness of God,” does not refer to an attribute of God, but to his plan of making people righteous. Here he says that it is by faith in Jesus Christ; but surely an attribute of God is not produced by faith in Jesus Christ. It means God‘s mode of regarding people as righteous through their belief in Jesus Christ.

(That the “righteousness of God” cannot be explained of the attribute of justice, is obvious enough. It cannot be said of divine justice, that it is “unto and upon all them that believe.” But we are not reduced to the alternative of explaining the phrase, either of God‘s justice, or God‘s plan of justifying people. Why may we not understand it of that righteousness which Yahweh devised, Jesus executed, and the Spirit applies; and which is therefore justly denominated the righteousness of God? It consists in that conformity to law which Jesus manifested in his atoning death, and meritorious obedience. His death, by reason of his divine nature, was of infinite value. And when he voluntarily submitted to yield a life that was forfeited by no transgression of his own, the Law, in its penal part, was more magnified than if every descendant of Adam had sunk under the weight of its vengeance.

Nor was the preceptive part of the Law less honored, in the spotless obedience of Christ. He abstained from every sin, fulfilled every duty, and exemplified every virtue. Neither God nor man could accuse him of failure in duty. To God he gave his piety, to man his glowing love, to friends his heart, to foes his pity and his pardon. And by the obedience of the Creator in human form, the precept of the Law was more honored than if the highest angels had come down to do reverence to it, in presence of people. Here then is a righteousness worthy of the name, divine, spotless, broad, lasting - beyond the power of language to characterize. It is that everlasting righteousness which Daniel predicted the Messiah should bring in. Adam‘s righteousness failed and passed away. That of once happy angels perished too, but this shall endure. “The heavens,” says Yahweh,” shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment, and they that dwell therein shall die in like manner, but my salvation shall be forever, and my righteousness shall not be abolished,” This righteousness is broad enough to cover every sinner and every sin. It is pure enough to meet the eye of God himself. It is therefore the sinner‘s only shield. See the note at Romans 1:17, for the true meaning of the expression “righteousness of God.”)

By faith of Jesus Christ - That is, by faith in Jesus Christ. Thus, the expression, Mark 11:22, “Have the faith of God” (margin), means, have faith in God. So Acts 3:16, the “faith of his name” “(Greek),” means, faith in his name. So Galatians 2:20, the “faith of the Son of God” means, faith in the Son of God. This cannot mean that faith is the meritorious cause of salvation, but that it is the instrument or means by which we become justified. It is the state of mind, or condition of the heart, to which God has been pleased to promise justification. (On the nature of faith see the note at Mark 16:16.) God has promised that they who believe in Christ shall be pardoned and saved. This is his plan in distinction from the plan of those who seek to be justified by works.

Unto all and upon all - It is evident that these expressions are designed to be emphatic, but why both are used is not very apparent. Many have supposed that there was no essential difference in the meaning. If there be a difference, it is probably this: the first expression, “unto all” εἰς πᾶς eis pasmay denote that this plan of justification has come “(Luther)” unto all men, to Jews and Gentiles; that is, that it has been provided for them, and offered to them without distinction. The plan was ample for all, was suited for all, was equally necessary for all, and was offered to all. The second phrase, “upon all” ἐπὶ πᾶντας epi pantasmay be designed to guard against the supposition that all therefore would be benefited by it, or be saved by the mere fact that the announcement had come to all. The apostle adds therefore, that the benefits of this plan must actually come upon all, or must be applied to all, if they would be justified. They could not be justified merely by the fact that the plan was provided, and that the knowledge of it had come to all, but by their actually coming under this plan, and availing themselves of it. Perhaps there is reference in the last expression, “upon all,” to a robe, or garment, that is placed upon one to hide his nakedness, or sin; compare Isaiah 64:6, also Philemon 3:9.

For there is no difference - That is, there is no difference in regard to the matter under discussion. The apostle does not mean to say that there is no difference in regard to the talents, dispositions, education, and property of people; but there is no distinction in regard to the way in which they must be justified. All must be saved, if saved at all, in the same mode, whether Jews or Gentiles, bond or free, rich or poor, learned or ignorant. None can be saved by works; and all are therefore dependent on the mercy of God in Jesus Christ.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/romans-3.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

Romans 3:22

The righteousness of God which is by the faith of Christ unto all and upon all them that believe.

This righteousness is

I. Divine in its nature.

II. Free in its dispensation--unto and upon all them that believe.

III. Unlimited in its offer--there is no difference. (J. Lyth, D. D.)

God’s grace abundant

God’s grace resembles a flood of water, which not only reaches to believers, but comes upon them like the waves of the sea, to cover all their unrighteousness and drown all their guilt. Their sins sink into its depths like stones in the midst of the ocean, to be remembered against them no more forever. (T. G. Horton.)

For there is no difference.

All involved in the same peril

When the ship is wrecked what difference does it make that some should be drowned far out at sea, and others come nearer land, and there be lost? or even that one is within arm’s length of the shore when he sinks forever out of sight? What does it avail? They are all lost. This world is a wrecked world; the strongest soul cannot reach the haven of a perfect state of being in his own strength. We are all helpless against the storm of lightning and wind and waves. “There is no difference, for all have sinned.” (H. Elvet Lewis.)

The right platform

1. The truth laid down here and in Romans 3:23 is of immense moment. You must take your right position if you wish to journey in a right direction. At a great railway junction the main thing is to get on to the right platform for the station you want to reach. So with all who wish to reach heaven. But what is that platform? That of self-condemnation. It is the laying aside of every self-righteous, self-excusing plea, and taking the place of a sinner in God’s sight.

2. The Old Version, “There is no difference,” scarcely puts the truth so clearly as the New. There is a wide difference between one and another as to the measure of responsibility and the amount of guilt. Great is the difference between an Englishman and an Arab; between a youth yielding for the first time to some subtle temptation and the hoary-headed sinner who has been the means of stumbling to multitudes.

3. But in spite of these differences “there is no distinction.” There is not one who has kept the law. “All have fallen short of the glory of God.” At a match in archery many try their skill and some come nearer than others; but the only matter of importance is whether anyone actually hits the eye. If otherwise all alike fail. In the matter before us perfect holiness is the end of God’s law. But who has reached it? No doubt some may come nearer than others, but where is one who has never failed?

4. Own this before God. Do not put in any claim for arrest of judgment. Do not try to lull conscience to sleep by imagining yourself no worse than others. One sin is enough to prove you guilty, how much more thousands?

5. Therefore learn the lesson. Stoop and take the lowest place--willing to be saved on the same footing as a criminal. “God be merciful to me a sinner” must be your only plea. Then you are in the right direction. Keep on that line and you will reach your journey’s end. (G. Everard, M. A.)


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Bibliography
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Romans 3:22". The Biblical Illustrator. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/romans-3.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

Even the righteousness of God through faith of Jesus Christ unto all them that believe; for there is no distinction.

It will be noted that "faith of Jesus Christ" has been used instead of "faith in Jesus Christ," as appears in the English Revised Version (1885) and many other versions. There are many reasons for staying with the KJV in this place, and similar places, of which there are a number, throughout the New Testament; because the same tampering with the word of God which resulted in the monstrosity of "a" righteousness of God (Romans 3:21 and Romans 1:17) is in evidence here. The true scriptural justification "by faith" has no reference at all to the faith of stinking sinners, but to the "faith of the Son of God." Note the following:

The scriptures hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe (Galatians 3:22).

In whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him (Ephesians 3:12).

And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith (Philippians 3:9).

Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law (Galatians 2:16).

I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me (Galatians 2:20).SIZE>

Now, all of the above scriptures were changed in the English Revised Version (1885) to read, in each instance, "faith in Christ," the translators taking note of the alternate translation only in the form of a single note on Romans 3:22. Without a doubt the KJV is correct in all these places, a fact confirmed by the total agreement of the Emphatic Diaglott in each case. Most of the older commentators, such as James Macknight and Adam Clarke, likewise agree with the KJV rendition of these places. Even Greathouse, although in disagreement, mentioned some interpreters who,

Insist that the phrase [@pisteos] [@Iesou] [@Christou] means "the faith of Christ" (like the "faith of Abraham" in Romans 4:16).[25]

This interpreter is not convinced by the reasons alleged as the grounds of changing these passages in God's word and is certain that the only end served by their change was that of bolstering the "faith only" theory of justification.

That the true grounds of justification cannot ever be in a million years the faith of fallible, sinful people, would appear to be axiomatic. How could it be? The very notion that God could impute justification to an evil man, merely upon the basis of anything that such a foul soul might either believe or do, is a delusion. Justification in any true sense requires that the justified be accounted as righteous and undeserving of any penalty whatever; and no man's faith is sufficient grounds for such an imputation.

On the other hand, the faith of Jesus Christ, as revealed in the scriptures, is indeed a legitimate ground of justification, because Christ's faith was perfect. "Faithful is he that calleth you" (1 Thessalonians 5:24); and, in the absolute sense, only Christ is faithful. Only he is called "the faithful and true witness" (Revelation 3:14). Moreover the faith of Christ was obedient. It was a perfect and complete obedience, lacking nothing whatever; and therefore the obedient faith of the Son of God, sinless and holy, is the ground and only ground of any justification of any such thing as a human being; and Christ only therefore might righteously be justified in God's sight. How then are people saved at all? They are saved "in Christ," having been incorporated into him, and thus being justified as a part of him. See under "Christ, Incorporated," below. Hodge was very close to this truth when he wrote:

Faith is not the ground of our justification; it is not the righteousness which makes us righteous before God.[26]

And, as long as the "faith" mentioned by Hodge is construed as "sinners' faith" the statement is profoundly correct; but the "faith of the Son of God" is indeed the ground of our justification, because that faith is definitely included in the "righteousness of God" mentioned in this verse.

Even the righteousness of God through faith of Jesus Christ ... shows the principal constituent of God's righteousness. God's righteousness, in short, is the righteousness of Jesus Christ, his absolute, intrinsic, unalloyed righteousness, implicit in his perfect faith (mentioned here) and his perfect obedience (implied). The contrary notion that God's righteousness is some imputation accomplished by the sinner's faith is unfounded. Any righteousness that could commend itself to the Father and become the ground of anything truly worthwhile would, by definition, have to be a true and genuine righteousness. That righteousness was provided by the sinless life of the Christ, summarized in this verse as "through faith of Jesus Christ," the idea being much clearer in the KJV,

The righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ.

Unto all and upon all them that believe ... That believer's faith is not in the first clause of this verse is proved by its being introduced in the final phrase, "believe" here having reference to sinners' faith, which is no part of God's righteousness at all, but a mere condition of his salvation, like baptism, being neither any more important nor any less important than baptism.

Its being affirmed here that the true righteousness of God is "unto all them that believe" is primarily a part of Paul's argument for the intrinsic righteousness of God, the supporting fact in view being that God's righteousness had been made available unto all, not being restricted, as formerly, to Israel. The sole condition mentioned in this place as prerequisite to procurement of that righteousness is BELIEVING, and it must be understood as a synecdoche, a form of metaphor, where a part stands for the whole, such as "sail" for ship. In the employment of this figure, the part mentioned must be outstanding and conspicuous. Thus, a ship 'could not be called merely "a rudder." Faith, being an outstanding and conspicuous condition of redemption, is here used as a synecdoche for all the conditions God has imposed and made to be prerequisites of salvation. The most conspicuous theological error of Biblical interpretation in the past five hundred years is that of interpreting this synecdoche as a denial of the other conditions of salvation.

[25] William M. Greathouse, Bible Commentary (Kansas City, Missouri: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 1968), p. 86.

[26] Charles Hodge, op. cit., p. 88.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/romans-3.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ,.... A further account is given of this righteousness: why it is called "the righteousness of God", and in what sense revealed and manifested; see Gill on Romans 1:17; Here it is said to be "by faith of Jesus Christ"; not by that faith which Christ himself had as man, but by that faith, of which he the author and object: the Alexandrian copy reads, "by faith in Jesus Christ"; and not by that as the cause of justification; for faith is neither the efficient, nor the moving, nor meritorious cause of it; no, nor the instrumental cause of it on the part of God or Christ: nor is faith the matter of a justifying righteousness; for faith is a part of sanctification, is itself imperfect, is a man's own, as it is implanted in him, and exercised by him; is here and elsewhere distinguished from righteousness; something else, and not that, as the obedience and blood of Christ, are said to be what men are made righteous and justified by: but faith is a means of apprehending and receiving righteousness; it views the excellency of Christ's righteousness; it owns the sufficiency of it; the soul by it renounces its own righteousness, submits to Christ's, rejoices in it, and gives him the glory of it: now this is by, or through faith,

unto all, and upon all: not all men, for all have not faith, nor are all justified and saved: but

all that believe; which must be understood, not of believing any thing, nor of any sort of believing; but of such, who truly and with the heart believe in Christ for salvation; and who are here opposed to the wise philosophers among the Gentiles, had to all self-righteous persons among the Jews. Though this character does not design any cause or condition of justification, but is only descriptive of the persons, who are declaratively interested in a justifying righteousness, which is said to be "unto", and "upon them"; that is, it is appointed, provided, and wrought out for them, and directed and applied unto them, and put upon them as a garment, and that upon all of them:

for there is no difference; of nation, age, or sex, or of state and condition; no respect is had to persons or works; nor is there any difference with respect to weak or strong believers; the righteousness is equally applied to one as to another, and one is as much justified by it in the sight of God as another.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/romans-3.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

8 Even the righteousness of God [which is] by faith of s Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

(8) The matter, as it were, of this righteousness is Christ Jesus apprehended by faith, and for the sake of righteousness Christ is offered to all people, as without him all people are shut out from the kingdom of God.

(s) Which we give to Jesus Christ, or which rests upon him.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/romans-3.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

by faith of — that is, “in”

Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe — that is, perhaps, brought nigh “unto all” men the Gospel, and actually “upon all” believing men, as theirs in possession [Luther and others]; but most interpreters understand both statements” of believers as only a more emphatic way of saying that all believers, without distinction or exception, are put in possession of this gratuitous justification, purely by faith in Christ Jesus.

for there is no difference.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/romans-3.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Even (δεde). Not adversative here. It defines here.

Through faith in Jesus Christ (δια πιστεως Ιησου Χριστουdia pisteōs ̣Iēsoǔ Christou). Intermediate agency (διαdia) is faith and objective genitive, “in Jesus Christ,” not subjective “of Jesus Christ,” in spite of Haussleiter‘s contention for that idea. The objective nature of faith in Christ is shown in Galatians 2:16 by the addition εις Χριστον Ιησουν επιστευσαμενeis Christon Iēsoun episteusamen (we believed in Christ), by της εις Χριστον πιστεως υμωνtēs eis Christon pisteōs humōn (of your faith in Christ) in Colossians 2:5, by εν πιστει τηι εν Χριστωι Ιησουen pistei tēi en Christōi Iēsou (in faith that in Christ Jesus) in 1 Timothy 3:13, as well as here by the added words “unto all them that believe” (εις παντας τους πιστευονταςeis pantas tous pisteuontas) in Jesus, Paul means.

Distinction (διαστοληdiastolē). See note on 1 Corinthians 14:7 for the difference of sounds in musical instruments. Also in Romans 10:12. The Jew was first in privilege as in penalty (Romans 2:9.), but justification or setting right with God is offered to both on the same terms.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/romans-3.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Faith of Jesus Christ

A common form for “faith in Christ.”

Difference ( διαστολή )

Only by Paul here, Romans 10:12; 1 Corinthians 14:7. Better, as Rev., distinction.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/romans-3.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

To all — The Jews.

And upon all — The gentiles That believe: for there is no difference - Either as to the need of justification, or the manner of it.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/romans-3.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

For there is no difference; that is, none among the different classes of men, in respect to their need of this justification.


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Bibliography
Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/romans-3.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

22.Even the righteousness of God, etc. (115) He shows in few words what this justification is, even that which is found in Christ and is apprehended by faith. At the same time, by introducing again the name of God, he seems to make God the founder, (autorem , the author,) and not only the approver of the righteousness of which he speaks; as though he had said, that it flows from him alone, or that its origin is from heaven, but that it is made manifest to us in Christ.

When therefore we discuss this subject, we ought to proceed in this way: First, the question respecting our justification is to be referred, not to the judgment of men, but to the judgment of God, before whom nothing is counted righteousness, but perfect and absolute obedience to the law; which appears clear from its promises and threatenings: if no one is found who has attained to such a perfect measure of holiness, it follows that all are in themselves destitute of righteousness. Secondly, it is necessary that Christ should come to our aid; who, being alone just, can render us just by transferring to us his own righteousness. You now see how the righteousness of faith is the righteousness of Christ. When therefore we are justified, the efficient cause is the mercy of God, the meritorious is Christ, the instrumental is the word in connection with faith. (116) Hence faith is said to justify, because it is the instrument by which we receive Christ, in whom righteousness is conveyed to us. Having been made partakers of Christ, we ourselves are not only just, but our works also are counted just before God, and for this reason, because whatever imperfections there may be in them, are obliterated by the blood of Christ; the promises, which are conditional, are also by the same grace fulfilled to us; for God rewards our works as perfect, inasmuch as their defects are covered by free pardon.

Unto all and upon all, (117) etc. For the sake of amplifying, he repeats the same thing in different forms; it was, that he might more fully express what we have already heard, that faith alone is required, that the faithful are not distinguished by external marks, and that hence it matters not whether they be Gentiles or Jews.

[Stuart ] connects these words with “manifested,” or revealed, in Romans 3:21. It is manifested to all, and manifested for all; that is, for the real benefit of all who believe; in other words, it is offered to all, but becomes of real advantage only to those who believe. But the simpler mode is to consider the words, which is, as in our version, to be understood . ‘Ερχομένη is the word which [Luther ] adopts. — Ed.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/romans-3.html. 1840-57.

Vv. 22. The new righteousness, then, being given without any legal work, what is the means by which it is conferred? Romans 3:22 answers: faith in Jesus Christ. Such is the true means opposed to the false. The δέ, now, which the translation cannot render, is explanatory, as Romans 9:30; Galatians 2:2; Philippians 2:8, etc. It takes the place of a scilicet, to wit. Osterv. and Oltram. have well rendered it by: say I: "The righteousness, I say, of God." Here, again, the absence of the article serves to indicate the category: a righteousness of divine origin, in opposition to the legal dispensation, in which righteousness proceeds from human works.

This righteousness is granted to faith, not assuredly because of any merit inherent in it—for this would be to fall back on works, the very thing which the new dispensation wishes to exclude—but because of the object of faith. Therefore it is that this object is expressly mentioned: Jesus Christ. The omission of the word Jesus by Marcion is perhaps to be explained by the fact that this heretic denied the humanity of Jesus, and attached importance only to His Christship. The omission of this word in the one Mj. B, cannot bring it into suspicion. It has been attempted to make this complement: Jesus Christ, a gen. subjecti: the faith which Jesus Christ Himself had, whether His faith in God (Benecke: His fidelity to God) or His fidelity to us (Lange). The parallel, Romans 1:17, suffices to refute such interpretations. The only possible sense is this: faith in Jesus Christ; comp. Mark 11:22; Galatians 2:16; James 2:1, etc.

This clause: by faith in Jesus Christ, is the reproduction and development of the first clause: ἐκ πίστεως, by faith, Romans 1:17. The following: for and upon all them that believe, is the development of the second clause in the same verse: εἰς πίστιν, for faith. Faith, indeed, as we have seen, plays a double part in justification. It is the disposition which God accepts, and which He imputes as righteousness; and it is at the same time the instrument whereby every one may appropriate for his own personal advantage this righteousness of faith. The first office is expressed here by the clause: by faith; the second by the clause: for and upon all them that believe.

The words καὶ ἐπὶ πάντας, and upon all them, are wanting in the four Alex., but they are found in the Mjj. of the other two families (except P), and in the ancient Vss. Meyer and Morison justly remark that it would be impossible to account for their interpolation, as there was nothing in the clause: for all them, to demand this explanatory addition. It is easy to understand, on the contrary, how these words were omitted, either through a confusion of the two πάντας by the copyists—the Sinaït., in particular, abounds in such omissions—or because this clause seemed to be a pleonasm after the preceding. It is quite in keeping with Paul"s manner thus to accumulate subordinate clauses to express by a change of prepositions the different aspects of the moral fact which he means to describe. These two aspects in this case are those of general destination ( εἰς, for) and personal application ( ἐπί, upon): "As to this righteousness, God sends it for thee that thou mayest believe in it; and it will rest on thee from the moment thou believest." Comp. Philippians 3:9. Theodoret, Bengel, etc. have thought that the clause: for all them, applied to the Jews, and the clause: upon all them, to the Gentiles. But the very object the apostle has here in view is to efface every other distinction save that of believing. This same reason prevents us also from allowing the explanation of Morison, who, after Wetstein, Flatt, Stuart, puts a comma after εἰς πάντας, for all, that is to say, for all men, absolutely speaking, inasmuch as this righteousness is really universal in destination, and who applies the participle: them that believe, only to the second clause: upon all, inasmuch as real participation in this righteousness is granted to believers only. But in this case the second πάντας, all, should of course have been omitted. Then we shall see in Romans 3:25 that the condition of faith is included from the beginning in the very decree of redemption. Finally, these two clauses: for all them, and upon all them that believe, are plainly the unfolding of the contents of the words εἰς πίστιν, for faith, Romans 1:17; whence it follows that the words who believe belong equally to the two pronouns all.

To pronounce one righteous, God does not then any more ask: Hast thou kept the law? but: Believest thou, thou, whoever thou art? The first clause: for all, contrasts this believer, Jew or Gentile, with the Jews, who alone could attain to the righteousness of the law. The second clause: upon all, contrasts this righteousness as a gift of God fully made, with that of the law of which man himself must be the maker.

These two verses are, as we shall see, the theme which will be developed in the whole following section. But, first, Romans 3:23 sums up the preceding section by restating the ground on which every human being needs the righteousness of faith.


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Bibliography
Godet, Frédéric Louis. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Frédéric Louis Godet - Commentary on Selected Books". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/gsc/romans-3.html.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

22 Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

Ver. 22. Upon all] So that none shall hinder their happiness.


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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/romans-3.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Romans 3:22

Paul here, in his grand way, triumphs and rises above all these small differences between man and man, more pure or less pure, Jew or Gentile, wise or foolish, and avers that in regard of the deepest and most important things "there is no difference." And so his gospel is a gospel for the world, because it deals with all men on the same level.

I. There is no difference between men in the fact of sin. The gospel does not assert that there is no difference in the degrees of sin. At the same time, do not let us forget that if you take the two extremes, and suppose it possible that there is a best man in all the world and a worst man in all the world, the difference between these two is not perhaps so great as at first sight it looks. For we have to remember that motives make actions, and that you cannot judge of these by considering those, that "as a man thinketh in his heart," and not as a man does with his hands, so is he. "All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God."

II. There is no difference in the fact of God's love to us. God does not love men because of what they are, therefore He does not cease to love them because of what they are. His love to the sons of men is not drawn out by their goodness, their morality, their obedience; but it wells up from the depths of His own heart. A man can as soon pass out of the atmosphere in which he breathes as he can pass out of the love of God. "there is no difference" in the fact that all men, unthankful and evil as they are, are grasped and held in the love of God.

III. There is no difference in the purpose and power of Christ's Cross for us all. "He died for all." The area over which the purpose and power of Christ's death extends is precisely conterminous with the area over which the power of sin extends. The power of Christ's sacrifice makes possible the forgiveness of all the sins of all the world, past, present, and to come. The worth of that sacrifice, which was made by the willing surrender of the Incarnate Son of God to the death of the Cross, is sufficient for the ransom price for all the sins of all men.

IV. There is no difference in the way which we must take for salvation. The only thing that unites men to Jesus Christ is faith. You must trust Him, you must trust the power of His sacrifice, you must trust the might of His living love. Let there be no difference in our faith, or there will be a difference, deep as the difference between them that believe and them that believe not, which will darken and widen into the difference between them that are saved and them that perish.

A. Maclaren, Christian Commonwealth, May 21st, 1885.

References: Romans 3:22.—E. H. Gifford, The Glory of God, p. 1; G. Brooks, Five Hundred Outlines, p. 373. Romans 3:22-26.—Clergyman's Magazine, vol. iii., p. 83. Romans 3:23.—Preacher's Monthly, vol. ii., p. 98; J. Natt, Posthumous Sermons, p. 63; G. Brooks, Five Hundred Outlines, p. 23; Church of England Pulpit, vol. xvii., p. 229; Clergyman's Magazine, vol. iv., p. 84; Christian World Pulpit, vol. xxv., p. 184; vol. xxxi., p. 147. Romans 3:23.—J. Vaughan, Fifty Sermons, 9th series, p. 160. Romans 3:24.—Spurgeon, Sermons, vol. iii., No. 126. Romans 3:24, Romans 3:25.—Ibid., vol. vii., No. 373. Romans 3:24-28.—Clergyman's Magazine, vol. iii., p. 282. Romans 3:26.—Ibid., vol. i., p. 165; Spurgeon, Sermons, vol. v., No. 255; Ibid., Morning by Morning, p. 269. Romans 3:27.—Ibid., Sermons, vol. viii., No. 429.


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Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Sermon Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/romans-3.html.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

22. δικαιος. δὲ θ.] but that (so δέ in Herod. vii. 8, ἀρισταγόρῃ τῷ ΄ιλησίῳ, δούλῳ δὲ ἡμετέρῳ,—and i. 114, ὑπὸ τοῦ σοῦ δούλου, βουκόλου δὲ παιδός: the contrast being between the general mention which has preceded, and the specific distinction now brought in. See Hartung, Partikellehre i. 168 ff.) the righteousness of God (i.e. ‘I mean, the righteousness of God διὰ πίστεως ἰ. χρ.’) which is ( is not necessary, the art. being often omitted in cases where the ear is reminded of a usage of the cognate verb with a preposition, such as δικαιοῦσθαι διὰ πίστεως. Compare Colossians 1:4, ἀκούσαντες τὴν πίστιν ὑμ. ἐν χριστῷ ἰης., and Ephesians 3:4, δύνασθε νοῆσαι τὴν σύνεσίν μου ἐν τῷ μυστηρίῳ ( συνιέντες ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ occurs Daniel 1:4 Theod.). See Winer, edn. 6, § 20. 2. b) by the faith in Jesus Christ (gen.: see reff.).

εἰς πάντ. [ κ. ἐπὶ πάντ.] depends on πεφανέρωται,—(is revealed) unto (‘towards,’ ‘so as to penetrate to’) all [, and upon (‘over,’ so as to be shed down on,’ but in the theological meaning, no real difference of sense from εἰς; this repetition of prepositions to give force is peculiar to Paul, see Romans 3:30, and Galatians 1:1) all] who believe. Probably the repetition of πάντας was suggested by the two kinds of believers, Jew and Gentile, so as to prepare the way for οὐ γάρ ἐστι διαστολή (but still no essential difference in the interpretations of εἰς and ἐπί must be sought).


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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/romans-3.html. 1863-1878.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Romans 3:22. A righteousness of God, however, (mediated) through faith in Jesus Christ. On δέ, with the repetition of the same idea, to be defined now however more precisely, the δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ (not merely δικαιοσύνη, as Hofmann insists contrary to the words); comp Romans 9:30. See on Philippians 2:8.

The genitive . χ. contains the object of faith(816) in accordance with prevailing usage (Mark 11:22; Acts 3:16; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 2:20; Galatians 3:22; Ephesians 3:12; Ephesians 4:13; Philippians 3:9; James 2:1). The article before διὰ πίστ. was not needed for the simple reason that δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ is without it. Therefore, and because the point at issue here was not the mode of becoming manifest, but the specific characterising of the righteousness itself that had become manifest, neither διὰ πίστ. (Fritzsche, Tholuck) nor the following εἰς πάντας κ. τ. λ(817) (de Wette, Fritzsche, Tholuck, Winer, Mehring and others) is to be made dependent on πεφανέρωται.

εἰς πάντας κ. ἐπὶ π. τ. πιστ.] scil. οὖσα; see Bornemann, a(818) Xen. Symp. 4, 25. The expression is an earnest and significant bringing into prominence of the universal character of this δικαιοσύνη διὰ πίστ. . χ.: which is for all, and upon all who believe. Both prepositions denote the direction of aim, in which the δικαιοσύνη presents itself, though with the special modification that under the εἰς lies the notion of destination (not “the immanent influx,” Reithmayr), under the ἐπί that of extending itself over all. On the peculiar habit, which the Apostle has, of setting forth a relation under several aspects by different prepositional definitions of a single word, see Winer, p. 390 [E. T. 521]; compare generally Kühner, II. 1, p. 475 f. While recent expositors (including Rückert, Reiche, Köllner, de Wette) have often arbitrarily disregarded the distinction in sense between the two prepositions,(819) and have held both merely as a strengthening of the idea all (“for all, for all without exception,” Koppe), the old interpreters, on the other hand, forced upon the εἰς and ἐπί much that has nothing at all in common with the relation of the prepositions; e.g. that εἰς π. applies to the Jews and ἐπὶ π. to the Gentiles; ‘thus Theodoret, Oecumenius, and many others, who have been followed by Bengel, Böhme and Jatho (and conversely by Matthias, who explains ἐκ and εἰς in Romans 1:17 in the same way).

οὐ γάρ ἐστι διαστ.] Ground assigned for the πάντας τ. πιστ. “For there is no distinction made, according to which another way to the δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ would stand open for a portion of men, perchance for the Jews,” and that just for the reason that (Romans 3:23) all have sinned, etc.


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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/romans-3.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Romans 3:22. δὲ [even] but) An explanation is here given of the righteousness of God, Romans 3:21.— διὰ πίστεωςησο͂ υ κριστο͂ υ, by faith of Jesus Christ) by faith in Jesus.—See Galatians 2:16, notes.— εἰς, unto) To be connected with the righteousness, Romans 3:21.— εἰς πάντας, unto all) the Jews, who are, as it were, a peculiar vessel.— ἐπὶ πάντας, upon all) the Gentiles, who are as a soil which receives an exceedingly abundant rain of grace, comp. Romans 3:30.— οὐ γάρ ἐστι διαστολή, for there is no difference) Jews and Gentiles are both accused and justified in the same way. The same phrase occurs in ch. Romans 10:12.


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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/romans-3.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

He mentions the righteousness of God again, that he may further explain it, by the means or instrument by which it is received, viz. faith; see Romans 4:11,12 9:30 Philippians 3:9; where there are several expressions to the same purpose, that this righteousness is without the law indeed, but it is by the hand of that faith by which we believe in Jesus, called therefore here, the faith of Jesus Christ.

Unto all and upon all them that believe; whether they be Jews or Gentiles, if they believe, excluding the self-justiciaries amongst the one, and the philosophers amongst the other.

For there is no difference; they are not justified two several ways: see Romans 3:9.


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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Romans 3:22". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/romans-3.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Romans

WORLD-WIDE SIN AND WORLD-WIDE REDEMPTION

NO DIFFERENCE

Romans 3:22.

The things in which all men are alike are far more important than those in which they differ. The diversities are superficial, the identities are deep as life. Physical processes and wants are the same for everybody. All men, be they kings or beggars, civilised or savage, rich or poor, wise or foolish, cultured or illiterate, breathe the same breath, hunger and thirst, eat and drink, sleep, are smitten by the same diseases, and die at last the same death. We have all of us one human heart. Tears and grief, gladness and smiles, move us all. Hope, fear, love, play the same music upon all heart-strings. The same great law of duty over-arches every man, and the same heaven of God bends above him.

Religion has to do with the deep-seated identities and not with the superficial differences. And though there have been many aristocratic religions in the world, it is the great glory of Christianity that it goes straight to the central similarities, and brushes aside, as of altogether secondary importance, all the subordinate diversities, grappling with the great facts which are common to humanity, and with the large hopes which all may inherit.

Paul here, in his grand way, triumphs and rises above all these small differences between man and man, more pure or less pure, Jew or Gentile, wise or foolish, and avers that, in regard of the deepest and most important things, ‘there is no difference,’ and so his Gospel is a Gospel for the world, because it deals with all men on the same level. Now I wish to work out this great glory and characteristic of the Gospel system in a few remarks, and to point out to you the more important of these things in which all men, be they what or who they may, stand in one category and have identical experiences and interests.

I. First, there is no difference in the fact of sin.

Now let us understand that the Gospel does not assert that there is no difference in the degrees of sin. Christianity does not teach, howsoever some of its apostles may seem to have taught, or unconsciously lent themselves to representations which imply the view that there was no difference between a man who ‘did by nature the things contained in the law,’ as Paul says, and the man who set himself to violate law. There is no such monstrous teaching in the New Testament as that all blacks are the same shade, all sin of the same gravity, no such teaching as that a man that tries according to his light to do what is right stands on exactly the same level as the man who flouts all such obligations, and has driven the chariots of his lusts and passions through every law that may stand in his way.

But even whilst we have to insist upon that, that the teaching of my text is not of an absolute identity of criminality, but only an universal participation in criminality, do not let us forget that, if you take the two extremes, and suppose it possible that there were a best man in all the world, and a worst man in all the world, the difference between these two is not perhaps so great as at first sight it looks. For we have to remember that motives make actions, and that you cannot judge of these by considering those, that ‘as a man thinketh in his heart,’ and not as a man does with his hands, ‘so is he.’ We have to remember, also, that there may be lives, sedulously and immaculately respectable and pure, which are white rather with the unwholesome leprosy of disease than with the wholesome purity of health.

In Queen Elizabeth’s time, the way in which they cleaned the hall of a castle, the floor of which might be covered with remnants of food and all manner of abominations, was to strew another layer of rushes over the top of the filth, and then they thought themselves quite neat and respectable. And that is what a great many of you do, cover the filth well up with a sweet smelling layer of conventional proprieties, and think yourselves clean, and the pinks of perfection. God forbid that I should say one word that would seem to cast any kind of slur upon the effort that any man makes to do what he knows to be right, but this I proclaim, or rather my text proclaims for me, that, giving full weight and value to all that, and admitting the existence of variations in degree, the identity is deeper than the diversity; and there is ‘not a just man upon earth that doeth good and sinneth not.’

Oh, dear friends! it is not a question of degree, but of direction; not how far the ship has gone on her voyage, but how she heads. Good and evil are the same in essence, whatever be their intensity and whatever be their magnitude. Arsenic is arsenic, whether you have a ton of it or a grain; and a very small dose will be enough to poison. The Gospel starts with the assertion that there is no difference in the fact of sin. The assertion is abundantly confirmed. Does not conscience assent? We all admit ‘faults,’ do we not? We all acknowledge ‘imperfections.’ It is that little word ‘sin’ which seems to bring in another order of considerations, and to command the assent of conscience less readily. But sin is nothing except fault considered in reference to God’s law. Bring the notion of God into the life, and ‘faults’ and ‘slips’ and ‘weaknesses,’ and all the other names by which we try to smooth down the ugliness of the ugly thing, start up at once into their tone, magnitude, and importance, and stand avowed as sins.

Well now, if there be, therefore, this universal consciousness of imperfection, and if that consciousness of imperfection has only need to be brought into contact with God, as it were, to flame thus, let me remind you, too, that this fact of universal sinfulness puts us all in one class, no matter what may be the superficial difference. Shakespeare and the Australian savage, the biggest brain and the smallest, the loftiest and the lowest of us, the purest and the foulest of us, we all come into the same order. It is a question of classification. ‘The Scripture hath concluded all under sin,’ that is to say, has shut all men up as in a prison. You remember in the French Revolution, all manner of people were huddled indiscriminately into the same dungeon of the Paris prisons. You would find a princess and some daughter of shame from the gutters; a boor from the country and a landlord, a count, a marquis, a savant, a philosopher and an illiterate workman, all together in the dungeons. They kept up the distinctions of society and of class with a ghastly mockery, even to the very moment when the tumbrils came for them. And so here are we all, in some sense inclosed within the solemn cells of this great prison-house, and whether we be wise or foolish, we are prisoners, whether we have titles or not, we are prisoners. You may be a student, but you are a sinner: you may be a rich Manchester merchant, but you are a sinner; you may be a man of rank, but you are a sinner. Naaman went to Elisha and was very much offended because Elisha treated him as a leper who happened to be a nobleman. He wanted to be treated as a nobleman who happened to be a leper. And that is the way with a great many of us; we do not like to be driven into one class with all the crowd of evildoers. But, my friend, ‘there is no difference.’ ‘All have sinned and come short of the glory of God.’

II. Again, there is no difference in the fact of God’s love to us.

God does not love men because of what they are, therefore He does not cease to love them because of what they are. His love to the sons of men is not drawn out by their goodness, their morality, their obedience, but it wells up from the depths of His own heart, because ‘it is His nature and property,’ and if I may so say, He cannot help loving. You do not need to pump up that great affection by any machinery of obedience and of merits; it rises like the water in an Artesian well, of its own impulse, with ebullient power from the central heat, and spreads its great streams everywhere. And therefore, though our sin may awfully disturb our relations with God, and may hurt and harm us in a hundred ways, there is one thing it cannot do, it cannot stop Him from loving us. It cannot dam back His great love, which flows out for ever towards all His creatures, and laves them all in its gentle, strong flood, from which nothing can draw them away. ‘In Him we live, and move, and have our being,’ and to live in Him, whatever else it may mean-and it means a great deal more-is most certainly to live in His love. A man can as soon pass out of the atmosphere in which he breathes as he can pass out of the love of God. We can no more travel beyond that great over-arching firmament of everlasting love which spans all the universe than a star set in the blue heavens can transcend the liquid arch and get beyond its range. ‘There is no difference’ in the fact that all men, unthankful and evil as they are, are grasped and held in the love of God.

But there is a difference. Sin cannot dam God’s love back, but sin has a terrible power in reference to the love of God. Two things it can do. It can make us incapable of receiving the highest blessings of that love. There are many mercies which God pours ‘upon the unthankful and the evil.’ These are His least gifts; His highest and best cannot be given to the unthankful and the evil. They would if they could, but they cannot, because they cannot be received by them. You can shut the shutters against the light; you can close the vase against the stream. You cannot prevent its shining, you cannot prevent its flowing, but you can prevent yourself from receiving its loftiest and best blessings.

And another awful power that my sin has in reference to God’s love is, that it can modify the form which God’s love takes in its dealings with me. We may force Him to do ‘His work,’ ‘His strange work,’ as Isaiah calls it, and to punish when He would fain only succour and comfort and bless. Just as a fog in the sky does not touch the sun, but turns it to our eyes into a fiery ball, red and lurid, so the mist of my sin coming between me and God, may, to my apprehension and to my capacity of reception, solemnly make different that great love of His. But yet there is no difference in the fact of God’s love to us.

III. Thirdly, there is no difference in the purpose and power of Christ’s Cross for us all.

‘He died for all.’ The area over which the purpose and the power of Christ’s death extend is precisely conterminous with the area over which the power of sin extends. It cannot be-blessed be God!-that the raven Sin shall fly further than the dove with the olive branch in its mouth. It cannot be that the disease shall go wider than the cure. And so, dear friends, I have to come to you now with this message. No matter what a man is, how far he has gone, how sinful he has been, how long he has stayed away from the sweetness and grace of that great sacrifice on the Cross, that death was for him. The power of Christ’s sacrifice makes possible the forgiveness of all the sins of all the world, past, present, and to come. The worth of that sacrifice, which was made by the willing surrender of the Incarnate Son of God to the death of the Cross, is sufficient for the ransom price of all the sins of all men.

Nor is it only the power of the Cross which is all embracing, but its purpose also. In the very hour of Christ’s death, there stood, clear and distinct, before His divine omniscience, each man, woman, and child of the race. And for them all, grasping them all in the tenderness of His sympathy and in the clearness of His knowledge, in the design of His sufferings for them all, He died, so that every human being may lay his hand on the head of the sacrifice, and know ‘his guilt was there,’ and may say, with as triumphant and appropriating faith as Paul did, ‘He loved me,’ and in that hour of agony and love ‘gave Himself for me.’

To go back to a metaphor already employed, the prisoners are gathered together in the prison, not that they may be slain, but ‘God hath included them all,’ shut them all up, ‘that He might have mercy upon all.’ And so, as it was in the days of Christ’s life upon earth, so is it now, and so will it be for ever. All the crowd may come to Him, and whosoever comes ‘is made whole of whatsoever disease he had.’ There are no incurables nor outcasts. ‘There is no difference.’

IV. Lastly, there is no difference in the way which we must take for salvation.

The only thing that unites men to Jesus Christ is faith. You must trust Him, you must trust the power of His sacrifice, you must trust the might of His living love. You must trust Him with a trust which is self-distrust. You must trust Him out and out. The people with whom Paul is fighting, in this chapter, were quite willing to admit that faith was the thing that made Christians, but they wanted to tack on something besides. They wanted to tack on the rites of Judaism and obedience to the moral law. And ever since men have been going on in that erroneous rut. Sometimes it has been that people have sought to add a little of their own morality; sometimes to add ceremonies and sacraments. Sometimes it has been one thing and sometimes it has been another; but there are not two ways to the Cross of Christ, and to the salvation which He gives. There is only one road, and all sorts of men have to come by it. You cannot lean half upon Christ and half upon yourselves, like the timid cripple that is not quite sure of the support of the friendly arm. You cannot eke out the robe with which He will clothe you with a little bit of stuff of your own weaving. It is an insult to a host to offer to pay for entertainment. The Gospel feast that Christ provides is not a social meal to which every guest brings a dish. Our part is simple reception, we have to bring empty hands if we would receive the blessing.

We must put away superficial differences. The Gospel is for the world, therefore the act by which we receive it must be one which all men can perform, not one which only some can do. Not wisdom, nor righteousness, but faith joins us to Christ. And, therefore, people who fancy themselves wise or righteous are offended that ‘special terms’ are not made with them. They would prefer to have a private portion for themselves. It grates against the pride of the aristocratic class, whether it be aristocratic by culture-and that is the most aristocratic of all-or by position, or anything else-it grates against their pride to be told: ‘You have to go in by that same door that the beggar is going in at’; and ‘there is no difference.’ Therefore, the very width of the doorway, that is wide enough for all the world, gets to be thought narrowness, and becomes a hindrance to our entering. As Naaman’s servant put a common-sense question to him, so may I to you. ‘If the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it?’ Ay! that you would! ‘How much more when He says “Wash and be clean!”‘ There is only one way of getting dirt off, and that is by water. There is only one way of getting sin off, and that is by the blood of Jesus Christ. There is only one way of having that blood applied to your heart, and that is trusting Him. ‘The common salvation’ becomes ours when we exercise ‘the common faith.’ ‘There is no difference’ in our sins. Thank God! ‘there is no difference’ in the fact that He grasps us with His love. There is no difference in the fact that Jesus Christ has died for us all. Let there be no difference in our faith, or there will be a difference, deep as the difference between Heaven and Hell; the difference between them that believe and them that believe not, which will darken and widen into the difference between them that are saved and them that perish.


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Bibliography
MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/romans-3.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

By faith of Jesus Christ; the benefits of whose obedience and death are obtained not by human works or merit, but by receiving him as a Saviour, and trusting in him for salvation.

No difference; between Jews and Gentiles, as to the way of salvation.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Family Bible New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/romans-3.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

22. δικαιοσύνη δὲ, the phrase repeated with a qualification (not of law but by faith), introducing the distinctive condition, and so bringing into emphasis the fact that GOD’s righteousness is the true aim which man must set before himself for realisation in his own life, so far as he may.

διὰ πίστεως Ἰ. Χρ. Philippians 3:9; Galatians 2:16. Gen. obj. = faith in Jesus Christ as the manifestation of GOD’s righteousness; see n. on Romans 1:17. Both this and the next phrase (εἰς π. τ. π.) qualify δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ.

εἰς π. τ. π., Romans 1:16, shows that faith is not one condition but the only condition imposed on man.

οὐ γάρ ἐστιν διαστολή. Romans 10:12.


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"Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/romans-3.html. 1896.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

22. “The righteousness of God through faith of Jesus Christ unto all who believe, for there is no difference.” In justification, we have faith in Christ; in sanctification, we have the faith of Jesus Christ, who never had the faith of pardon, as He never had any sins to be pardoned, but He always had the faith of purity, i. e., such faith in God as all the angels and redeemed spirits in heaven and earth enjoy, i. e., identical in quality though not in quantity. We find here there is actually no difference in all the world, the church member and the heathen standing on the same broad plain of universal condemnation till saved by personal application to Christ. In the preceding exegesis, we see that he is not a Christian who is one outwardly, neither is baptism that which is outward on the flesh; but he is a Christian who is one inwardly, and baptism is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God. Hence you see plainly the utter insignificance of all ceremonial professions without the spiritual experience; while the latter is just as valid in the sight of God without the visible ordinances as with them. The true salvation is a pure spirituality in toto. Hence there is no difference between the professor and the non-professor, the whole problem being settled on the question of possession. You can profess much and have nothing. You can have an uttermost salvation without the attestations of ecclesiastical ceremonies. Paul utterly and eternally sweeps dead ritualism from the field.


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Godbey, William. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/romans-3.html.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘Even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ unto all them who believe, for there is no distinction,’

And this righteousness of God is through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. The reason for adding ‘to all who believe’ is in order to include the Gentiles. ‘Faith in Jesus the Messiah’ may well otherwise have been seen as exclusive to the Jews. But here it is made clear that it is for all. And this is so, whether they be Jew or Gentile, slave or free, male or female. For all have the same need, and there is no distinction between them. (This is assuming that ‘there is no distinction’ applies to the word ‘all’).

Some, however, argue that the two references to faith make one of them redundant and therefore see the verse as signifying that the righteousness of God is ‘through the faithfulness of Jesus Christ’ and is given to all who believe. The theology of that is perfectly acceptable and in accordance with Romans 5:19. The main problem with that view is that it gives a meaning to pistis which is different from all the other uses of it in the passage, and is different from Paul’s overall usage. It would therefore require compelling reasons for it to be acceptable, and there are none.

Some see ‘for there is no distinction’ as meaning that there is no distinction between the way that we are condemned (by being declared as having sinned and come short of the glory of God) and the way that we are justified (by being declared righteous). In both cases it is a judicial verdict. And that is undoubtedly true. But in context the most suitable antecedent is undoubtedly ‘all’


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Bibliography
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/romans-3.html. 2013.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

When the righteousness of and, which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all their that believe.

This righteousness of God, to which the law and the Prophets render their testimony, and which is now manifested in the Gospel, whereby man is justified, is not imputed to him on account of any work of his own in obedience to the law, but is received, as the Apostle had already declared in the 17th verse of chapter first, by faith alone. Faith is no part of that righteousness; but it is through faith that it is received, and becomes available for salvation. Faith is the belief of the Divine testimony concerning that righteousness, and trust in Him who is its Author. Faith perceives and acknowledges the excellency and suitableness of God’s righteousness, and cordially embraces it. ‘Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen;’ because, though we do not yet possess what God has promised, and do not yet see it accomplished in ourselves, we see it accomplished in Jesus Christ, in whom what we hope for really exists. In respect to the promises not yet fulfilled, believers are now in the same situation as the fathers were of old respecting the unaccomplished promises in their day. Like them, they see these promises afar off, are persuaded of them, and embrace them. Believers thus flee to Christ and His righteousness as the refuge set before them in the Gospel.

By faith they receive Him as their surety, and place their trust in Him, as representing them on the cross, in His death, and in His resurrection.

Before we can have a right to anything in Christ, we must be one with Him; we must be joined with Him as our head, being dead to the law and married to Him; and as this union is accomplished through faith, His righteousness, which we receive, and which becomes ours in this way, is therefore called the righteousness which is by faith of Jesus Christ, Romans 3:22; the righteousness of faith, Romans 4:11,13; and the righteousness which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith, Philippians 3:9. It is called the righteousness of faith, because faith is the only instrument which God is pleased to employ in applying His righteousness. It is not called the righteousness of any other grace but of faith; we never read of the righteousness of repentance, of humility, of meekness, or of charity. These are of great price in the sight of God, but they have no office in justifying a sinner. This belongs solely to faith; for to him that worketh not, but believeth, is righteousness imputed; and faith is the gift of God.

This righteousness is unto all. — It is set before all, and proclaimed to all, according to the commandment of our blessed Lord, — ’ Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.’ Upon all, is connected with the words that follow, viz., them that believe. While it is proclaimed to all men, it is actually upon believers. It is not put into them, as their sanctification is brought in the soul by the Holy Spirit; but it is placed upon them as a robe: — ’He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, ’ Isaiah 61:10. It is the white raiment given by Jesus Christ to them who hear His voice, that they may be clothed, and that the shame of their nakedness may not appear, Revelation 3:18. It is the fine linen, clean and white, with which the bride, the Lamb’s wife, is arrayed; for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints, Revelation 19:8. Thus Jesus Christ is made of God, to them that are in Him, righteousness, Corinthians 1:30.

Righteousness. — ’ This, doubtless, is meant,’ says Archbishop Leighton, in his sermon on 1 Corinthians 1:30, ‘of the righteousness by which we are justified before God; and He is made this to us, applied by faith: his righteousness becomes ours. That exchange made, our sins are laid over upon Him, and His obedience put upon us. This, the great glad tidings, that we are made righteous by Christ: It is not a righteousness wrought by us, but given to us, and put upon us. This, carnal reason cannot apprehend, and, being proud, therefore rejects and argues against it, and says, how can this thing be? But faith closes with it, and rejoices in it; without either doing or suffering, the sinner is acquitted and justified, and stands as guiltless of breach, yea, as having fulfilled the whole law. And happy they that thus fasten upon this righteousness — they may lift up their faces with gladness and boldness before God: whereas the most industrious self-saving justiciary, though in other men’s eyes, and his own, possibly, for the present, he makes a glistering show, yet when he shall come to be examined of God, and tried according to the law, he shall be covered with shame, and confounded in his folly and guiltiness. But faith triumphs over self-unworthiness, and sin, and death, and the law; shrouding the soul under the mantle of Jesus Christ; and there it is safe.

All accusations fall off, having nowhere to fasten, unless some blemish could be found in that righteousness in which faith hath wrapt itself. This is the very spring of solid peace, and fills the soul with peace and joy. But still men would have something within themselves to make out the matter, as if this robe needed any such piecing, and not finding what they desire, thence disquiet and unsettlement of mind arise! True it is that faith purifies the heart and works holiness, and all graces flow from it: But in this work of justifying the sinner it is alone, and cannot admit of any mixture.’


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Bibliography
Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/romans-3.html. 1835.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

22. Even the righteousness of GodEven God’s justification or right-making of man. The righteousness of God here is the righteousness or right-making God purposes for man. (Note Romans 1:17.)

Faith of Jesus Christ—The faith of which Christ is the object, or the faith which Christ requires.

This faith is not simply the belief of the intellect, embracing the historical facts of Christ’s character and death. It is the faith or fidelity of the whole man. It is the act of the assenting intellect, the consenting heart, and the accepting will, by which man’s soul deposits itself into the hands of the Redeemer, by his mighty arm to be carried through every danger into everlasting safety. (See note on Romans 10:10; Romans 1:17; Romans 2:6; and on Romans 5:24.) It is self-surrender to Christ. And as Christ is the very incarnation of goodness, holiness, and God, so does the soul pledge itself and give itself over to all goodness, holiness, and God for time and eternity. So does the blessed soul become harmonized and incorporated into the holy universe of God. He becomes part of the glorified Cosmos.

This righteousness or justification is unto all in its offer, and upon all in its accepted bestowment.

No difference—None in the impartial universality of the offer; none in the ample power of the acceptance.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/romans-3.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

God"s righteousness becomes man"s possession and begins to operate in his life through faith in Jesus Christ ( Romans 3:28; cf. Galatians 2:16; Mark 11:22). Though pistis, "faith," can also mean "faithfulness," Paul almost always meant "faith" when he used this word. Strong contextual clues indicate when he meant "faithfulness."

Here Paul introduced the object of faith for the first time (cf. Romans 1:16-17). He never said that people obtain salvation because of their faith in Christ, by the way. This would encourage the idea that our faith makes a contribution to our salvation and has some merit. Faith simply takes what God gives. It adds nothing to the gift.

"Faith ... plays a double part in justification. It is the disposition which God accepts, and which He imputes as righteousness; and it is at the same time the instrument whereby every one may appropriate for his own personal advantage this righteousness of faith." [Note: Godet, p147. Cf. Newell, p108.]

Several writers have described faith as the hand of the heart. It does no work to earn salvation but only accepts a gift that someone else provides.

"The righteousness of God is not put "upon" any one. That is a Romish idea,-still held, alas, among Protestants who cannot escape the conception of righteousness as a something bestowed upon us, rather than a Divine reckoning about us." [Note: Ibid, p110.]

There is no distinction between Jews and Gentiles concerning their being "under sin" ( Romans 3:9). Likewise there is no distinction regarding the manner by which Jews and Gentiles obtain salvation. All receive salvation by faith.


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/romans-3.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Romans 3:22. Even the righteousness of God through faith, or, ‘a righteousness, however (mediated), through faith’ (Meyer); the article being omitted, as in Romans 3:21, before ‘righteousness.’ There is a contrast implied between ‘the righteousness of God’ in general, and this specific form.

In Jesus Christ. Lit., ‘of Jesus Christ,’ but as He is the object of faith, the proper English expression is ‘in.’ To explain the whole phrase of Christ’s faithfulness to us, or of faith produced by Him, is opposed by Paul’s usage.

Unto all them that believe. This briefer reading is supported by the four oldest manuscripts; the longer reading presents the added sense of ‘extending over.’ That this righteousness does not come to all, appears from the qualifying phrase: ‘that believe.’

For there is no distinction. This assigns the reason for what precedes. There is no other way for any; all must believe, in order to obtain this righteousness. There may be other points of difference among men, but as respects this point, there is no ‘distinction’ made in God’s dealing with them.


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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/romans-3.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Romans 3:22. δικαιοσύνη δὲ θεοῦ. The δὲ is explicative: “a righteousness of God (see on chap. Romans 1:17) [Romans 3:21], and that a righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ”. In the Epistle to the Hebrews Jesus Christ is undoubtedly set forth as a pattern of faith: ἀφορῶντες εἰς τὸν τῆς πίστεως ἀρχηγὸν καὶ τελειωτὴν ἰησοῦν, Hebrews 12:2. Cf. Hebrews 2:13; but such a thought is irrelevant here. It is the constant teaching of Paul that we are justified (not by sharing Jesus’ faith in God, as some interpreters would take it here, but) by believing in that manifestation and offer of God’s righteousness which are made in the propitiatory death of Jesus. εἰς πάντας καὶ ἐπὶ πάντας: the last three words are omitted by and most edd. If genuine, they add no new idea to εἰς πάντας; see Winer, p. 521. For διαστολή, cf. Romans 10:12. The righteousness of God comes to all on the terms of faith, for all alike need it, and can receive it only so.


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Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". The Expositor's Greek Testament. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/romans-3.html. 1897-1910.

Mark Dunagan Commentary on the Bible

Romans 3:22 even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ unto all them that believe; for there is no distinction;

"Faith in Jesus Christ"-for faith to result in a right standing with God, it must be "faith IN" Jesus Christ. Faith by itself ("faith in faith"), or faith in any other doesn"t result in salvation.

"Unto all them that believe"-since all fall short, all NEED this.


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Dunagan, Mark. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Mark Dunagan Commentaries on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/dun/romans-3.html. 1999-2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Even = And.

Jesus Christ. App-98.

and upon all. Most texts omit.

believe. App-150.

difference = distinction. Greek. diastole. Elsewhere, Romans 10:12. 1 Corinthians 14:7.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/romans-3.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

Even the righteousness of God [which is] by faith of Jesus Christ - that is, by faith in Him (the genitive of the object of faith),

Unto all and upon all them that believe , [ eis (Greek #1519) pisteuontas (Greek #4100) epi (Greek #1909) kai (Greek #2532) pantas (Greek #3956). The three last of thee words are missing in 'Aleph ('), though supplied by the corrector C, about the seventh century, and in B and C, in the Thebaic and some other of the versions; and they are omitted by one or two Greek fathers; but they are found in all the other Uncial manuscripts, in the Vulgate and both the Syriac versions, and in most Greek fathers; and as they were far more likely to be omitted from the genuine text, as superfluous, than to be foisted in where they had no place, there can hardly be any doubt of their genuineness. Lachmann and Tregelles exclude them; but nearly all good critics pronounce in favour of them]. It is far-fetched to understand 'unto all of the Jews' and 'upon all of the Gentiles'-as some of the fathers did, whom Bengel follows. Yet it is hardly satisfactory to regard the two statements as but an emphatic reiteration of the same thing-as Tholuck and others do. The shade of difference between them seems to be this, that the righteousness which is by faith of Jesus Christ is extended "unto all," and rests "upon all them that believe," whether Jews or Gentiles. Thus emphatically does the apostle proclaim the great truth, that all believers, without distinction or exception, are put in possession of this gratuitous justification, purely by faith in Christ Jesus.


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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/romans-3.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

Through their faith in Jesus Christ. Faith in Christ is the condition. In this sense it is faith alone which saves, but the faith which saves cannot be alone. See note on James 2:19. Faith is not a condition of merit, but of mercy. There is no difference at all. Both Jew and Gentile stand condemned by sin. Both must believe in Jesus Christ to be saved.


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "The Bible Study New Testament". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/romans-3.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(22) A further definition of the nature of the righteousness so given to the Christian by God; it is a righteousness that has its root in faith, and is coextensive with faith, being present in every believer.

By faith of Jesus Christ—i.e., by faith which has Christ for its object, “faith in Christ.” “Faith” in St. Paul’s writings implies an intense attachment and devotion. It has an intellectual basis, necessarily involving a belief in the existence, and in certain attributes, of the Person for whom it is entertained; but it is moral in its operation, a recasting of the whole emotional nature in accordance with this belief, together with a consequent change in character and practice. (See Excursus B: On the Meaning of the word Faith.)

And upon all.—These words are wanting in the best MSS., and should be omitted.

For there is no difference.—The righteousness that God gives is given to all that believe, without any distinction of Jew or Gentile; for all equally need it, and it is free equally to all.


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/romans-3.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:
which is
4:3-13,20-22; 5:1-11; 8:1; Philippians 3:9
unto all
4:6,11,22; Galatians 2:16; 3:6; James 2:23
and upon
Isaiah 61:10; Matthew 22:11,12; Luke 15:22; Galatians 3:7-9
for there
2:1; 10:12; Acts 15:9; 1 Corinthians 4:7; Galatians 3:28; Colossians 3:11

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/romans-3.html.

Hodge's Commentary on Romans, Ephesians and First Corintians

Even the righteousness of God. The repetition of the subject from the preceding verse; δέ is therefore not adversative, but is properly rendered even. This righteousness, of which God is the author, and which is available before him, and which is now revealed, is more particularly described as a ( δικαιοσύνη ( οὐσα) διὰ πίστεως) righteousness which is of faith, i.e. by means of faith, not διὰ πίστιν, on account of faith. Faith is not the ground of our justification; it is not the righteousness which makes us righteous before God, (it is not itself the δικαιοσύνη τοῦ θεοῦ,) nor is it even represented as the inward principle whence that righteousness proceeds. It is indeed the principle of evangelical obedience, the source of holiness in heart and life; but such obedience or holiness is not our justifying righteousness. Holiness is the consequence and not the cause of our justification, as the apostle proves at length in the subsequent parts of this epistle. This righteousness is through faith, as it is received and appropriated by faith. It is, moreover, not faith in general, not mere confidence in God, not simply a belief in the Scriptures as the word of God, much less a recognition of the truth of the spiritual and invisible, but it is faith of Christ; that is, faith of which Christ is the object. A man may believe what else he may; unless he receives and rests on Christ alone for salvation, receives him as the Son of God, who loved us and gave himself for us, he has not the faith of which the apostle here speaks as the indispensable condition of salvation. This important doctrine is not only clearly but frequently brought into view in the New Testament. What our Lord constantly demanded was not merely religious faith in general, but specifically faith in himself as the Son of God and Savior of the world. It is only faith in Christ, not faith as such, which makes a man a Christian. "If ye believe not that I am he," saith our Lord, "ye shall die in your sins," John 8:24. "As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name," John 1:12. "That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life," John 3:15, John 3:16. "Whosoever believeth on him, shall not be confounded," Romans 9:33. "How shall they call on him in whom they have not believed," Romans 10:14. Such passages are almost innumerable. So when the object of saving faith is designated, it is said to be not truth in general, but Christ himself. See Romans 3:25 (through faith in his blood), Galatians 2:16, Galatians 2:20; Galatians 3:24; Ephesians 3:19, etc. The act, therefore, which the sinner is required to perform, in order to be made a partaker of the righteousness of God, is to believe on Christ; that is, to receive him as he is revealed in the gospel as the eternal Son of God, clothed in our nature, loving us and giving himself as a propitiation for our sins. As there is no verb in the text, of which δικαιοσύνη (righteousness) is the nominative, we must either borrow the verb πεφανέρωται from Romans 3:21, "the righteousness of God is manifested unto all;" or what better suits what follows, supply ἔρχεται, comes (or simply ἐστί, is) unto all and upon all. The καὶ ἐπὶ πάντας; (and upon all) are omitted in the MSS. A. C. 20. 31. 47. 66. 67; in the Coptic and Ethiopic versions; and by several of the Fathers. Griesbach and Lachmann leave them out of the text; most modern critical editions retain them, both on external and internal grounds. This righteousness is εἰς πάντας, extending unto all, καὶ ἐπὶ πάντας, and over all, as covering them or overflowing them. "Eine Gnadenfluth," says Olshausen, "die an alle herandringt und sogar über alle hinüberströmt." There is no distinction between Jew and Gentile recognized in this method of salvation. The question is not as to whether men are of this or that race, or of one or another rank in life, or in the Church visible or out of it. This righteousness is unto all who believe. Faith is all that is demanded. The reason why the same method of salvation is suited to all men is given in the following clause: For there is no difference among men as to their moral state or relation to God, or as to their need of salvation, or as to what is necessary to that end. What one man needs all require, and what is suited to one is suited to and sufficient for all. The characteristics, therefore, of the plan of salvation presented in this verse are:

1. That the righteousness of God which is revealed in the gospel is to be attained by faith, not by works, not by birth, not by any external rite, not by union with any visible Church, but simply and only by believing on Christ, receiving and resting upon him.

2. That this righteousness is suited to and sufficient for all men; not only for all classes, but for all numerically; so that no one can perish for the want of a righteousness suitable and sufficient, clearly revealed and freely offered.


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Hodge, Charles. "Commentary on Romans 3:22". Hodge's Commentary on Romans, Ephesians and First Corintians. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hdg/romans-3.html.

: even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ unto all them that believe; for there is no distinction;

The "righteousness of God" is "Jesus Christ" (He became and continues to be the "manifested righteousness " who received "witness" from the "law and the prophets," verse21). Faith through Christ is the way people become right with God. Although the KJV says "by the faith of Jesus Christ," Robertson () says the right idea is "in Jesus Christ" because this is an objective genitive. He offers Galatians 2:16 as a supporting reference. This faith, as demonstrated in the commentary on Romans 1:5, must be obedient. Only those who have an obedient faith will receive salvation. Here, Paul taught the same truth by using the present tense (believe is in the present tense). Belief leads to obedience, and salvation comes to those who continually obey.

At the end of this verse Paul noted that there is no distinction regarding the people who want to follow Jesus. All are equally important in the eyes of God. Robertson () said, "The Jew was first in privilege as in penalty (2:9f.), but justification or getting right with God is offered to both on the same terms."


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Bibliography
Price, Brad "Commentary on Romans 3:22". "Living By Faith: Commentary on Romans". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bpc/romans-3.html.

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