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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible

ox, Oxen, Herd, Cattle

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1 . shôr , Genesis 32:5 , 1 Samuel 22:19 etc.; Aram. [Note: Aramaic.] tor (cf. Arab- thaur ) is used in Ezra 6:8 ; Ezra 6:17 ; Ezra 7:17 and Daniel 4:25 ; Daniel 4:32-33 ; shôr is used collectively and also for a single member of the bovine species of any age and either sex.

2 . ’ăl âphîm (only in pl.); a general term for ‘oxen,’ Deuteronomy 7:13 ; Deuteronomy 28:4 ; Deuteronomy 28:18 ; Deuteronomy 28:51 , Psalms 8:7 , Proverbs 14:4 , Isaiah 30:24 .

3 . par ‘young hull,’ ‘bullock’; and pârâh ‘young cow.’ See Heifer.

4 . ’abbîr (in plur.) ‘bulls’ in Psalms 22:12 ; Psalms 50:13 , Isaiah 34:7 ; but ‘strong ones’ or ‘horses’ elsewhere.

5 . teô , Deuteronomy 14:5 AV [Note: Authorized Version.] ‘wild ox,’ RV [Note: Revised Version.] ‘antelope’; tô . Isaiah 51:20 AV [Note: Authorized Version.] ‘wild bull,’ RV [Note: Revised Version.] ‘antelope.’

6 . ’çdher herd; in Joel 1:18 conjoined with bâqâr = herds of oxen; and in same versa with tsôn = herds (EV [Note: English Version.] ‘flocks’) of small cattle (sheep and goats).

7 . migneh usually tr. [Note: translate or translation.] ‘cattle’; in Genesis 47:17 conjoined with bâgâr = ‘herds’ (AV [Note: Authorized Version.] and RVm [Note: Revised Version margin.] ‘cattle of the herds’.

8 . běhěmah ‘cattle’; in Genesis 47:18 conjoined with migneh = ‘herds of cattle.’

Oxen are specially valuable in Palestine for ploughing (Deuteronomy 22:19 , 1 Kings 19:19 ) and for threshing, i.e . ‘treading out the corn’ ( Deuteronomy 25:4 , Hosea 10:11 ). They were used for carts ( Numbers 7:3 ); the Circassians, recently settled in Palestine, use them extensively in this way, but not the fellahîn . In 1 Chronicles 12:40 oxen are also mentioned as burden-bearers. Their use for sacrifice is repeatedly referred to (see 1 Kings 8:53 , 2 Chronicles 29:33 ). The cattle of Palestine are small and mostly lean, owing to poor food and much work. They are most plentiful in Galilee, where the pasturage is better; and a much larger breed, the cows of which give excellent milk, flourishes around Damascus. In several parts of the Jordan Valley, notably in el-Batiha , N. of Lake of Tiberias, and near Lake Huleh, the buffalo or jamus ( Bosbubalus ) is kept by the Bedouin; it yields excellent milk.

For the ‘ wild ox ’ (RV [Note: Revised Version.] tr. [Note: translate or translation.] of rě’ çm ), see Unicorn.

E. W. G. Masterman.

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Bibliography Information
Hastings, James. Entry for 'ox, Oxen, Herd, Cattle'. Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. 1909.

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