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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Ruth 1:21

 

 

"I went out full, but the LORD has brought me back empty. Why do you call me Naomi, since the LORD has witnessed against me and the Almighty has afflicted me?"

Adam Clarke Commentary

I went out full - Having a husband and two sons.

The Lord hath brought me home again empty - Having lost all three by death. It is also likely that Elimelech took considerable property with him into the land of Moab; for as he fled from the face of the famine, he would naturally take his property with him; and on this Naomi subsisted till her return to Bethlehem, which she might not have thought of till all was spent.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/ruth-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The Lord hath testified against me - The phrase is very commonly applied to a man who gives witness concerning (usually against) another in a court of justice Exodus 20:16; 2 Samuel 1:16; Isaiah 3:9. Naomi in the bitterness of her spirit complains that the Lord Himself turned against her, and was bringing her sins up for judgment.


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These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/ruth-1.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

I went out full,.... Of my husband and children, as the Targum; of children and riches, as Aben Ezra and Jarchi; wherefore some Jewish writers blame her and her husband for going abroad at such a time, and ascribe it to a covetous disposition, and an unwillingness to relieve the poor that came to them in their distress, and therefore got out of the way of them, on account of which they were punished, so Jarchi on 1:1, see Judges 2:15 but this is said without any just cause or reason that appears:

and the Lord hath brought me home again empty: deprived of her husband, children, and substance; she acknowledges the hand of God in it, and seems not to murmur at it, but to submit to it quietly, and bear it patiently:

why then call ye me Naomi; when there is nothing pleasant and agreeable in me, nor in my circumstances:

seeing the Almighty hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me? had bore witness that that was not a name suitable for her; or that she had sinned, and had not done what was well pleasing in his sight, as appeared by his afflicting her; she seemed therefore to be humbled under a sense of sin, and to consider afflictions as coming from the Lord on account of it, and submitted to his sovereign will; the affliction she means was the loss of her husband, children, and substance; see Job 10:17.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/ruth-1.html. 1999.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me home again empty: why then call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?

Full — With my husband and sons, and a plentiful estate for our support.

Testified — That is, hath borne witness, as it were, in judgment, and given sentence against me.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/ruth-1.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Ruth 1:21 I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me home again empty: why [then] call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?

Ver. 21. I went out full.] Not for want, but for fear of want. This she now regretteth, as done out of distrust. God’s voice is, "Dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed." [Psalms 37:3]

Home again empty.] By weeping cross. They that go out of God’s precincts, go out of his protection: Jehoshaphat’s ships were broken; Lot lost all; Josiah came short home.

Hath testified against me.] As a witness of my sin, and of his just displeasure; - see Job 10:17; Job 16:8; {See Trapp on "Job 10:17"} {See Trapp on "Job 16:8"} - a metaphor from adversaries at law.

Hath afflicted me.] Howbeit, Quos amat, hos non vult, spero, perire Deus.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". John Trapp Complete Commentary. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/ruth-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ruth 1:21. The Lord hath testified against me The former part of the verse expresses what Naomi means by the Lord's testifying against her: she went out full; happy in a husband and two sons; but returned deprived of all, a lonely widow, worn with care, with poverty and age. See ch. Ruth 2:2-3. Several of the versions render this, the Lord hath humbled me.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/ruth-1.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Full; with my husband and sons, and a plentiful estate for our support.

Hath testified against me, i.e. hath borne witness, as it were, in judgment, and given sentence against me, and declared my sin by my punishment.


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/ruth-1.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

I went out full, and YHWH has brought me home again empty. Why do you call me Naomi, seeing that YHWH has testified against me, and Shaddai (the Almighty) has afflicted me?”

And now God had made Himself know to Naomi as YHWH. While in the foreign land He had acted towards her as Shaddai, but He was now acting towards her as YHWH. She had gone out full (having a husband and two sons) into a foreign land, and there God had afflicted her as Shaddai and by that means, as the covenant God YHWH, had testified against her as one who had departed from the sphere of the covenant, but it was as YHWH that He had now brought her home again empty (having no husband and no sons) because she had previously removed herself from within the sphere of the covenant.

Note how Naomi equates Shaddai with YHWH in the Hebrew parallelism. It was as Shaddai that He had afflicted her in a foreign land, but it was as YHWH that he had testified against her by this action because with her husband she had removed herself from within the sphere of the covenant. And it was as YHWH, the covenant God, that He had brought her home within the sphere of the covenant, into the land where He had ‘visited His people by giving them bread’ (Ruth 1:6). By His affliction in the foreign land she had ‘known Him’ as Shaddai; by His bringing of her home within the sphere of the covenant she now ‘knew Him’ as YHWH and she recognised that that it was because of what they had done by leaving the sphere of the covenant that she and her family had suffered.


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/ruth-1.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

21. I went out full — That is, in the rich possession of a husband and two sons.

Home again empty — Bereft of my most precious treasures, so that the cause of my pleasantness is gone.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/ruth-1.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Almighty. Hebrew Sadai, ("the self-sufficient) hath afflicted."


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/ruth-1.html. 1859.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me home again empty: why then call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?

The Almighty , [ Shaday (Hebrew #7706)]. This name of God was employed in the early after the flood, as we find it in Genesis 49:25, in Numbers 1:6, and in Job very frequently. But there are not many instances in the sacred books after the time of Moses and their fewness (amounting only to four, Psalms 68:14; Psalms 91:1; Isaiah 13:6; Joel 1:15) show that it was in familiar use. When employed, it was only for the sake of a special significancy felt to belong to it (Kidd 'On the Divine Names').


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/ruth-1.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me home again empty: why then call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?
and the
1 Samuel 2:7,8; Job 1:21
the Lord
Job 10:17; 13:26; 16:8; Malachi 3:5

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Ruth 1:21". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". http://odl.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/ruth-1.html.

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